International Parasitic Plant Society

Welcome to the homepage of the International Parasitic Plant Society (IPPS). The IPPS is dedicated to advancing scientific research on parasitic plants. Our goals include increasing the understanding of these amazing plants, providing a platform for exchange among and beyond the scientific community as well as helping to decrease the crop damage inflicted by weedy parasitic plants.

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Most Recent ‘Parasitic Plant’ publications

in Google Scholar

  1. Synergistic use of biochar and the plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in mitigating drought stress on oak (Quercus brantii Lindl.) seedlings M Heydari, S Hajinia, N Jafarian, M Karamian… - Forest Ecology and …, 2023 - Elsevier Tuesday 24 January 2023 … Harmful effects of mistletoe on the oak trees in Zagros forests, have led to the … of the treatments biochar (from the mistletoe Loranthus europaeus Jacq) and PGPR on the …
  2. Fitokemijski profil, funkcionalna svojstva i fizikalno-kemijski parametri tradicionalne istarske travarice biske K Hanousek Čiča - 2023 - repozitorij.pbf.unizg.hr Monday 23 January 2023 … produced by maceration of the mistletoe (Viscum album) … optimal maceration parameters of the mistletoe in hydro-… compounds in prepared mistletoe macerates and biska …
  3. [HTML][HTML] Strigolactones: diversity, perception, and hydrolysis AM Guercio, M Palayam, N Shabek - Phytochemistry Reviews, 2023 - Springer Monday 23 January 2023 … germination of nearby parasitic witchweeds of Striga and Orobanche species. As obligate parasites, members of Striga and Orobanche have little to no photosynthetic …
  4. Pengaruh Ekstrak Benalu Mangga Terhadap Kadar Malondealdehid (MDA) pada Tikus Hipertensi yang Dipapar DOCA-Garam RD Lestari, NAA Sjakoer… - BIOSAINTROPIS …, 2023 - biosaintropis.unisma.ac.id Sunday 22 January 2023 … Mango mistletoe contains secondary metabolic compounds such as flavonoids which act as natural antioxidants. The use of antioxidants from manga parasites is an …
  5. C-terminal conformational changes in SCF-D3/MAX2 ubiquitin ligase are required for KAI2-mediated signaling L Tal, AM Guercio, K Varshney, A Young, C Gutjahr… - bioRxiv, 2023 - biorxiv.org Saturday 21 January 2023 … SL also acts as a rhizosphere signal to activate arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi that can be exploited by parasitic plants. kai2 knockouts exhibit distinct developmental defects …
  6. Mechanistic Basis for Enhanced Strigolactone Sensitivity in KAI2 Triple Mutant BL Sobecks, J Chen, D Shukla - bioRxiv, 2023 - biorxiv.org Saturday 21 January 2023 … Witchweed, also known as Striga, is a parasitic plant that destroys an estimated $10 billion of crops every year, which impacts around 100 million farmers worldwide.Striga …
  7. Antalya ilinde muz (Musa cavendishii Lam. Ex. Payton) üretim alanlarında sorun olan yabancı otlar ve muz ekstraktlarının allelopatik potansiyelinin belirlenmesi E Yilmaz - acikbilim.yok.gov.tr Friday 20 January 2023 Antalya ili, Alanya ve Gazipaşa ilçelerinde muz bahçelerinde sorun olan yabancı ot türlerinin yaygınlık ve yoğunluklarının belirlenmesi amacı ile araştırma alanını temsil …
  8. [PDF][PDF] Modélisation et simulation à base d'agents de la propagation d'une parasitose végétale le gui TK Samuel, VC Kamla, B Gazissou - hal.science Tuesday 17 January 2023 … build a multi-agent model for the spread of mistletoe in … with the availability of mistletoe berries, attendance of the … Our study reveals that a dispersion of mistletoe on long …
  9. [HTML][HTML] Lay etiology concepts of cancer patients do not correlate with their usage of complementary and/or alternative medicine J Huebner, R Muecke, O Micke, FJ Prott… - Journal of Cancer …, 2023 - Springer Thursday 19 January 2023 … is identical with that of meditation and yoga, suggesting that mistletoe—despite … in which mistletoe plays a central part. This goes along with mistletoe showing strongest …
  10. You are what you eat: nutrient and water relations between mistletoes and hosts YB Zhang, M Corrêa Scalon, JX Liu, XY Song… - New … - Wiley Online Library Wednesday 18 January 2023 … For each mistletoe-host species pair, we sampled mistletoe leaves from the infected branches with similar size and host leaves from uninfected branches, completely free …
  11. Antioxidant activity and phytopathogenic control of extracts and fraction from Struthanthus calophyllus AC Sm.(Loranthaceae). AM Mesa Vanegas, V Suaza-Gaviria… - Chemistry & … - Wiley Online Library Tuesday 17 January 2023 … Such stress could be controlled by antioxidant compounds from parasitic plants, given their … Further molecular composition research about parasitic plants could show how …
  12. [PDF][PDF] Senckenbergs Aufzeichnungen über die Pflanzenwelt des Westerwaldes und der Gegend um Ems. VLS Darmstadt - zobodat.at Wednesday 18 January 2023 1 day ago - 144 L. Sp i1g er längere Zeit besuchte. Vom 27. Mai bis zum 27. Juni hielt er sich hier auf und machte von Ems aus Ausflüge nach Ehrenbreitstein, Dausenau, Diez und …
  13. Induction of systemic resistance to Orobanche crenata in lentil by exogenous application of salicylic acid and indole acetic acid FZ Briache, M El Amri, M Ennami, M Amri… - Journal of Plant … - plantprotection.pl Monday 16 January 2023 Orobanche crenata parasitism on lentil (Lens culinaris Medik) is one of the most destructive factors for this crop in Morocco. Field and pot assays were performed to study …
  14. Are root parasitic broomrapes still a good target for bioherbicide control? M Vurro - Pest Management Science, 2023 - Wiley Online Library Sunday 15 January 2023 … Root parasitic weeds of the genera Orobanche and Phelipanche (commonly named … The attention of this article is focused on the genera Orobanche and Phelipanche, …
  15. Strigolactones: plant hormones and chemical mediators in soil, an opportunity for plant growth FD Boyer, A Keita, A de Saint Germain - L'Actualité Chimique, 2023 - hal.science Friday 06 January 2023 … Striga, Phelipanche and Orobanche parasitic plants … mechanisms of these parasitic plants. Targeting their … Les plantes parasites de type Striga, Phelipanche et Orobanche …

Most Recent 'Parasitic Plant' publications

in Scopus

  1. First record of potential bird pollination in the holoparasitic genus Orobanche L. Akihiro Nishimura, Koji Takayama Plant Species Biology, volume 38, pages 6-17 Monday 30 January 2023 Pollinators play an important role in the reproduction of zoophilous plants. A shift in pollinators has often been observed for oceanic island plants, probably because of the differences in fauna. In this study, we obtained data on pollinator shifts from insects to birds in Orobanche boninsimae (Orobanchaceae), a holoparasitic plant species endemic... Pollinators play an important role in the reproduction of zoophilous plants. A shift in pollinators has often been observed for oceanic island plants, probably because of the differences in fauna. In this study, we obtained data on pollinator shifts from insects to birds in Orobanche boninsimae (Orobanchaceae), a holoparasitic plant species endemic to the Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands, oceanic islands in the Pacific. We observed pollination and measured seed viability in O. boninsimae and its continental sister species O. coerulescens. We found that two passerine birds, the Japanese white-eye (Zosterops japonicus) and bulbul (Hypsipetes amaurotis squameiceps), visited the flowers and sucked the nectar of O. boninsimae, while only insects visited those of O. coerulescens. Viable seeds were produced under pollinator-excluded treatments in the two Orobanche species, indicating that the seeds were produced by automatic self-pollination and/or apomixis. These results suggest that O. boninsimae may be pollinated by birds and can produce seeds by automatic self-pollination/apomixis. This is the first record of visitation of the genus Orobanche by birds. Studies of pollination systems in native plants on the Bonin Islands are few compared to those on other oceanic islands, and O. boninsimae may provide a valuable example of pollinator shifts in the Bonin Islands.
  2. Maize Rotation Combined with Streptomyces rochei D74 to Eliminate Orobanche cumana Seed Bank in the Farmland Jiao Xi, Zanbo Ding, Tengqi Xu, Wenxing Qu, Yanzhi Xu, Yongqing Ma, Quanhong Xue, Yongxin Liu, Yanbing Lin Agronomy, volume 12 Sunday 29 January 2023 Orobanche cumama wallr. is the sunflower root parasitic weed with special life stage in which seed germination and parasitism take place in the soil. In practice, applying microbial agents and trapping crop rotation are utilized separately, or just one of them is selected to control O. cumana. The development of the sunflower industry is severely c... Orobanche cumama wallr. is the sunflower root parasitic weed with special life stage in which seed germination and parasitism take place in the soil. In practice, applying microbial agents and trapping crop rotation are utilized separately, or just one of them is selected to control O. cumana. The development of the sunflower industry is severely constrained on the farmland, where there is high density of O. cumana’s seed banks. In this study, two biological control methods were combined to solve the problem of O. cumana parasitism. The bioassay experiment showed that the high concentration fermentation filtrates of Streptomyces rochei D74 could effectively inhibit the germination and growth of the germ tube of O. cumana seeds. As the concentration was increased to 3.1 mg/mL, O. cumana was almost unable to sprout. A two-year pot experiment revealed that the use of D74 agents and sunflower–maize–sunflower rotation together promoted sunflower growth, as shown by the biomass accumulation, plant height, and denser root systems. The combined method resulted in a significant decrease in the number of O. cumana parasitism, compared to one method alone. Additionally, it affected the bacterial community composition of sunflower rhizosphere, mostly leading to an increase in Streptomyces and Brevibacterium and a decrease in Arthrobacter. This experiment, combined with multiple biological control, means significantly reducing the parasitism of O. cumana, which provides an effective foundation for practical application.
  3. The Effect of 10 Crop Plants That Served as Hosts on the Primary Metabolic Profile of the Parasitic Plant Phelipanche aegyptiaca Krishna Kumar, Yael Hacham, Rachel Amir Metabolites, volume 12 Saturday 28 January 2023 Phelipanche aegyptiaca Pers. is a holoparasitic plant that parasitizes various types of host plants. Its penetration into host roots causes a massive reduction in the yield of many crop plants worldwide. The nature of the compounds taken by the parasite from its host is still under debate in the scientific literature. To gain more knowledge about t... Phelipanche aegyptiaca Pers. is a holoparasitic plant that parasitizes various types of host plants. Its penetration into host roots causes a massive reduction in the yield of many crop plants worldwide. The nature of the compounds taken by the parasite from its host is still under debate in the scientific literature. To gain more knowledge about the effect of the hosts on the parasite’s primary metabolic profile, GC-MS analyses were conducted on the parasites that developed on 10 hosts from four plant families. There are three hosts from each family: Brassicaceae, Apiaceae and Solanaceae and one host from Fabaceae. The results showed significant differences in the metabolic profiles of P. aegyptiaca collected from the different hosts, indicating that the parasites rely strongly on the host’s metabolites. Generally, we found that the parasites that developed on Brassicaceae and Fabaceae accumulated more amino acids than those developed on Apiaceae and Solanaceae that accumulated more sugars and organic acids. The contents of amino acids correlated positively with the total soluble proteins. However, the aromatic amino acid, tyrosine, correlated negatively with the accumulation of the total phenolic compounds. This study contributes to our knowledge of the metabolic relationship between host and parasite.
  4. Synergistic Inhibition Effect of Cuscuta Chinensis Lam Extract and Potassium Iodide on Cold Rolled Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Hao Wu, Shuduan Deng, Xianghong Li Journal of the Chinese Society of Corrosion and Protection, volume 43, pages 77-86 Friday 27 January 2023 Cuscuta chinensis Lam extract (CCLE) was obtained from the dodder, which is a kind of parasitic plant, by circulation reflux method. The synergistic inhibition effect of CCLE and KI on cold rolled steel in 1.0 mol/L HCl solution was studied by mass loss method, potentiodynamic polarization curve measurement and electrochemical impedance spectroscop... Cuscuta chinensis Lam extract (CCLE) was obtained from the dodder, which is a kind of parasitic plant, by circulation reflux method. The synergistic inhibition effect of CCLE and KI on cold rolled steel in 1.0 mol/L HCl solution was studied by mass loss method, potentiodynamic polarization curve measurement and electrochemical impedance spectroscope, as well as electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). The results showed that CCLE acts as an efficient inhibitor for cold rolled steel in HCl solution, and the maximum inhibition efficiency is 84.0%. The inhibition can be further in-creased to 90.8% for the combination of CCLE with KI. All the synergism parameters are higher than uni-ty for the design of various compound concentrations and test temperatures. The adsorption of CCLE and CCLE/KI obey Langmuir isotherm. When CCLE is incorporated with KI, both of the adsorption equilib-rium constant (K) and the absolute value of standard adsorption free energy (ΔG0) becomes larger. CCLE and CCLE/KI can be arranged as mixed-type inhibitors, and the inhibition coefficient is strengthened after combination. There exists a single capacitive loop in the Nyqusit diagram. The charge transfer resistance turns to be much higher for the combination of CCLE with KI. SEM and AFM observation result also proves that the combination of CCLE and KI presents a significantly synergistic inhibition effect on the surface of cold rolled steel in HCl solution.
  5. 16S rDNA sequencing combined with metabolomics profiling with multi-index scoring method reveals the mechanism of salt-processed Semen Cuscuta in Bushen Antai mixture on kidney yang deficiency syndrome Baiyang Xu, Zhitong Yang, Xue Zhang, Zilu Liu, Yu Huang, Ximeng Ding, Jijun Chu, Tangyi Peng, Deling Wu, Chuanshan Jin, Weidong Li, Baochang Cai, Xiaoli Wang Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, volume 1216 Friday 27 January 2023 Kidney yang deficiency syndrome (KYDS) is a classic syndrome of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The salt-processed product of Semen Cuscuta (YP) is the monarch drug in Bushen Antai Mixture (BAM), can improve the reproductive dysfunction caused by KYDS, and the effect is better than that of raw products of Semen Cuscuta (SP). However, its mechan... Kidney yang deficiency syndrome (KYDS) is a classic syndrome of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The salt-processed product of Semen Cuscuta (YP) is the monarch drug in Bushen Antai Mixture (BAM), can improve the reproductive dysfunction caused by KYDS, and the effect is better than that of raw products of Semen Cuscuta (SP). However, its mechanism is not completely clear yet. In this study, an integrated strategy combining untargeted metabolomics with microbiology was used to explore the mechanism of YP in the BAM improving KYDS. 16S rDNA gene sequencing showed that BAM containing YP (Y-BAM) had a significantly better regulatory effect on Desulfobacterota and Desulfovibrionaceae_unclassified than BAM containing SP (S-BAM). Untargeted metabolomics studies showed that Y-BAM significantly regulated 4 metabolites and 4 metabolic pathways. In addition, multi-index analysis showed that the effect of Y-BAM on arachidonic acid metabolism, tyrosine metabolism, purine metabolism, fructose and mannose metabolism and total metabolism was closer to that of the control group compared to S-BAM. The analysis of serum biochemical indexes showed that Y-BAM had more significant regulating effect on the levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone (T) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in serum of KYDS rats compared to S-BAM. Spearman correlation analysis showed that there was a significant correlation between intestinal microorganisms and metabolites and serum biochemical indexes. For example, Desulfovibrionaceae_unclassified was positively correlated with arachidonic acid, and negatively correlated with SOD and LH. This study suggests that YP may enhance the regulation of intestinal flora and endogenous metabolism of KYDS, so that BAM shows a better therapeutic effect on KYDS, which also reasonably explains why BAM uses Semen Cuscuta stir-baked with salt solution.
  6. Cuscuta epithymum Murr. crude extract pre-conditioning protects C6 cells from L-glutamate-induced neurotoxicity Masoumeh Pourhadi, Zahra Niknam, Rasoul Ghasemi, Mina Soufi Zomorrod, Vahid Niazi, Mehrdad Faizi, Hakimeh Zali, Faraz Mojab BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies, volume 22 Wednesday 18 January 2023 Background: Cuscuta epithymum Murr. (C. epithymum), as an herbal medicine, has played an anti-cancerous role in various studies; however, its possible neuroprotective effects have been neglected. Here, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of C. epithymum seeds crude extract and different fractions on rat glioblastoma cells (C6) in L-glut... Background: Cuscuta epithymum Murr. (C. epithymum), as an herbal medicine, has played an anti-cancerous role in various studies; however, its possible neuroprotective effects have been neglected. Here, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of C. epithymum seeds crude extract and different fractions on rat glioblastoma cells (C6) in L-glutamate oxidative condition. Methods: Initially, the total phenolic content of C. epithymum crude extract and the fractions (all produced by maceration method) was determined. Subsequently, C6 cells were pre-treated with the various concentrations of crude extract and fractions 24 h before L-glutamate exposure. Likewise, C6 cells were treated with the same concentrations of crude extract and fractions 24 h after exposure to L-glutamate. The cell viability and morphology were compared in crude extract and fractions groups, then superoxide dismutase (SODs) activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured. The flow cytometry test was used to study C. epithymum crude extract's effects on the cell cycle and also to quantify the apoptosis, necrosis, and live cells population in different groups. Results: C. epithymum crude extract and fractions (hexanoic, dichloromethanolic, and methanolic) had concentration-dependent cytotoxicity (IC50:126.47, 2101.96, 140.97, and 218.96 µg/ml, respectively). The crude extract and methanolic fraction contained phenolic compounds (55.99 ± 2.795 and 50.80 ± 2.969 mg gallic acid/g extract), while in hexanoic and dichloromethanolic fractions, the phenolic content was undetectable. In the cell viability assay, in comparison to fractions, the crude extract showed a more protective effect against glutamate-induced oxidative condition (P < 0.0001). The crude extract increased the SODs activity (P < 0.001) and decreased MDA and ROS levels (P < 0.0001) in comparison to the glutamate group. The crude extract significantly increased the population of cells in G1 (from 63.04 to 76.29) and decreased the percentage of cells in G2 (from 11.56 to 6.7) and S phase (from 25.4 to 17.01). In addition, it decreased the apoptotic and necrotic cell populations (from 34 to 17.1) and also increased the percentage of live cells (from 66.8 to 83.4 percent) in the flow cytometry test. Conclusion: C. epithymum crude extract plays a neuroprotective role by activating the defense mechanisms in cell against the oxidative condition.
  7. Drivers of mistletoe (Tapinanthus bangwensis) density in cocoa (Theobroma cacao) agroforests in Ghana Richard Osei, Michael Ansong International Journal of Pest Management, volume 69, pages 46-53 Tuesday 17 January 2023 Mistletoes are parasitic flowering plants that attack plants like cocoa and kill branches distal to point of attachment. Consequently, cocoa farmers incorporate trees to provide shade to limit germination and establishment of Tapinanthus bangwensis mistletoe species, but without success. This study was conducted in South-Western Ghana to identify c... Mistletoes are parasitic flowering plants that attack plants like cocoa and kill branches distal to point of attachment. Consequently, cocoa farmers incorporate trees to provide shade to limit germination and establishment of Tapinanthus bangwensis mistletoe species, but without success. This study was conducted in South-Western Ghana to identify causal factors of mistletoe infestation using random forest (RF) regression. Spatial arrangement of cocoa trees was the most important factor explaining mistletoe density, which was significantly higher in farms planted at random than in rows. The results imply that planting cocoa trees in rows could mitigate mistletoe infestation of Ghana’s cocoa agroforests.
  8. Adaptive bacterial and fungal matching between a parasitic plant and its host: A case of Cistanche deserticola and Haloxylon ammodendron Yujing Miao, Xinke Zhang, Jin Pei, Chang Liu, Linfang Huang Industrial Crops and Products, volume 191 Monday 16 January 2023 How the unique heterotrophic life history of parasitic plants influences the root and rhizosphere microbiota of symbiotic host plants is relatively unknown. In this study, we used Cistanche deserticola and Haloxylon ammodendron from cultivated populations as our model parasite and host plants, respectively. We collected samples from root (PR) and r... How the unique heterotrophic life history of parasitic plants influences the root and rhizosphere microbiota of symbiotic host plants is relatively unknown. In this study, we used Cistanche deserticola and Haloxylon ammodendron from cultivated populations as our model parasite and host plants, respectively. We collected samples from root (PR) and rhizosphere (PS) of the parasite, root (HIR) and rhizosphere (HIS) of the host plant infected, and root (HUR) and rhizosphere (HUS) of host plant uninfected. We conducted Illumina high-throughput DNA sequencing technology, and compared the diversity, composition, co-occurring network structure of their microbiota, and traced the composition of the parasitic plant microbiota. Our results showed that the diversity of root bacteria and fungi was lower than those in the rhizosphere, the co-association complexity of the root was simpler than those of the rhizosphere, but the compositional similarity of root microbiota was increased relative to those of the rhizosphere. Infection had localized and systemic effects on microbiota of HIR and HIS. Seven taxa were enriched in HIR and HIS, including Microvigra, Sphingomonas, Rubrobacter, Gaiella, Quadrisphaera, Chaetomium, and Penicillum. Additionally, infection also led to the co-association network of HIR being simpler than HUR. Meanwhile, the diversity, composition, and co-association network were similar between PR and HUR. Community assembly mechanisms analysis showed that the variable selection and homogenizing dispersal were highly similar between C. deserticola (Bacteria: 0.8 and 0.2; Fungi: 0.4 and 0.4) and H. ammodendron (Bacteria: 0.8 and 0.2; Fungi: 0.4 and 0.36). And PR displayed a high level of congruence with HUR in both bacterial (t0=0.69) and fungal (t0=0.53) communities. Collectively, our results suggested that the root microbiota of parasitic plant was highly congruent with those of the host plant, consistent with the phenomena of ‘parasitic equilibrium’. Our findings on parasite and host microbiota provide a new novel line of evidence supporting the complex interaction of parasitic plants and their hosts.
  9. Mistletoe infested Moringa oleifera and Terminalia catappa leaves supplemented diet enhances antioxidant and insulin-like peptide mRNA levels in Drosophila melanogaster Olubukola H. Oyeniran, Ganiyu Oboh, Adedayo O. Ademiluyi, Haruna I. Umar Food Chemistry: Molecular Sciences, volume 5 Monday 16 January 2023 Moringa and Almond are common plants of medicinal and economic value which are often infested with mistletoe. Host plants’ infestation could result in major differences in their phytoconstituents and biological activities. Thus, effects of mistletoe infestation on Moringa and Almond host plants supplemented diets on mRNA expression levels of Dros... Moringa and Almond are common plants of medicinal and economic value which are often infested with mistletoe. Host plants’ infestation could result in major differences in their phytoconstituents and biological activities. Thus, effects of mistletoe infestation on Moringa and Almond host plants supplemented diets on mRNA expression levels of Drosophila insulin-like peptide-2 (Dilp2), heat shock protein-70 (Hsp70) and superoxide dismutase (Sod) in diabetic-like flies were evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR system. Mistletoe infestation on host leaves caused significant upregulation of Sod and significant downregulation of Hsp70 and Dilp2 genes. Hence, we opined that infestation of Moringa and Almond trees with mistletoe resulted in improved expression level of antioxidant and insulin-like peptide genes. This may be the mechanism by which host plants caused enhanced regulation of circulating glucose and oxidative stress. Therefore, consumption of mistletoe infested Moringa and Almond host leaves could possibly offer better antioxidant and hypoglycemic effects.
  10. In-vitro evaluation of photoprotection, cytotoxicity and phototoxicity of aqueous extracts of Cuscuta campestris and Rosa damascene by MTT method and UV spectroscopy analysis Payam Khazaeli, Atefeh Ameri, Mitra Mehrabani, Morteza Barazvan, Marzieh Sajadi ‎Bami, Behzad Behnam Analytical Methods in Environmental Chemistry Journal, volume 5, pages 55-65 Sunday 15 January 2023 Applying sunscreen is essential for protecting the skin from UV’s acute and chronic effects. Some of these products on the market display side effects and are expensive. There is a great demand for effective, cheap, safe, and herbal sunscreens with a wide range of sun protection activities. This study aimed to evaluate the photoprotection, cytoto... Applying sunscreen is essential for protecting the skin from UV’s acute and chronic effects. Some of these products on the market display side effects and are expensive. There is a great demand for effective, cheap, safe, and herbal sunscreens with a wide range of sun protection activities. This study aimed to evaluate the photoprotection, cytotoxicity, and phototoxicity of aqueous extracts of Cuscuta campestris (CC-AE) and Rosa damascena (RD-AE). The maceration method prepared the CC-AE and RD-AE from the aerial branch. In-vitro photoprotection was evaluated by determining the sun protective factor (SPF) of CC-AE and RD-AE by a UV-visible spectrophotometer. The cytotoxicity and phototoxicity studies were assessed using the MTT assay on 3T3 cells. In the final, the PIF (Photo Inhibitor Factor) was calculated. The SPF values of CC-AE and RD-AE were found at 11.10±0.05 and 1.36±0.04, respectively, at the concentration of 0.2 mg mL-1. The half maximal effective concentration (EC50 ) of CC-AE and RD-AE was obtained at 35.05±0.91 µg mL-1 and 40.7±0.87 µg mL-1, respectively. The phototoxicity analysis showed that CC-AE and RD-AE had low PIF values and were considered as the probable phototoxic. Overall, regarding the considerable SPF and PIFs values plus the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of these extracts, they can be evaluated for further pharmaceutical formulations.
  11. Cuscuta species: Model organisms for haustorium development in stem holoparasitic plants Min Yao Jhu, Neelima R. Sinha Frontiers in Plant Science, volume 13 Sunday 15 January 2023 Parasitic plants are notorious for causing serious agricultural losses in many countries. Specialized intrusive organs, haustoria, confer on parasitic plants the ability to acquire water and nutrients from their host plants. Investigating the mechanism involved in haustorium development not only reveals the fascinating mystery of how autotrophic pl... Parasitic plants are notorious for causing serious agricultural losses in many countries. Specialized intrusive organs, haustoria, confer on parasitic plants the ability to acquire water and nutrients from their host plants. Investigating the mechanism involved in haustorium development not only reveals the fascinating mystery of how autotrophic plants evolved parasitism but also provides the foundation for developing more effective methods to control the agricultural damage caused by parasitic plants. Cuscuta species, also known as dodders, are one of the most well-known and widely spread stem holoparasitic plants. Although progress has been made recently in understanding the evolution and development of haustoria in root parasitic plants, more and more studies indicate that the behaviors between root and stem haustorium formation are distinct, and the mechanisms involved in the formation of these organs remain largely unknown. Unlike most endoparasites and root holoparasitic plants, which have high host-specificity and self- or kin-recognition to avoid forming haustoria on themselves or closely related species, auto-parasitism and hyper-parasitism are commonly observed among Cuscuta species. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of haustorium development in dodders and the unique characteristics of their parasitizing behaviors. We also outline the advantages of using Cuscuta species as model organisms for haustorium development in stem holoparasitic plants, the current unknown mysteries and limitations in the Cuscuta system, and potential future research directions to overcome these challenges.
  12. Antiherbivore effect of Cuscuta campestris against Spodoptera frugiperda Chang Lin Sung, Fang Yu Hu, Yi Li, Shin Fu Tsai, Wen Po Chuang Arthropod-Plant Interactions, volume 17, pages 123-131 Saturday 14 January 2023 Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm; FAW) is a generalist herbivore that has a severe impact on crop production. Due to its wide range of host plants, FAW fitness on weeds was evaluated. Field dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yunck.) is an obligate parasitic plant that severely impacts crop production, and the disposal of C. campestris residue needs to ... Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm; FAW) is a generalist herbivore that has a severe impact on crop production. Due to its wide range of host plants, FAW fitness on weeds was evaluated. Field dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yunck.) is an obligate parasitic plant that severely impacts crop production, and the disposal of C. campestris residue needs to be handled carefully. Therefore, finding an alternative application may be the best method for disposal. In this study, extracts from fresh C. campestris tissues, dried tissues, and seeds were tested for their antiherbivore effect on FAW. The ethanol-based extracts from fresh and dried C. campestris tissues exhibited a lower FAW larval survival rate than the control, while treatment with the ethanol-based C. campestris seed extract had no effect. The extract was heated to characterize the inhibitory substances. The heat treatment did not affect the detrimental impact of the C. campestris extract on the FAW survival rate. In addition, the ethanol-based C. campestris extract had a lower FAW larval survival rate than nonparasitized wedelia [Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Pruski], the host plant of C. campestris. However, parasitized wedelia extract had a similar effect on the FAW survival rate as the C. campestris extract and nonparasitized wedelia extract. This study reveals that C. campestris extract has potential applications as a botanical-based pesticide to control FAW.
  13. Phenotypic Diversity in Pre- and Post-Attachment Resistance to Striga hermonthica in a Core Collection of Rice Germplasms Hiroaki Samejima, Yukihiro Sugimoto Plants, volume 12 Saturday 14 January 2023 In sub-Saharan Africa, upland rice cultivation is expanding into rainfed areas endemic to the root parasitic weed Striga hermonthica. We evaluated the Striga resistance of 69 accessions from the World Rice Core Collection (WRC) to estimate the phenotypic diversity within the Oryza sativa species. Pre-attachment resistance was screened based on the ... In sub-Saharan Africa, upland rice cultivation is expanding into rainfed areas endemic to the root parasitic weed Striga hermonthica. We evaluated the Striga resistance of 69 accessions from the World Rice Core Collection (WRC) to estimate the phenotypic diversity within the Oryza sativa species. Pre-attachment resistance was screened based on the germination-inducing activities of the root exudates, while post-attachment resistance was screened through rhizotron evaluation. The 69 WRC accessions showed a wide variation in both pre- and post-attachment resistance. Root exudates of one accession induced 0.04% germination, and those of some accessions displayed >80% germination. In the evaluation of post-attachment resistance, the successful parasitism percentages ranged from 1.3% to 60.7%. The results of these resistance evaluations were subjected to cluster analysis, which recognized five groups: group I of 27 accessions, with high pre- and post-attachment resistance; group II of 12 accessions, with high post-attachment resistance but moderate pre-attachment resistance; group III of 4 accessions, with low pre-attachment resistance; group IV of 13 accessions, with low post-attachment resistance; and group V of 13 accessions, with low pre- and post-attachment resistance. The wide variation found in the WRC accessions will help to elucidate the genetic factors underpinning pre- and post-attachment resistance.
  14. Phenolic signals for prehaustorium formation in Striga hermonthica Natsumi Aoki, Songkui Cui, Chiharu Ito, Kie Kumaishi, Shungo Kobori, Yasunori Ichihashi, Satoko Yoshida Frontiers in Plant Science, volume 13 Saturday 14 January 2023 Striga hermonthica is a root parasitic plant that causes considerable crop yield losses. To parasitize host plants, parasitic plants develop a specialized organ called the haustorium that functions in host invasion and nutrient absorption. The initiation of a prehaustorium, the primitive haustorium structure before host invasion, requires the perce... Striga hermonthica is a root parasitic plant that causes considerable crop yield losses. To parasitize host plants, parasitic plants develop a specialized organ called the haustorium that functions in host invasion and nutrient absorption. The initiation of a prehaustorium, the primitive haustorium structure before host invasion, requires the perception of host-derived compounds, collectively called haustorium-inducing factors (HIFs). HIFs comprise quinones, phenolics, flavonoids and cytokinins for S. hermonthica; however, the signaling pathways from various HIFs leading to prehaustorium formation remain largely uncharacterized. It has been proposed that quinones serve as direct signaling molecules for prehaustorium induction and phenolic compounds originating from the host cell wall are the oxidative precursors, but the overlap and distinction of their downstream signaling remain unknown. Here we show that quinone and phenolic-triggered prehaustorium induction in S. hermonthica occurs through partially divergent signaling pathways. We found that ASBr, an inhibitor of acetosyringone in virulence gene induction in the soil bacterium Agrobacterium, compromised prehaustorium formation in S. hermonthica. In addition, LGR-991, a competitive inhibitor of cytokinin receptors, inhibited phenolic-triggered but not quinone-triggered prehaustorium formation, demonstrating divergent signaling pathways of phenolics and quinones for prehaustorium formation. Comparisons of genome-wide transcriptional activation in response to either phenolic or quinone-type HIFs revealed markedly distinct gene expression patterns specifically at the early initiation stage. While quinone DMBQ triggered rapid and massive transcriptional changes in genes at early stages, only limited numbers of genes were induced by phenolic syringic acid. The number of genes that are commonly upregulated by DMBQ and syringic acid is gradually increased, and many genes involved in oxidoreduction and cell wall modification are upregulated at the later stages by both HIFs. Our results show kinetic and signaling differences in quinone and phenolic HIFs, providing useful insights for understanding how parasitic plants interpret different host signals for successful parasitism.
  15. Spread of Striga asiatica through suitable climatic conditions: Risk assessment in new areas producing Zea mays in South America Fausto Henrique Vieira Araújo, José Carlos Barbosa dos Santos, Jose Barbosa dos Santos, Alexandre Ferreira da Silva, Rodrigo Soares Ramos, Ricardo Siqueira da Silva, Farzin Shabani Journal of Arid Environments, volume 210 Friday 13 January 2023 Striga asiatica (dicot), an obligate hemiparasitic of monocots, is a potential threat to South America. Determining the ecological factors that explain the occurrence and predicting suitable areas for S. asiatica are fundamental for designing prevention strategies. We developed a Spatio-temporal dynamics model and evaluated Brazil's Weekly Growth I... Striga asiatica (dicot), an obligate hemiparasitic of monocots, is a potential threat to South America. Determining the ecological factors that explain the occurrence and predicting suitable areas for S. asiatica are fundamental for designing prevention strategies. We developed a Spatio-temporal dynamics model and evaluated Brazil's Weekly Growth Index (GIW) for S. asiatica. We analyzed four Brazilian regions (Central-West, South, Southeast, and Northeast) to verify the local seasonal variation of the species in climatic data. Our results indicated areas with favorable climatic suitability for the species in part of South America. Seasonal assessment models showed that high rainfall and the dry and cold periods common in tropical regions affect the GIW for S. asiatica. When we associate periods with maximum rainfall of 53 mm per week and temperature above 20 °C, the GIW approaches the optimal index for the regions evaluated, indicating the influence of soil moisture and air temperature. Our risk assessment indicated that the Southeast and Northeast are at the most significant risk of S. asiatica invasion. Projections for climate change between 2040–2059 showed expansions in areas suitable for S. asiatica compared to the current climate of South America.

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