International Parasitic Plant Society

Welcome to the homepage of the International Parasitic Plant Society (IPPS). The IPPS is dedicated to advancing scientific research on parasitic plants. Our goals include increasing the understanding of these amazing plants, providing a platform for exchange among and beyond the scientific community as well as helping to decrease the crop damage inflicted by weedy parasitic plants.

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Most recent ‘Parasitic Plant’ publications

on the Web

Assessing Seed Germination Response of Parasitic Plant Striga hermonthica with Small-Molecule Probes JX Yap, Y Tsuchiya - Methods in molecular biology …, 2024 - pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov Wednesday 10 July 2024 Seed germination of a parasitic plant Striga hermonthica is elicited by strigolactones which are exuded from roots of host plants. Here, we describe a high-throughput domain : pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Efficiency and economics of broomrape (Orobanche spp.) control by different management practices in tobacco DK Roy, S Ranjan, S Sow - Indian Journal of Weed Science, 2024 - researchgate.net Tuesday 09 July 2024 0.2% at 20 DAP recorded the lowest broomrape population of 11.71 and 12.05/plant Hence, it was concluded that for better tobacco yield and broomrape (Orobanche spp. domain : www.researchgate.net
ost-Emergence Striga gesnerioides Damages and Determination of Phosphate Fertilizer Concentration at Low Inoculum Level in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) … AO Oyenuga, LA Ogunkanmi, B Oboh - Journal of Applied Sciences and …, 2024 - ajol.info Saturday 06 July 2024 Hence,the objective of this paper was to evaluate post-emergence Striga traits which make them Striga resistant/susceptible. Striga gesnerioides damage of cowpea was domain : www.ajol.info
Variability of broomrape parasitizing on sunflower during its intensive cultivation in the regions of the Russian Federation TS Antonova, NM Araslanova, MV Iwebor… - Аграрная наука Евро …, 2024 - agris.fao.org Saturday 06 July 2024 Annual monitoring of broomrape seed infestation of identify the racial belonging of broomrape seeds from fields in for food between adjacent broomrape individuals on the domain : agris.fao.org
ПОКРЫТОСЕМЕННЫЕ КАК ПАТОГЕНЫ РАСТЕНИЙ ШС Канчавели, КМ Павлиашвили… - techinformi.ge Thursday 04 July 2024 , Striga asiatica Striga Orobanche, domain : techinformi.ge
Chromosome-level genome assembly of Korean holoparasitic plants, Orobanche coerulescens B Kim, SY Jhang, B Koh, S Kim, WJ Chi, JM Park… - Scientific Data, 2024 - nature.com Wednesday 03 July 2024 Orobanche coerulescens is a parasitic plant that cannot genome assemblies for the Orobanche genus. In our study, biodiversity and further understanding parasitic plants. domain : www.nature.com
Cynomorium songaricum: UHPLC/ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS analysis and mechanistic study on insulin sensitivity of a flavonoid-enriched fraction Z Liu, Q Shang, H Zuo, H Li, D Fang, J Zhang… - Phytomedicine, 2024 - Elsevier Wednesday 03 July 2024 (CSF), an edible parasitic plant, is primarily found in the desert regions of western China and other countries in central Asia. It has served medicinal and culinary purposes domain : www.sciencedirect.com
17 Strigolactones in Root Growth L Ravazzolo, S Quaggiotti - Plant Roots: The Hidden Half, 2024 - books.google.com Tuesday 02 July 2024 Seed germination in parasitic plants: What insights can we expect from strigolactone Structure of strigol, a potent seed germination stimulant for witchweed (Striga lutea). domain : books.google.com
Study of preliminary qualitative screening and evaluation of alkaloids and flavonoids compounds of some Orobanche species growing in Iraq RM Mikhlef, TO Al-Khesraji - Samarra Journal of Pure and Applied …, 2024 - sjpas.com Monday 01 July 2024 And verbascoside) in all Orobanche sltaxa investigated . In this study, O.ramosa is the richest broomrape species the parasitic plants Orobanche foetida and Orobanche domain : www.sjpas.com versions : 2
Sesquiterpene lactone in Tapinanthus dodoneifolius (Dancer) DC: A phytochemistry according parasite's host I Karama, V Ouedraogo, A Rouamba… - Journal of …, 2024 - phytojournal.com Monday 01 July 2024 Loranthaceae are parasitic plants used in traditional medicine. Their use generally depends on the host plant. This shows that the biological properties of these species domain : www.phytojournal.com
Sardar Ash (2024) AH Aledhari, M Jabbar Sh - Orobanche garatiaca - sabraojournal.org Monday 01 July 2024 Orobanche garatiaca Sardar and Aledhari emerged as novel plant species within the Orobanchaceae family, specifically prevalent in the Gara mountain area within the domain : sabraojournal.org
Крупноплодный заразихоустойчивый сорт подсолнечника кондитерского типа Казак ВИ Хатнянский, АА Децына… - Масличные …, 2024 - cyberleninka.ru Saturday 29 June 2024 Resistant to the exiting virulent broomrape race G. The of a resistance gen to the broom-rape race G. The large- to the broomrape race G (Orobanche cumana Wallr.). domain : cyberleninka.ru
Ferroptosis Pathways: Unveiling the Neuroprotective Power of Cistache Deserticola Phenylethanoid Glycosides X Zhang, Z Liu, Z Li, L Qi, T Huang, F Li, M Li… - Journal of …, 2024 - Elsevier Friday 28 June 2024 Ethnopharmacological relevance Cistanche deserticola is a kind of parasitic plant living in the roots of desert trees. It is a rare Chinese medicine, which has the effect of domain : www.sciencedirect.com
Role of Strigolactone in the Alleviation of Biotic Stress in Plants M Khatun, NANM Nasir, IA Zakarya… - Plant Growth Regulators … - taylorfrancis.com Thursday 27 June 2024 Stimulants of root parasitic plants germination under the Orobanche, Phelipanche (broomrapes), and Striga ( Striga seeds negatively, decreased the amount of Striga domain : www.taylorfrancis.com
Some Parasitic and Carnivorous Plants of the Indian Himalayan Region with Ethnomedicinal Use SK Rai - Bioprospecting of Ethnomedicinal Plant Resources, 2025 - taylorfrancis.com Thursday 27 June 2024 The medicinal values, along with the active principles found in some parasitic plants like Cuscuta reflexa (Convolvulaceae), Monotropa uniflora (Ericaceae), domain : www.taylorfrancis.com

Most recent 'Parasitic Plant' publications

in Scopus

  1. Comparative secretome analysis of Striga and Cuscuta species identifies candidate virulence factors for two evolutionarily independent parasitic plant lineages James M. Bradley, Roger K. Butlin, Julie D. Scholes BMC Plant Biology, volume 24 Friday 12 July 2024 Background: Many parasitic plants of the genera Striga and Cuscuta inflict huge agricultural damage worldwide. To form and maintain a connection with a host plant, parasitic plants deploy virulence factors (VFs) that interact with host biology. They possess a secretome that represents the complement of proteins secreted from cells and like other pl... Background: Many parasitic plants of the genera Striga and Cuscuta inflict huge agricultural damage worldwide. To form and maintain a connection with a host plant, parasitic plants deploy virulence factors (VFs) that interact with host biology. They possess a secretome that represents the complement of proteins secreted from cells and like other plant parasites such as fungi, bacteria or nematodes, some secreted proteins represent VFs crucial to successful host colonisation. Understanding the genome-wide complement of putative secreted proteins from parasitic plants, and their expression during host invasion, will advance understanding of virulence mechanisms used by parasitic plants to suppress/evade host immune responses and to establish and maintain a parasite-host interaction. Results: We conducted a comparative analysis of the secretomes of root (Striga spp.) and shoot (Cuscuta spp.) parasitic plants, to enable prediction of candidate VFs. Using orthogroup clustering and protein domain analyses we identified gene families/functional annotations common to both Striga and Cuscuta species that were not present in their closest non-parasitic relatives (e.g. strictosidine synthase like enzymes), or specific to either the Striga or Cuscuta secretomes. For example, Striga secretomes were strongly associated with ‘PAR1’ protein domains. These were rare in the Cuscuta secretomes but an abundance of ‘GMC oxidoreductase’ domains were found, that were not present in the Striga secretomes. We then conducted transcriptional profiling of genes encoding putatively secreted proteins for the most agriculturally damaging root parasitic weed of cereals, S. hermonthica. A significant portion of the Striga-specific secretome set was differentially expressed during parasitism, which we probed further to identify genes following a ‘wave-like’ expression pattern peaking in the early penetration stage of infection. We identified 39 genes encoding putative VFs with functions such as cell wall modification, immune suppression, protease, kinase, or peroxidase activities, that are excellent candidates for future functional studies. Conclusions: Our study represents a comprehensive secretome analysis among parasitic plants and revealed both similarities and differences in candidate VFs between Striga and Cuscuta species. This knowledge is crucial for the development of new management strategies and delaying the evolution of virulence in parasitic weeds.
  2. Proteomic characterization and cytotoxic potential of proteins from Cuscuta (Cuscuta epithymum (L.) crude herbal product against MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line Umaima Akhtar, Yamna Khurshid, Bishoy El-Aarag, Basir Syed, Ishtiaq A. Khan, Keykavous Parang, Aftab Ahmed BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies, volume 24 Thursday 11 July 2024 Background: The burden of breast cancer, the second leading cause of death worldwide, is increasing at an alarming rate. Cuscuta, used in traditional medicine for different ailments, including cancer, is known for containing phytochemicals that exhibit anticancer activity; however, the bioactivities of proteins from this plant remain unexplored. Th... Background: The burden of breast cancer, the second leading cause of death worldwide, is increasing at an alarming rate. Cuscuta, used in traditional medicine for different ailments, including cancer, is known for containing phytochemicals that exhibit anticancer activity; however, the bioactivities of proteins from this plant remain unexplored. This study aimed to screen the cytotoxic potential of proteins from the crude herbal product of Cuscuta epithymum(L.) (CE) harvested from the host plants Alhagi maurorum and Medicago sativa. Methods: The proteins from CE were extracted using a salting-out method, followed by fractionation with a gel filtration chromatography column. Gel-free shotgun proteomics was subsequently performed for protein characterization. The viability assay using MTT was applied to deduce the cytotoxic potential of proteins against MCF-7 breast cancer cells, with further exploration of the effect of treatment on the expression of the apoptotic mediator BCL2-associated X protein (BAX) and B-cell lymphoma protein 2 (BCL-2) proteins, using western blotting to strengthen the findings from the in vitro viability assay. Results: The crude proteins (CP) of CE were separated into four protein peaks (P1, P2, P3, and P4) by gel filtration chromatography. The evaluation of potency showed a dose-dependent decline in the MCF-7 cell line after CP, P1, P2, and P3 treatment with the respective IC50 values of 33.8, 43.1, 34.5, and 28.6 µg/ml. The percent viability of the cells decreased significantly upon treatment with 50 µg/ml CP, P1, P2, and P3 (P < 0.001). Western-blot analysis revealed upregulation of proapoptotic protein BAX in the cells treated with CP, P3 (P < 0.01), and P2 (P < 0.05); however, the antiapoptotic protein, BCL-2 was downregulated in the cells treated with CP and P3 (P < 0.01), but no significant change was detected in P2 treated cells. The observed cytotoxic effects of proteins in the CP, P1, P2, and P3 from the in vitro viability assay and western blot depicted the bioactivity potential of CE proteins. The database search revealed the identities of functionally important proteins, including nonspecific lipid transfer protein, superoxide dismutase, carboxypeptidase, RNase H domain containing protein, and polyribonucleotide nucleotidyltransferase, which have been previously reported from other plants to exhibit anticancer activity. Conclusion: This study indicated the cytotoxic activity of Cuscuta proteins against breast cancer MCF-7 cells and will be utilized for future investigations on the mechanistic effect of active proteins. The survey of CE proteins provided substantial data to encourage further exploration of biological activities exhibited by proteins in Cuscuta.
  3. Management of the Striga epidemics in pearl millet production: a review Armel Rouamba, Hussein Shimelis, Inoussa Drabo, Kwame Wilson Shamuyarira, Emmanuel Mrema CABI Agriculture and Bioscience, volume 5 Thursday 11 July 2024 Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R. Br.) is a drought-resilient and nutritious staple food crop widely cultivated in arid and semi-arid regions. Worldwide, pearl millet is ranked the 6th most widely produced cereal crop after wheat, rice, maize, barley, and sorghum, with a total production of 30.5 million tons on 32.1 million hectares. In Burk... Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R. Br.) is a drought-resilient and nutritious staple food crop widely cultivated in arid and semi-arid regions. Worldwide, pearl millet is ranked the 6th most widely produced cereal crop after wheat, rice, maize, barley, and sorghum, with a total production of 30.5 million tons on 32.1 million hectares. In Burkina Faso, it is the 3rd widely cultivated crop next to sorghum and maize, with a mean yield of 0.8 ton ha−1, far below the potential yield of 3.0 tons ha−1 attributable to various production challenges. Among the production constraints, the parasitic weed Striga species, particularly S. hermonthica is endemic and causes up to 80% yield losses under heavy infestation. Different control methods (e.g., cultural practices, chemicals and bio-herbicides) have been recommended, but they have been largely ineffective due to diverse and complex problems, including the life cycle, seed production, and prolonged seed dormancy of S. hermonthica; poor access and cost of implementation. Breeding for host plant resistance presents a cost-effective, environmentally friendly and affordable method for smallholder farmers to control and reduce Striga infestations and improve pearl millet yields. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to present the impact of S. hermonthica damage on pearl millet production and productivity and assess the effectiveness of different management methods of S. hermonthica with an emphasis on host plant resistance. The first section of the review assesses the impact of Striga infestation on pearl millet production, followed by the developmental stages of Striga, Striga infestation and damage management strategies, breeding for Striga resistance and other Striga control methods. The paper summarises genetic resources, new breeding technologies, and innovations for the precision and speed breeding of Striga-resistant cultivars. The review will guide the use of the best breeding strategies and accelerate the breeding of new pearl millet cultivars that are best-performing and resistant to S. hermonthica to reduce damage incurred by Striga infestations on farmers’ fields in Burkina Faso and related agro-ecologies.
  4. Insights into mistletoe seed germination: A study of hemiparasitic Psittacanthus Mart. (Santalales: Loranthaceae) mistletoes Juan Francisco Ornelas, Carlos Lara, Saddan Morales-Saldaña, Antonio Acini Vásquez-Aguilar, Diego F. Angulo, Eduardo Ruiz-Sanchez, Francisco Molina-Freaner, Etelvina Gándara, Sonia Galicia, Andrew P. Vovides, Victoria Sosa Flora: Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants, volume 316 Wednesday 10 July 2024 Most Psittacanthus (Loranthaceae) mistletoes depend on frugivorous birds for seed dispersal, and the behaviour of seed dispersers strongly influences their spatial distribution. However, the timing of seed germination stages remains poorly studied. In this study, ripe fruits from nine Psittacanthus species, inhabiting contrasting habitats and host ... Most Psittacanthus (Loranthaceae) mistletoes depend on frugivorous birds for seed dispersal, and the behaviour of seed dispersers strongly influences their spatial distribution. However, the timing of seed germination stages remains poorly studied. In this study, ripe fruits from nine Psittacanthus species, inhabiting contrasting habitats and host tree species, were collected for seed germination experiments, in which ripe fruits had their exocarp manually removed, and squashed seeds were placed and glued with their viscin on wooden rectangle sticks and daily monitored for 150 d under common environmental conditions. The germination process from seed attachment involved stages such as drying of the viscin, seed coat breaking, cotyledon expansion, and production of sticky latex-like exudates. Notably, the breakdown of the seed coat and cotyledon number varied among species. Breakdown of the seed coat did not occur in some species at least until the day the experiment ended (P. sonorae and P. auriculatus) and cotyledon number ranged from two to eight, with highest cotyledon count to date recorded for P. schiedeanus. Germination indices differed among species, with P. schiedeanus exhibiting higher values for germination rate and synchrony. A strong phylogenetic signal was found in fruit length, fruit width and cotyledon number. After accounting for phylogeny, cotyledon number was negatively associated with mean germination time and germination uncertainty, and positively associated with mean germination rate and germination speed coefficient. The other germination indices were not significantly associated with fruit or seed morphological traits or altitude. Interspecific variation in cotyledon number, seed coat characteristics, and in the timing and duration of seed germination stages highlights distinct processes, likely influenced by environmental differences. These findings highlight species-specific germination processes, the impact of cotyledon number on germination speed, and the potential evolutionary significance of specific morphological traits among Psittacanthus species.
  5. Chromosome-level genome assembly of Pedicularis kansuensis illuminates genome evolution of facultative parasitic plant Longfa Fang, Mingyu Li, Jia Zhang, Chenglin Jia, Yuqing Qiang, Xiaojuan He, Tao Liu, Qiang Zhou, Dong Luo, Yuling Han, Zhen Li, Wenxian Liu, Yongzhi Yang, Jianquan Liu, Zhipeng Liu Molecular Ecology Resources, volume 24 Wednesday 10 July 2024 Parasitic plants have a heterotrophic lifestyle, in which they withdraw all or part of their nutrients from their host through the haustorium. Despite the release of many draft genomes of parasitic plants, the genome evolution related to the parasitism feature of facultative parasites remains largely unknown. In this study, we present a high-qualit... Parasitic plants have a heterotrophic lifestyle, in which they withdraw all or part of their nutrients from their host through the haustorium. Despite the release of many draft genomes of parasitic plants, the genome evolution related to the parasitism feature of facultative parasites remains largely unknown. In this study, we present a high-quality chromosomal-level genome assembly for the facultative parasite Pedicularis kansuensis (Orobanchaceae), which invades both legume and grass host species in degraded grasslands on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. This species has the largest genome size compared with other parasitic species, and expansions of long terminal repeat retrotransposons accounting for 62.37% of the assembly greatly contributed to the genome size expansion of this species. A total of 42,782 genes were annotated, and the patterns of gene loss in P. kansuensis differed from other parasitic species. We also found many mobile mRNAs between P. kansuensis and one of its host species, but these mobile mRNAs could not compensate for the functional losses of missing genes in P. kansuensis. In addition, we identified nine horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events from rosids and monocots, as well as one single-gene duplication events from HGT genes, which differ distinctly from that of other parasitic species. Furthermore, we found evidence for HGT through transferring genomic fragments from phylogenetically remote host species. Taken together, these findings provide genomic insights into the evolution of facultative parasites and broaden our understanding of the diversified genome evolution in parasitic plants and the molecular mechanisms of plant parasitism.
  6. Chromosome-level genome assembly of Korean holoparasitic plants, Orobanche coerulescens Bongsang Kim, So Yun Jhang, Bomin Koh, Soonok Kim, Won Jae Chi, Jeong Mi Park, Chae Eun Lim, Yoonjee Hong, Heebal Kim, Jaewoong Yu, Seoae Cho Scientific Data, volume 11 Tuesday 09 July 2024 Orobanche coerulescens is a parasitic plant that cannot complete its life cycle without a host and is incapable of photosynthesis. The habitats of O. coerulescens span the coasts of Korea and its volcanic islands, Ulleungdo and Dokdo. Those on the volcanic islands exhibit morphological differences and have distinct hosts compared to those on the pe... Orobanche coerulescens is a parasitic plant that cannot complete its life cycle without a host and is incapable of photosynthesis. The habitats of O. coerulescens span the coasts of Korea and its volcanic islands, Ulleungdo and Dokdo. Those on the volcanic islands exhibit morphological differences and have distinct hosts compared to those on the peninsula. The family of Orobanchaceae, encompassing both autotrophic and parasitic species, serves as a model for evolutionary studies of parasitic states. However, there are limited genome assemblies for the Orobanche genus. In our study, we produced approximately 100x ONT long reads to construct a chromosome-level genome of O. coerulescens. The resulting assembly has a total size of 3,648 Mb with an N50 value of 195 Mb, and 82.0% of BUSCO genes were identified as complete. Results of the repeat annotation revealed that 86.3% of the genome consisted of repeat elements, and 29,395 protein-coding genes were annotated. This chromosome-level genome will be an important biological resource for conserving biodiversity and further understanding parasitic plants.
  7. Genetic potential and inheritance pattern of agronomic traits in faba bean under free and infested Orobanche soil conditions Alaa A. Soliman, Mohamed A. Ibrahim, Manar I. Mousa, Elsayed Mansour, Yuhua He, Haitian Yu BMC Plant Biology, volume 24 Tuesday 09 July 2024 Background: Orobanche is an obligate parasite on faba bean in the Mediterranean region, causes considerable yield losses. Breeding tolerant faba bean genotypes to Orobanche is pivotal to sustain production and ensuring global food security, particularly considering the challenges posed by population growth. In the present study, seven faba bean lin... Background: Orobanche is an obligate parasite on faba bean in the Mediterranean region, causes considerable yield losses. Breeding tolerant faba bean genotypes to Orobanche is pivotal to sustain production and ensuring global food security, particularly considering the challenges posed by population growth. In the present study, seven faba bean lines and four testers were used in a line×tester mating design during 2020–2021 and 2021–2022 growing seasons. The eleven parents and their 28 F1 crosses were evaluated under Orobanche free and naturally infested soils. Results: The results demonstrated considerable variations among the evaluated genotypes, wide diversity among the parental materials, and heterotic effects for all studied agronomic traits under Orobanche-free and infested soils. Orbanche infestation displayed a significant adverse impact on all the studied agronomic traits. The genotypes Line1, Line2, Line3, and Line5 displayed superior performance under Orobanche-infested conditions and recorded the highest values of all studied agronomic traits. Additionally, Line1, Line2, Line3, Line5, and Line7 exhibited desirable significant GCA for most evaluated traits under the two infestation conditions. The obtained crosses displayed significant negative or positive heterosis for studied agronomic characters such as plant height, number of branches per plant, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant, and seed weight per plant were observed. Furthermore, specific cross combinations such as Line2×Sakha3, Line3×Nubaria5, Line7 × Nubaria5, Line6×Nubaria1, Line5×Sakha3, Line1×Sakha3, and Line1 × Nubaria5 exhibited superior performance in seed yield and contributing traits under Orobanche-infested conditions. Moreover, these specific crosses showed superior efficacy in reducing dry weight of Orobanche spikes. The results obtained from GGE biplot analysis closely aligned with those from the line×tester procedure, affirming the significance of GGE biplot as a valuable statistical tool for assessing genotype combining ability in line× tester data. Both additive and non-additive gene actions were reported to be predominantly involved in the inheritance of the studied agronomic traits in faba bean. Conclusions: The detected genetic diversity within the evaluated faba bean genotypes and their developed crosses exhibits substantial potential for improving faba bean productivity under Orobanche-infested conditions. The parental genotypes, Line1, Line2, Line3, Line5, and Line7, were identified as effective and promising combiners. Moreover, the developed crosses Line2×Sakha3, Line3×Nubaria5, Line7×Nubaria5, Line6×Nubaria1, Line5×Sakha3, Line1×Sakha3, and Line1×Nubaria5 could be considered valuable candidates for developing high-yielding and tolerant faba bean genotypes to Orobanche.
  8. Testcross performance of Striga-resistant maize inbred lines and testers with varying levels of Striga reaction Degife Zebire, Abebe Menkir, Victor Adetimirin, Wende Mengesha, Meseka Silvestro, Melaku Gedil CABI Agriculture and Bioscience, volume 5 Tuesday 09 July 2024 Background: Using a desirable tester is considered one method used to maximise genetic differences among test crosses derived from new inbred lines and improves the overall performance of maize. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the potency of the tester with varying levels of resistance to Striga hermonthica in determining the testcross performan... Background: Using a desirable tester is considered one method used to maximise genetic differences among test crosses derived from new inbred lines and improves the overall performance of maize. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the potency of the tester with varying levels of resistance to Striga hermonthica in determining the testcross performance of the hybrids for Striga resistance and yield-related traits. Method: The experiment was conducted with these test crosses and two standard checks (susceptible and tolerant) for different Striga resistance and agronomic traits during the 2018 cropping season in Abuja and Mokwa, Nigeria. The experiment was laid out in a 23 × 4 alpha-lattice design with two replications in each location. Field evaluation data was collected from Striga resistance and yield-related traits to estimate the performance of test crosses. Analysis of variance was conducted to determine the variance of the testcross performance. Results: There were significant differences among test crosses for days to silking, days to pollen shedding, ear at harvest, ear aspect, ear per plant, grain yield, Striga damage rating at 8 and 10 weeks after planting (WAP), and Striga count at 8 and 10 WAP. Variations among test crosses were always higher than the corresponding variations due to the interaction between test crosses and the environment for all traits. Conclusion: The inbred lines with low yield reduction crossed with different testers under Striga infested were recorded. These inbreds should be used to develop high-yielding hybrids and synthetics with elevated levels of Striga resistance to improve the maize breeding program.
  9. Efficacy of quercetin-like compounds from the mistletoe plant of Dendrophthoe pentandra L. Miq, as oral random blood sugar lowering treatment in diabetic rats Mochamad Lazuardi, Qonita Kurnia Anjani, Aniek Setya Budiatin, Tjuk Imam Restiadi The veterinary quarterly, volume 44, pages 1-14 Monday 08 July 2024 Background: Mistletoe is an herb that grows on duku plants (Lancium demosticum) and is known as benalu duku (BD) in Indonesia. It is predicted to have benefits such as anticancer or antiviral properties, and it is also thought to have anti-diabetic pharmacological activity. Quercetin-like compounds (QLCs) are secondary metabolites with antidiabetic... Background: Mistletoe is an herb that grows on duku plants (Lancium demosticum) and is known as benalu duku (BD) in Indonesia. It is predicted to have benefits such as anticancer or antiviral properties, and it is also thought to have anti-diabetic pharmacological activity. Quercetin-like compounds (QLCs) are secondary metabolites with antidiabetic activity that are expected to lower blood sugar levels in animals after oral administration. Objective: This study aimed to analyze the ability of QLCs to reduce random blood sugar levels using experimental animals as clinical models. Material and methods: The research method used was exploratory, which used a before-after test model, and observations were made on the random blood sugar levels after treatment. Secondary metabolites were extracted from BD leaves, which were then screened. Diabetes was induced in 30 rats (Rattus norvegicus) by the administration of streptozotocin at 0.045 mg/g body weight daily for 2 days. The antidiabetic effects of the secondary metabolite at doses of 0.5 mg/kg body weight (twice a day) when administered orally for up to 5 days were tested in diabetic rats. The random sugar levels (mg/dL) were measured using a One Touch Ultra Plus medical device for observation of randomized blood sugar levels. Results and novelty: The results revealed that the secondary metabolite, as an analyte from the BD leaf extract, can significantly reduce random blood sugar levels. Conclusion: The secondary metabolite extracted from BD, could be used to treat diabetes in rats.
  10. Genome-wide association studies reveals new candidate genes associated with resistance to Striga gesneroides in Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] accessions from sub-Saharan Africa Abdoulaye Ali Koura, Alexander Wireko Kena, Benjamin Annor, Idris I. Adejumobi, Abdoul Raouf Sayadi Maazou, Fredercik Justice Awuku, Patrick Attamah, Ousmane Boukar, Akromah Richard Ecological Genetics and Genomics, volume 32 Monday 08 July 2024 Parasitic plant Striga gesneroides reduces cowpea productivity in sub-Saharan Africa, leading to substantial yield losses. This weed is the major reason for land abandonment by many farmers. While various methods have been proposed for managing Striga invasion and parasitism, host-plant resistance remains the most effective and affordable option fo... Parasitic plant Striga gesneroides reduces cowpea productivity in sub-Saharan Africa, leading to substantial yield losses. This weed is the major reason for land abandonment by many farmers. While various methods have been proposed for managing Striga invasion and parasitism, host-plant resistance remains the most effective and affordable option for small-scale farmers in the sub-region. This study aims to expedite the improvement of Striga resistance breeding through marker-assisted selection by identifying genomic regions and candidate genes associated with Striga resistance indicator traits using association mapping. A panel of 188 cowpea accessions assembled from five gene banks in West Africa were phenotyped for two years under Striga-infested and non-infested research conditions. These accessions were equally genotyped using the medium-density genotyping of the Diversity Arrays Technology sequencing (DArTseq) platform to obtain marker information. High broad-sense heritability estimates were observed for Striga resistance status (SRS), number of Striga per plot (NSPlot), and Pod weight (PW) while low heritability estimates were observed for fodder weight (FW) and Plant Aspect (PASP). Twenty-four SNP markers were identified across SRS, NSPlot, FW, PASP, and PW under Striga-infested conditions. Under non-infested conditions, 17 SNPs were identified across FW, PASP, and PW. Gene annotation of the significant SNPs revealed candidate genes such as ubiquitin ligase activity, cell wall reinforcement protein, and pathogenesis-related protein. These genes function in plant growth regulation, development, and defense mechanisms. This study offers valuable insights for marker selection, validation, and deployment in cowpea improvement for Striga resistance in SSA.
  11. Phenolic Compound Characterization and Biological Activities of Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) Ethanol Macerates Used in Herbal Spirit Production Karla Hanousek Čiča, Damir Stanzer, Zoran Zorić, Kristina Radošević, Sanja Radeka, Tina Lešić, Dorota Derewiaka, Jasna Mrvčić Beverages, volume 10 Monday 08 July 2024 Biska, a traditional Istrian herbal spirit, is produced by macerating mistletoe leaves and twigs in a water–ethanol base, usually grape marc spirit. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal mistletoe maceration parameters (ethanol content, concentration of plant material, and duration) for the production of biska, which have not yet bee... Biska, a traditional Istrian herbal spirit, is produced by macerating mistletoe leaves and twigs in a water–ethanol base, usually grape marc spirit. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal mistletoe maceration parameters (ethanol content, concentration of plant material, and duration) for the production of biska, which have not yet been the subject of scientific research. The prepared mistletoe macerates and the collected biska samples were subjected to phenolic compound characterization, including total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and polyphenolic profile, by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS2). In addition, the macerates and the biska samples were analyzed for their biological properties: antioxidant and antiproliferative activity. The results showed that both the macerates and the biska samples contain phenolic compounds of mistletoe such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, and coumarins, which contribute to the observed biological activities—significant antioxidant activity and antiproliferative effect. By applying the maceration parameters, which yielded the highest content of phenolic compounds as well as volatile aromatic compounds (40–80 g/L of mistletoe, 40–55% v/v ethanol, and 21 days’ maceration time), the production process can be improved to produce biska with better aromatic and biological properties.
  12. Conservation opportunities for rare and endemic tropical mistletoes Rodrigo F. Fadini, Claudenir S. Caires, Greta A. Dettke, Marcelo O.T. Menezes, Francisco E. Fontúrbel Flora: Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants, volume 317 Sunday 07 July 2024 Conservation of parasites is not as appealing as in the case of free-living organisms. Although this is worst for animal parasites, parasitic plants — and mistletoes in particular — are considered a menace to trees and shrubs, and as so, there is a prevailing sentiment that they should be eradicated rather than protected. To deconstruct this pe... Conservation of parasites is not as appealing as in the case of free-living organisms. Although this is worst for animal parasites, parasitic plants — and mistletoes in particular — are considered a menace to trees and shrubs, and as so, there is a prevailing sentiment that they should be eradicated rather than protected. To deconstruct this perception, we answered three important questions: Why, what, and how to protect mistletoes? Then, based on those questions, we propose a conservation plan, especially designed for tropical species. For the Why question, we briefly reviewed the functional roles of mistletoes worldwide and provided evidence of their positive impact on other species and ecosystem functioning. For the What question, we used a framework to identify the main threats to mistletoes and commented on each one of them using world examples. Then, we used the Geocat tool to map and calculate the Extent of Occurrence (EOO) and Area of Occupancy (AOO) for each endemic and rare Brazilian mistletoe species, as an example to aid in tropical mistletoe conservation. Finally, for the How question, we listed practical recommendations to create a plan for conserving endemic and rare tropical mistletoes.
  13. Macronutrient application rescues performance of tolerant sorghum genotypes when infected by the parasitic plant striga Immaculate M. Mwangangi, Lucie Büchi, Stephan M. Haefele, Jonne Rodenburg Annals of Botany, volume 134, pages 59-69 Saturday 06 July 2024 • Background and Aims Infection by the hemi-parasitic plant Striga hermonthica causes severe host plant damage and seed production losses. Increased availability of essential plant nutrients reduces infection. Whether, how and to what extent it also reduces striga-induced host plant damage has not been well studied. • Methods The effects of imp... • Background and Aims Infection by the hemi-parasitic plant Striga hermonthica causes severe host plant damage and seed production losses. Increased availability of essential plant nutrients reduces infection. Whether, how and to what extent it also reduces striga-induced host plant damage has not been well studied. • Methods The effects of improved macro- and micronutrient supply on host plant performance under striga-free and infected conditions were investigated in glasshouse pot assays. One striga-sensitive and two striga-tolerant genotypes were compared. Plants growing in impoverished soils were supplied with (1) 25 % of optimal macro- and micronutrient quantities, (2) 25 % macro- and 100 % micronutrients, (3) 100 % macro- and 25 % micronutrients, or (4) 100 % macro- and micronutrients. • Key Results Photosynthesis rates of striga-infected plants of the sensitive genotype increased with improved nutrition (from 12.2 to 22.1 μmol m−2 s−1) but remained below striga-free levels (34.9–38.8 μmol m−2 s−1). For the tolerant genotypes, increased macronutrient supply offset striga-induced photosynthesis losses. Striga-induced relative grain losses of 100 % for the sensitive genotype were reduced to 74 % by increased macronutrients. Grain losses of 80 % in the tolerant Ochuti genotype, incurred at low nutrient supply, were reduced to 5 % by improved nutrient supply. • Conclusions Increasing macronutrient supply reduces the impact of striga on host plants but can only restore losses when applied to genotypes with a tolerant background.
  14. Wine- and stir-frying processing of Cuscutae Semen enhance its ability to alleviate oxidative stress and apoptosis via the Keap 1-Nrf2/HO-1 and PI3K/AKT pathways in H<inf>2</inf>O<inf>2</inf>-challenged KGN human granulosa cell line Yusha Liang, Yun Shi, Rong Guo, Changli Xu, Mian Fu, Jinyang Shen, Xun Gao, Weidong Li, Kunming Qin BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies, volume 24 Friday 05 July 2024 Background: Cuscutae Semen (CS) has been prescribed in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for millennia as an aging inhibitor, an anti-inflammatory agent, a pain reliever, and an aphrodisiac. Its three main forms include crude Cuscutae Semen (CCS), wine-processed CS (WCS), and stir-frying-processed CS (SFCS). Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) i... Background: Cuscutae Semen (CS) has been prescribed in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for millennia as an aging inhibitor, an anti-inflammatory agent, a pain reliever, and an aphrodisiac. Its three main forms include crude Cuscutae Semen (CCS), wine-processed CS (WCS), and stir-frying-processed CS (SFCS). Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a globally occurring medical condition. The present work sought a highly efficacious multi-target therapeutic approach against POI with minimal side effects. Finally, it analyzed the relative differences among CCS, WCS and SFCS in terms of their therapeutic efficacy and modes of action against H2O2-challenged KGN human granulosa cell line. Methods: In this study, ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-Q-ExactiveTM Orbitrap-mass spectrometry (MS), oxidative stress indices, reactive oxygen species (ROS), Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), real-time PCR, Western blotting, and molecular docking were used to investigate the protective effect of CCS, WCS and SFCS on KGN cells oxidative stress and apoptosis mechanisms. Results: The results confirmed that pretreatment with CCS, WCS and SFCS reduced H2O2-induced oxidative damage, accompanied by declining ROS levels and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation in the KGN cells. CCS, WCS and SFCS upregulated the expression of antioxidative levels (GSH, GSH/GSSG ratio, SOD, T-AOC),mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the relative mRNA(Nrf2, Keap1, NQO-1, HO-1, SOD-1, CAT). They inhibited apoptosis by upregulating Bcl-2, downregulating Bax, cleaved caspase-9, and cleaved caspase-3, and lowering the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. They also exerted antioxidant efficacy by partially activating the PI3K/Akt and Keap1-Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathways. Conclusions: The results of the present work demonstrated the inhibitory efficacy of CCS, WCS and SFCS against H2O2-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in KGN cells and showed that the associated mechanisms included Keap1-Nrf2/HO-1 activation, P-PI3K upregulation, and P-Akt-mediated PI3K-Akt pathway induction.
  15. Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. and Cuscuta chinensis Lam. extract relieves insulin resistance via PI3K/Akt signalling in diabetic Drosophila Yinghong Li, Ye Xu, Biwei Zhang, Zhigang Wang, Leilei Ma, Longyu Sun, Xiuping Wang, Yimin Lin, Ji an Li, Chenxi Wu Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, volume 14, pages 424-434 Thursday 04 July 2024 Background and aim: Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is mainly characterized by insulin resistance (IR) induced by hyperglycaemia and insufficient insulin secretion. We employed a diabetic fly model to examine the effect and molecular mechanism of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. and Cuscuta chinensis Lam. (AMK–CCL) extract as traditional Chinese ... Background and aim: Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is mainly characterized by insulin resistance (IR) induced by hyperglycaemia and insufficient insulin secretion. We employed a diabetic fly model to examine the effect and molecular mechanism of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. and Cuscuta chinensis Lam. (AMK–CCL) extract as traditional Chinese medicine in treating IR and T2DM. Experimental procedure: The contents of the active ingredients (rhamnose, xylose, mannose, and hyperoside) in AMK–CCL extract were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Wild-type (Cg-GAL4/+) or diabetic (Cg > InRK1409A) Drosophila flies were divided into the control group or metformin group and AMK–CCL (0.0125, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1 g/ml) groups. Food intake, haemolymph glucose and trehalose, protein, weight, triglycerides (TAG), and glycogen were measured to assess glycolipid metabolism. Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signalling was detected using fluorescent reporters [tGPH, Drosophila forkhead box O (dFoxO)–green fluorescent protein (GFP), Glut1–GFP, 2-NBDG] in vivo. Glut1/3 mRNA levels and Akt phosphorylation levels were detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively, in vitro. Results: AMK–CCL extract contained 0.038 % rhamnose, 0.017 % xylose, 0.69 % mannose, and 0.039 % hyperoside. AMK–CCL at 0.0125 g/mL significantly suppressed the increase in circulating glucose, and the decrease in body weight, TAG, and glycogen contents of diabetic flies. AMK–CCL improved PI3K activity, Akt phosphorylation, Glut1/3 expression, and glucose uptake in diabetic flies, and also rescued diabetes-induced dFoxO nuclear localisation. Conclusions: These findings indicate that AMK–CCL extract ameliorates IR-induced diabetes via the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway, providing an experimental basis for clinical treatment.

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