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International Parasitic Plant Society

Welcome to the homepage of the International Parasitic Plant Society (IPPS). The IPPS is dedicated to advancing scientific research on parasitic plants. Our goals include increasing the understanding of these amazing plants, providing a platform for exchange among and beyond the scientific community as well as helping to decrease the crop damage inflicted by weedy parasitic plants.

WCPP16 - 16th World Congress On Parasitic Plants in Nairobi

This year’s World Congress on Parasitic Plants takes place in Nairobi, Kenya from July 3-8, 2022. Registration for attendance in presence or virtually and abstract submission is now open on the WCPP16 conference website: www.parasiticplants.com

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Most Recent ‘Parasitic Plant’ publications

in Google Scholar

  1. Comparative Assessment of the Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Plicosepalus acacia and Plicosepalus curviflorus: Metabolomic Profiling and In Silico Studies EE Eltamany, MS Goda, MS Nafie, AM Abu-Elsaoud… - Antioxidants, 2022 - mdpi.com Saturday 25 June 2022 … This study presents a comparison between two mistletoe plants—P. acacia and P. curviflorus—regarding their total phenolic contents and antioxidant and anticancer …
  2. Investigation on The Distribution of Cuscuta in Chengdu M Lu, X Liu - Highlights in Science, Engineering and Technology, 2022 - drpress.org Wednesday 22 June 2022 … Cuscuta is an annual parasitic herb in Convolvulaceae family Cuscuta. This project investigated the spread of cuscuta in 12 towns and 1 street that have 71 plots of the …
  3. Plant Evolution and Systematics 1982–2022: Changing Questions and Methods as Seen by a Participant SS Renner - 2022 - Springer Friday 24 June 2022 … Because of my interest in parasitic plants, we focused on Orobanchaceae, sending material of selected autotrophic, hemi-, and holo-parasitic diploid and tetraploid …
  4. Influența lupoaiei asupra creșterii și dezvoltării florii-soarelui în condiții controlate M Duca, S Clapco, I Gisca, R Martea… - … Moldaviae (Seria Ştiinţe …, 2022 - ibn.idsi.md Friday 24 June 2022 … și dăunători paraziți sunt diverse specii de Orobanche spp., Striga spp. și … parazite, precum Orobanche crenata, Striga hermonthica, Cuscuta campestris, influențează …
  5. Effect of Field Dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yunck.) on Tea Clones' Growth Parameters and Yield in Nandi County, Kenya MJ Yego - 2022 - 41.89.164.27 Thursday 23 June 2022 Plants of the genus Cuscuta, commonly known as dodder belong to the family of Cuscutaceae and consists of about 200 species found almost everywhere in the world. A …
  6. Consuming and consumed: Biotic interactions of African mistletoes across different trophic levels Y Krasylenko, TR Kinge, Y Sosnovsky, N Atamas… - Biotropica, 2022 - Wiley Online Library Wednesday 22 June 2022 … All these organisms, which are components of the mistletoe- … In addition, properties of endophytic mistletoe … of the functioning of mistletoe- associated communities in Africa …
  7. [HTML][HTML] Viscotoxin and lectin content in foliage and fruit of Viscum album L. on the main host trees of Hyrcanian forests S Yousefvand, F Fattahi, SM Hosseini, K Urech… - Scientific Reports, 2022 - nature.com Tuesday 21 June 2022 … Our results regarding the effect of mistletoe organ type on viscotoxin and lectin accumulation showed that the mistletoe foliage contained higher amounts of these …
  8. Учредители: Российская академия наук КН ТКАЧЕНКО - ЗООЛОГИЧЕСКИЙ ЖУРНАЛ, 2022 - elibrary.ru Wednesday 15 June 2022 … seasons of the year, but those of only three plants are decisive: the Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis), the Actinidia kolomikta (Actinidia kolomikta), and the Korean mistletoe (…
  9. 겨우살이 (Viscum album var. coloratum) 추출물의 항산화, 항응고 및 α-glucosidase 저해 효과 이미은, 김정민, 송인영, 인만진… - Journal of Applied …, 2022 - papersearch.net Saturday 18 June 2022 … the mistletoe extract were 30.9±0.4% and 57.6±1.5 mg gallic acid equivalents/g, respectively. The antioxidant effects of the mistletoe … Also the mistletoe extract inhibited the …
  10. Cuscuta chinensis Antidepressant-Like Effect, the Role of 5-HT and the Impact on Behavioral Response in Mice L Ara, F Jafari, R Mokaberinejad - Research Journal of …, 2022 - rjpharmacognosy.ir Saturday 18 June 2022 … Cuscuta chinensis has been recommended for the treatment … Methods: Cuscuta chinensis extract was provided by boiling in … Conclusion: Cuscuta chinensis demonstrated …
  11. [HTML][HTML] Diverse chemical modifications of the chlorogenic acid composition of Viscum combreticola Engl.: A premise for the state of readiness against excessive … B Moyo, NT Tavengwa, NE Madala - Journal of Photochemistry and …, 2022 - Elsevier Friday 17 June 2022 … Mistletoe plants that are positioned on the canopy of their hosts are more susceptible … associated with the identified compounds these parasitic plants can be a rich source …
  12. Evaluation of the phytotoxic and antifungal activity of C17‐sesquiterpenoids as potential biopesticides DM Cárdenas, J Bajsa‐Hirschel, CL Cantrell… - Pest Management … - Wiley Online Library Friday 17 June 2022 … of the germination of Phelipanche ramosa L. Pertyolide B … is a technique used for parasitic plant management. In this … to stimulate the germination of three parasitic plants …
  13. Effectiveness of sowing methods and certain herbicides against dodder and annual weeds associated with flax AE Khaffagy, IE Soliman… - Egyptian Journal of …, 2022 - ejarc.journals.ekb.eg Friday 17 June 2022 … and drilling) and nine herbicides on dodder (Cuscuta epilinum), annual weeds and the … Cuscuta spp parasitic plants in the spotlight of plant physiology, economy, and …
  14. Remarkable Resilience of Forest Structure and Biodiversity Following Fire in the Peri-Urban Bushland of Sydney, Australia E Pendall, A Hewitt, MM Boer, Y Carrillo, NF Glenn… - Climate, 2022 - mdpi.com Friday 17 June 2022 … breeding occur either side of peak mistletoe fruiting [78]. … establishment of obvious mistletoe populations can take … of the main dispersal agent (Mistletoe bird, Dicaeum …
  15. Depigmenting Effects of Mistletoe (Viscum album var. coloratum) Extracts YS Hah, EJ Kim, YM Goo, YS Kil, SM Sin… - Journal of Life …, 2022 - koreascience.or.kr Thursday 16 June 2022 Melanin pigments are the main cause of skin color. They are produced in melanocytes and then transferred to keratinocytes, which eventually gives the skin surface a …

Most Recent 'Parasitic Plant' publications

in Scopus

  1. A multi-dimensional liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry approach combined with computational data processing for the comprehensive characterization of the multicomponents from Cuscuta chinensis Miao Wang, Xiao yan Xu, Hong da Wang, Hui min Wang, Mei yu Liu, Wan di Hu, Bo xue Chen, Mei ting Jiang, Jing Qi, Xiao hang Li, Wen zhi Yang, Xiu mei Gao Journal of Chromatography A, volume 1675 Saturday 02 July 2022 Challenges encountered in plant metabolites characterization by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry can arise from the insufficient chromatography separation, the lack of specific database, and low reliability of identification because of the ubiquitous isomerism. Herein, we present an integral approach, by combining comprehensive off-line two-... Challenges encountered in plant metabolites characterization by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry can arise from the insufficient chromatography separation, the lack of specific database, and low reliability of identification because of the ubiquitous isomerism. Herein, we present an integral approach, by combining comprehensive off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography/ion mobility-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (2D-LC/IM-QTOF-MS), automatic peak annotation, molecular networking, and collision cross section (CCS) prediction, aimed to improve the resolution and reliability in MS-oriented metabolites characterization. Using the seeds of Cuscuta chinensis as a case, the configuration of an XBridge Amide column of hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and a Zorbax SB-Aq column of reversed-phase chromatography (RPC), in an off-line mode, showed the orthogonality of 0.73 and effective peak capacity of 4361. Data-independent high-definition MSE (HDMSE) in the negative mode could enable high-coverage MS2 data acquisition and enhance the ions resolution, while computational peak annotation workflows facilitated by UNIFITM and Global Natural Products Social Molecular Network (GNPS) could efficiently characterize the targeted and untargeted compound analogs. A total of 302 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized, and 109 thereof were unreported. Moreover, CCS prediction (www.allccs.zhulab.cn) provided more possibilities to distinguish 12 pairs of isomers in the lack of reference standards. The 2D-LC/IM-QTOF-MS approach enabled the collection of five dimension of data related to each component (tR by HILIC and RPC, CCS, m/z in MS1 and MS2), and the intelligent metabolites characterization with more reliable MS data. Conclusively, the established integral strategy can be utilized in metabolome analysis to support the quality control of herbal medicines.
  2. An artificial host system enables the obligate parasite Cuscuta campestris to grow and reproduce in vitro Vivian Bernal-Galeano, Keely Beard, James H. Westwood Plant Physiology, volume 189, pages 687-702 Saturday 02 July 2022 Cuscuta campestris is an obligate parasitic plant that requires a host to complete its life cycle. Parasite-host connections occur via a haustorium, a unique organ that acts as a bridge for the uptake of water, nutrients, and macromolecules. Research on Cuscuta is often complicated by host influences, but comparable systems for growing the parasite... Cuscuta campestris is an obligate parasitic plant that requires a host to complete its life cycle. Parasite-host connections occur via a haustorium, a unique organ that acts as a bridge for the uptake of water, nutrients, and macromolecules. Research on Cuscuta is often complicated by host influences, but comparable systems for growing the parasite in the absence of a host do not exist. We developed an axenic method to grow C. campestris on an artificial host system (AHS). We evaluated the effects of nutrients and phytohormones on parasite haustoria development and growth. Haustorium morphology and gene expression were also characterized. The AHS consists of an inert, fibrous stick that mimics a host stem, wicking water and nutrients to the parasite. It enables C. campestris to exhibit a parasitic habit and develop through all stages of its life cycle, including production of new shoots and viable seeds. The phytohormones 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 6-benzylaminopurine affect haustoria morphology and increase parasite fresh weight and biomass. Unigene expression in AHS haustoria reflects processes similar to those in haustoria on living host plants. The AHS is a methodological improvement for studying Cuscuta biology by avoiding specific host effects on the parasite and giving researchers full control of the parasite environment.
  3. Herbicidal secondary metabolites from Bacillus velezensis JTB8-2 against Orobanche aegyptiaca Wei He, Yan Li, Wenfang Luo, Junhui Zhou, Sifeng Zhao, Jianjun Xu AMB Express, volume 12 Friday 01 July 2022 Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca) is a parasitic plants that cause significant losses to important crops. The effective methods for controlling this weed are rare. Biological control could be one of the possible strategies to tackle these weeds efficiently. In this work, a bacteria strain Bacillus velezensis JTB8–2 was proven to possesse ... Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca) is a parasitic plants that cause significant losses to important crops. The effective methods for controlling this weed are rare. Biological control could be one of the possible strategies to tackle these weeds efficiently. In this work, a bacteria strain Bacillus velezensis JTB8–2 was proven to possesse biological control functions against broomrapes in both pot and field experiments. Four secondary metabolites (1–4) were isolated from the B. velezensis JTB8–2 crude extracts, and all of them could inhibit the germination of O. aegyptiaca seeds at concentrations from 0.5 mM to 4 mM. Their structures were further elucidated by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Mass Spectrometry (MS) analysis. Among the isolated compounds, 1 and 2 exhibited the strongest herbicidal activity with 100% inhibition rate against the germination of O. aegyptiaca seeds at 4 mM, and thus had great potential in the development of new herbicidal products to control O. aegyptiaca in the future.
  4. First Report of Cirsium arvense (Canada Thistle) as a New Host of Orobanche cumana in Xinjiang, China X. L. Cao, S. F. Zhao, Z. Q. Yao, X. Dong, L. Zhang, Q. Y. Zhao Plant Disease, volume 106, pages 1765 Friday 01 July 2022 dc:description
  5. Molecular detection and quantification of the Striga seedbank in agricultural soils Getahun Mitiku, Dominika Rybka, Paulien Klein-Gunnewiek, Taye Tessema, Jos M. Raaijmakers, Desalegn W. Etalo Weed Research, volume 62, pages 181-191 Friday 01 July 2022 Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth is a devastating parasitic weed in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and its soil seedbank is the major factor contributing to its prevalence and persistence. To date, there is a little information on the Striga seedbank density in agricultural fields in SSA due to the lack of reliable detection and quantification methods. We... Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth is a devastating parasitic weed in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and its soil seedbank is the major factor contributing to its prevalence and persistence. To date, there is a little information on the Striga seedbank density in agricultural fields in SSA due to the lack of reliable detection and quantification methods. We developed a high-throughput method that combines density- and size-based separation techniques with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based detection of Striga seeds in soil. The method was optimised and validated by introducing increasing numbers of Striga seeds in two physicochemically different Striga-free agricultural soils. The results showed that as little as one seed of S. hermonthica per 150 g of soil could be detected. This technique was subsequently tested on soil samples of 48 sorghum fields from different agro-ecological zones in Ethiopia to map the geospatial distribution of the Striga seedbank along a trajectory of more than 1500 km. Considerable variation in Striga seed densities was observed. Striga seeds were detectable in 75% of the field soils with densities up to 86 seeds per 150 g of soil. The Striga seed density in soil and the number of emerged Striga plants in the field showed a non-linear relationship. In conclusion, the method developed allows for accurate mapping of the Striga seedbank in physicochemically diverse SSA field soils and can be used to assess the impact of management strategies on Striga seedbank dynamics.
  6. Investigation of the mechanisms and experimental verification of Cuscuta-Salvia in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) via network pharmacology Ying ying Zhang, Jian xiong Ma, Yu tian Zhu, Yi xuan Wang, Wang qiang Chen, Xin Sun, Wei Zhang, Chen ye Wang, Cai fei Ding Journal of Ovarian Research, volume 15 Thursday 30 June 2022 Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disease associated with reproduction. The Cuscuta-Salvia formula has been widely used to treat for PCOS in clinic. However, its chemical and pharmacological properties remain unclear. We identified the active components and related targets of Cuscuta-Salvia using UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS and TCMSP database... Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disease associated with reproduction. The Cuscuta-Salvia formula has been widely used to treat for PCOS in clinic. However, its chemical and pharmacological properties remain unclear. We identified the active components and related targets of Cuscuta-Salvia using UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS and TCMSP database. Disease targets were obtained from the DisGeNET and GeneCards databases. Subsequently, common targets between Cuscuta-Salvia and PCOS were identified using a Venn diagram. PPI network was established. Core genes were selected using a Cytoscape software plugin. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses were performed for common targets using the “pathview” package in R. Several core targets were verified using molecular and Immunological methods. By combining UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS with a network pharmacology study, 14 active components and a total of 80 common targets were obtained. Ten core genes were regulated by Cuscuta-Salvia in PCOS, including IL6, AKT1, VEGFA, TP53, TNF, MAPK1, JUN, EGF, CASP3, and EGFR. GO results showed that cellular response to drugs, response to oxygen levels, response lipopolysaccharides, and response to molecule of bacterial origin in BP category; membrane, transcription regulator complex, nuclear chromatin, postsynaptic membrane, and vesicle lumen in CC category; DNA-binding transcription factor binding, RNA polymerase II-specific DNA-binding transcription factor binding, DNA-binding transcription activator activity, RNA polymerase II-specific, DNA-binding transcription activator activity, and cytokine receptor binding in MF terms. The KEGG enrichment pathway was mainly involved in the PI3K − Akt, MAPK, TNF, IL-17 signalling pathways, and in cellular senescence. Furthermore, the results of the experimental study showed that Cuscuta-Salvia ameliorated the pathological changes in the ovaries, liver and adipose tissue. And it improved the expressions of the genes or proteins. Our results demonstrate that Cuscuta-Salvia may provide a novel pharmacological basis in an experimental model of PCOS by regulating gene expression. This study provides a basis for future research and clinical applications.
  7. Salinity modulates crop plants suitability as hosts for Cuscuta campestris parasitism Lyuben I. Zagorchev, Viktoria P. Petrova, Ivanela Albanova, Kristiyana P. Georgieva, Marija Sarić-Krsmanović, Adele Muscolo, Denitsa R. Teofanova Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, volume 21, pages 324-330 Thursday 30 June 2022 Cuscuta campestris Yunck. is a stem holoparasitic flowering plant, wide-spread and currently considered invasive worldwide. It has both ecological and agricultural significance. However, little is known on how the conditions of the environment, and abiotic stresses in particular, could affect the success of this parasite. A total of 22 potential ho... Cuscuta campestris Yunck. is a stem holoparasitic flowering plant, wide-spread and currently considered invasive worldwide. It has both ecological and agricultural significance. However, little is known on how the conditions of the environment, and abiotic stresses in particular, could affect the success of this parasite. A total of 22 potential host plants, belonging to 10 species and 4 families, were tested as C. campestris hosts under different saline regimes. The changes in survival rate (number of successful infections) and growth (as cm day−1) of the parasite were studied. Salinity did significantly change the survival and growth rate of C. campestris, which effect was species- and cultivar-dependent. While generally the survival of the parasite decreased with increasing salinization, the opposite effect was observed on several host plants. However, survival rate did not always coincide with higher growth rate. This suggests that salinity produces different effects on the parasite depending on the host plant and these depend strongly not only on the species, but also on the cultivar. These results strongly suggest that under salt stress the suitability of various crop plants as hosts for C. campestris may change significantly, thus affecting the overall success of the parasite. In the light of the increased salinization of soils, this may have a significant effect on the spread of C. campestris and its agricultural impact.
  8. Tolerance to dodder (Cuscuta campestris L.) in citrus species of south of Kerman province – Iran Mohammad Roozkhosh, Zabihollah Azami-Sardooei, Farnaz Fekrat, Behroz Khalil-Tahmasebi, Mehdi Rastgoo, Ahmad Jahanbakhshi Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, volume 21, pages 331-338 Thursday 30 June 2022 Dodder is a parasitic weed that causes a lot of damage to citrus production in the south of Kerman province, Iran. Introducing cultivars which tolerant to this parasite can be considered a very effective step in controlling it. Therefore, to evaluate the tolerance of seven important citrus species to dodder, an experiment was conducted in a randomi... Dodder is a parasitic weed that causes a lot of damage to citrus production in the south of Kerman province, Iran. Introducing cultivars which tolerant to this parasite can be considered a very effective step in controlling it. Therefore, to evaluate the tolerance of seven important citrus species to dodder, an experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replicates in greenhouse conditions for two years (2016–2017). In this experiment, the reaction of orange, local, and Kara tangerine, grapefruit, Valencia orange, local orange, and lemon seedlings to dodder infestation was investigated. The infestation was done artificially by placing 10 dodder's thallus on the seedlings of each of the mentioned species. After the successful establishment of the parasite (during 4 months), chlorophyll content, number of stems on citrus species shoots, number of capsules in infested seedlings, and seed weight on each seedling were measured and recorded. The results of this study revealed that different species of citrus showed very different reactions to the presence of dodder so that these species can be based on the success rate of its attachment to them into tolerant and sensitive species. According to the results, Valencia oranges and Bitter orange were tolerant to dodder, but lemon and tangerines (local and Kara) showed high sensitivity. A cross-sectional of plant tissues showed that concerning anatomic view, there was no difference in haustorium penetration between the different citrus species. As a result, it is recommended to use physiological, genetical, and biochemical analysis to distinguish the differences.
  9. Biology and resource acquisition of mistletoes, and the defense responses of host plants Meseret Muche, A. Muthama Muasya, Berhanu Abraha Tsegay Ecological Processes, volume 11 Wednesday 29 June 2022 Background: Mistletoes are the most successful group of obligatory hemi-parasitic flowering plants that attach to the host via haustorium for obtaining water and minerals. This review aims to assess the current knowledge on mistletoes host plant recognition, haustorium formation, water/minerals acquisition, and host plants’ defense signaling and ... Background: Mistletoes are the most successful group of obligatory hemi-parasitic flowering plants that attach to the host via haustorium for obtaining water and minerals. This review aims to assess the current knowledge on mistletoes host plant recognition, haustorium formation, water/minerals acquisition, and host plants’ defense signaling and responses against mistletoe attack. Results: Some mistletoes are host-specific while others are generalists occurring on a wide range of vascular plants. The host nitrogen (N) content, parasite–host chemical interactions, compatibility, and dispersal agents are the main determinant factors for host specificity. Mistletoes take up substantial amounts of water and minerals passively via apoplastic routes, and most are xylem feeders, but could shift to phloem-feeding during the physiological stress of the host plants. Current evidence highlighted that cell wall loosening and modification are critical during the development of the haustorium in the host tissue. This is made possible by the application of physical pressures by the developing haustorium and cell wall degradation using enzymes (xyloglucan endotransglycosylases, glucanase, expansins, etc.) produced by the mistletoe. Host plants defend against mistletoe infection mechanically by producing spines, lignin, suberin, etc., which discourages dispersers, and chemically defend by killing the infector or inhibiting the establishment of the haustorium using their secondary metabolites such as terpenes, phenolics, and N-containing compounds. Although the host plants' response to mistletoe attack resembles the response to other biotic stresses, unlike short-term stressors, the effect of mistletoe attack is long-term and depends on the parasite load. Infection by mistletoe leads to water and nutrient stress of the host plant and deteriorates its healthy establishment and survival. Conclusion: Mistletoes are heterogeneous group in the order Santalales which have versatile mechanisms for pollination, seed dispersal and nutrient acquisition from host plants. Infection by mistletoes triggers host plant responses, varying from mechanical to chemical mechanisms which are analogous to herbivory defences, and negatively impacts host plant growth and reproduction.
  10. Diacetoxyscirpenol, a Fusarium exometabolite, prevents efficiently the incidence of the parasitic weed Striga hermonthica Williams Oyifioda Anteyi, Iris Klaiber, Frank Rasche BMC Plant Biology, volume 22 Tuesday 28 June 2022 Background: Certain Fusarium exometabolites have been reported to inhibit seed germination of the cereal-parasitizing witchweed, Striga hermonthica, in vitro. However, it is unknown if these exometabolites will consistently prevent S. hermonthica incidence in planta. The study screened a selection of known, highly phytotoxic Fusarium exometabolites... Background: Certain Fusarium exometabolites have been reported to inhibit seed germination of the cereal-parasitizing witchweed, Striga hermonthica, in vitro. However, it is unknown if these exometabolites will consistently prevent S. hermonthica incidence in planta. The study screened a selection of known, highly phytotoxic Fusarium exometabolites, in identifying the most potent/efficient candidate (i.e., having the greatest effect at minimal concentration) to completely hinder S. hermonthica seed germination in vitro and incidence in planta, without affecting the host crop development and yield. Results: In vitro germination assays of the tested Fusarium exometabolites (i.e., 1,4-naphthoquinone, equisetin, fusaric acid, hymeglusin, neosolaniol (Neo), T-2 toxin (T-2) and diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS)) as pre-Striga seed conditioning treatments at 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 µM, revealed that only DAS, out of all tested exometabolites, completely inhibited S. hermonthica seed germination at each concentration. It was followed by T-2 and Neo, as from 10 to 20 µM respectively. The remaining exometabolites reduced S. hermonthica seed germination as from 20 µM (P < 0. 0001). In planta assessment (in a S. hermonthica-sorghum parasitic system) of the exometabolites at 20 µM showed that, although, none of the tested exometabolites affected sorghum aboveground dry biomass (P > 0.05), only DAS completely prevented S. hermonthica incidence. Following a 14-d incubation of DAS in the planting soil substrate, bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and fungal 18S rRNA gene copy numbers of the soil microbial community were enhanced; which coincided with complete degradation of DAS in the substrate. Metabolic footprinting revealed that the S. hermonthica mycoherbicidal agent, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. strigae (isolates Foxy-2, FK3), did not produce DAS; a discovery that corresponded with underexpression of key genes (Tri5, Tri4) necessary for Fusarium trichothecene biosynthesis (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Among the tested Fusarium exometabolites, DAS exhibited the most promising herbicidal potential against S. hermonthica. Thus, it could serve as a new biocontrol agent for efficient S. hermonthica management. Further examination of DAS specific mode of action against the target weed S. hermonthica at low concentrations (≤ 20 µM), as opposed to non-target soil organisms, is required.
  11. Unprecedented organelle genomic variations in morning glories reveal independent evolutionary scenarios of parasitic plants and the diversification of plant mitochondrial complexes Yanxiang Lin, Pan Li, Yuchan Zhang, Delara Akhter, Ronghui Pan, Zhixi Fu, Mingqing Huang, Xiaobo Li, Yanlei Feng BMC Biology, volume 20 Monday 27 June 2022 Background: The morning glories (Convolvulaceae) are distributed worldwide and produce economically important crops, medicinal herbs, and ornamentals. Members of this family are diverse in morphological characteristics and trophic modes, including the leafless parasitic Cuscuta (dodders). Organelle genomes were generally used for studying plant phy... Background: The morning glories (Convolvulaceae) are distributed worldwide and produce economically important crops, medicinal herbs, and ornamentals. Members of this family are diverse in morphological characteristics and trophic modes, including the leafless parasitic Cuscuta (dodders). Organelle genomes were generally used for studying plant phylogeny and genomic variations. Notably, plastomes in parasitic plants always show non-canonical features, such as reduced size and accelerated rates. However, few organelle genomes of this group have been sequenced, hindering our understanding of their evolution, and dodder mitogenome in particular. Results: We assembled 22 new mitogenomes and 12 new plastomes in Convolvulaceae. Alongside previously known ones, we totally analyzed organelle genomes of 23 species in the family. Our sampling includes 16 leafy autotrophic species and 7 leafless parasitic dodders, covering 8 of the 12 tribes. Both the plastid and mitochondrial genomes of these plants have encountered variations that were rarely observed in other angiosperms. All of the plastomes possessed atypical IR boundaries. Besides the gene and IR losses in dodders, some leafy species also showed gene and intron losses, duplications, structural variations, and insertions of foreign DNAs. The phylogeny reconstructed by plastid protein coding sequences confirmed the previous relationship of the tribes. However, the monophyly of ‘Merremieae’ and the sister group of Cuscuta remained uncertain. The mitogenome was significantly inflated in Cuscuta japonica, which has exceeded over 800 kb and integrated massive DNAs from other species. In other dodders, mitogenomes were maintained in small size, revealing divergent evolutionary strategies. Mutations unique to plants were detected in the mitochondrial gene ccmFc, which has broken into three fragments through gene fission and splicing shift. The unusual changes likely initially happened to the common ancestor of the family and were caused by a foreign insertion from rosids followed by double-strand breaks and imprecise DNA repairs. The coding regions of ccmFc expanded at both sides after the fission, which may have altered the protein structure. Conclusions: Our family-scale analyses uncovered unusual scenarios for both organelle genomes in Convolvulaceae, especially in parasitic plants. The data provided valuable genetic resources for studying the evolution of Convolvulaceae and plant parasitism.
  12. Parasite-resistant ketchup! Lignin-based resistance to parasitic plants in tomato Marc Somssich, Igor Cesarino Plant physiology, volume 189, pages 4-6 Monday 27 June 2022 dc:description
  13. Resistance against broomrapes (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) in vegetables: a comprehensive view on classical and innovative breeding efforts A. Cuccurullo, A. Nicolia, T. Cardi Euphytica, volume 218 Sunday 26 June 2022 Broomrapes (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) are root holoparasites deriving their nourishment from the parasitic interaction they establish with the host plant. Vegetable crops are severely affected worldwide from broomrapes infestations, which are hard-to-manage through the conventional agronomical practices and determines relevant production loss... Broomrapes (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) are root holoparasites deriving their nourishment from the parasitic interaction they establish with the host plant. Vegetable crops are severely affected worldwide from broomrapes infestations, which are hard-to-manage through the conventional agronomical practices and determines relevant production losses. The identification of resistant varieties represents the ideal solution to face with this noxious threat, and several efforts were spent along decades in this perspective. In this review, we give an update about genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying the host-parasite interactions and a comprehensive overview on breeding for resistance to Orobanche and Phelipanche spp. in vegetables. Natural sources of resistance were discovered from germplasm exploration in some species, and artificial mutagenesis provided additional variability. Recent advancements in the genomics of parasitic and host plants, and the availability of new breeding technologies will pave the way for future developments, and valuable results have already been achieved in the last few years. The integration of different genetic resistance mechanisms, preferably interfering with different parasite’s developmental stages, with innovative agronomical management practices will probably provide a more effective and durable containment strategy.
  14. HOST QUALITY, MEDIATED BY LAND-USE HISTORY AND LANDSCAPE POSITION, SHAPES DISTRIBUTIONS OF PARASITIC PLANTS IN POSTAGRICULTURAL FORESTS Marion Andrews Holmes International Journal of Plant Sciences, volume 183, pages 348-356 Sunday 26 June 2022 Premise of research. Land-use legacies in plant communities have been attributed to dispersal limitation and the environmental impacts of past disturbance. Less is known about the role of plant-plant interactions in shaping postagricultural forest community assembly. Parasitic plants are a useful model system for understanding the relative importan... Premise of research. Land-use legacies in plant communities have been attributed to dispersal limitation and the environmental impacts of past disturbance. Less is known about the role of plant-plant interactions in shaping postagricultural forest community assembly. Parasitic plants are a useful model system for understanding the relative importance of host presence, site history, and environmental gradients to second-growth forest succession. I tested the hypothesis that land-use history shapes parasitic plant distributions by altering host availability. Methodology. Field sampling took place in deciduous forests in Athens County, Ohio. I surveyed populations of two tree parasites, Conopholis americana and Epifagus virginiana, in a factorial replicated chronosequence of 40 postagricultural stands that consisted of upland and valley sites sorted into four age classes: 40–60, 61–80, 81–100, and 1130 yr since canopy closure. The flowering stems of the target species, abundance, and the basal area of the host trees were recorded. Pivotal results. The presence of both species and the abundance of C. americana were linked to large individual host trees. Conopholis americana was associated with uplands and older forests, and E. virginiana was limited to stands of more than 80 yr old. However, C. americana was most abundant in sites with remnant pasture trees. The relationships of parasitic plants with land-use history are therefore complex and reflect specific effects of past disturbances on host species. Conclusions. I conclude that parasitic plant distributions are shaped by host tree availability and quality. These results support symbiont limitation, mediated through forest age and edaphic gradients, as an assembly process influencing postagricultural community dynamics.
  15. A pilot study of the mistletoe and breast cancer (MAB) trial: a protocol for a randomised double-blind controlled trial Susan Bryant, Lorna Duncan, Gene Feder, Alyson L. Huntley Pilot and Feasibility Studies, volume 8 Saturday 25 June 2022 Background: A Cochrane review of mistletoe therapy concludes that there is some evidence that mistletoe extracts may offer benefits on measures of quality of life during chemotherapy for breast cancer, but these results need replication. Our aim is to add to this evidence base by initially testing the feasibility of a UK pilot placebo-controlled,... Background: A Cochrane review of mistletoe therapy concludes that there is some evidence that mistletoe extracts may offer benefits on measures of quality of life during chemotherapy for breast cancer, but these results need replication. Our aim is to add to this evidence base by initially testing the feasibility of a UK pilot placebo-controlled, double-blind randomised controlled trial of mistletoe therapy in patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy. Methods/design: A mixed phase pilot placebo-controlled, double-blind randomised controlled trial of mistletoe therapy in patients with breast cancer (EudraCT number: 2018-000279-34). There will be three arms (groups) in the trial: Iscador M, Iscador P, with physiological saline as the placebo. The aim is to recruit 45 adult patients with a new diagnosis of early or locally advanced breast cancer, up to 12 weeks following definitive breast surgery whose standard treatment plan includes chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy. They will be taught to administer the mistletoe and breast cancer (MAB) therapies subcutaneously. MAB therapy will continue throughout their standard chemotherapy and radiotherapy and 1 month beyond. The main outcome of the MAB study is the feasibility of conducting such a trial within the NHS in order to inform a future fully powered investigative trial. Feasibility will be measured through recruitment, retention and patient experience using clinical research forms, patient diaries, cancer-related questionnaires and qualitative interviews conducted with both patients and oncology staff. Discussion: This trial is the first of its kind in the UK. Currently, mistletoe therapy is mostly available through private practice in the UK. Completion of this feasibility study will support applications for further funding for a fully powered randomised controlled trial which will measure effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this herbal therapy.

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