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International Parasitic Plant Society

Welcome to the homepage of the International Parasitic Plant Society (IPPS). The IPPS is dedicated to advancing scientific research on parasitic plants. Our goals include increasing the understanding of these amazing plants, providing a platform for exchange among and beyond the scientific community as well as helping to decrease the crop damage inflicted by weedy parasitic plants.

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1-Dec-21 Kateřina Knotková (Masaryk University, Czech Republic) – Interactions between parasitic plants and invasive hosts: the experimental evidence
  Emily Bellis (Arkansas State University) – Evolution of parasitic plant-host interactions from gene to continent scales
   
   

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Most Recent ‘Parasitic Plant’ publications

in Google Scholar

  1. Glyphosate-resistant Brassica juncea (oilseed mustard) transgenics for possible control of root parasite Orobanche aegyptiaca and conservation agriculture P Agarwal, A Mukhopadhyay, V Gupta… - Journal of Plant …, 2022 - Springer Monday 24 January 2022 Brassica juncea (mustard) is a major oilseed crop of India grown in around five to six million hectares of land under low moisture availability. In around two million hectares of rain-fed area under mustard cultivation in the states of Rajasthan, Haryana, Madhya …
  2. [PDF][PDF] AKÚTNE ODUMIERANIE DUBOV V EURÓPE (AOD) J Rozkošný, J Galko, M Dzurenko - researchgate.net Saturday 22 January 2022 … This is once again caused by a complex of factors (soil water decifit, oak bark beetle, yellow mistletoe). Another factor in the future could be a disease affecting oaks called Acute oak decline, which is currently spreading throughout Europe. It was recorded for the …
  3. Dynamics of germination stimulants dehydrocostus lactone and costunolide in the root exudates and extracts of sunflower W Wu, H Huang, J Su, X Yun, Y Zhang… - Plant Signaling & …, 2022 - Taylor & Francis Saturday 22 January 2022 … (Orobanche cernua Loefl.) causes severe yield losses of confectionary sunflower in … The root parasitic weed Orobanche cumana Loefl. is a substantial threat to sunflower (… cumana and Orobanche minor Sm. at a very low concentration; however, heliolactone …
  4. [PDF][PDF] Ameliorative Effects of Methanol Extract of Englerina Drummondii (Mistletoe) Leaves On Diabetes Mellitus-Induced Hyperglycaemia and Testicular Dysfunction … OM Adienbo, VO Hart, OM Adienbo - scholar.archive.org Saturday 22 January 2022 Diabetes mellitus affects more than 100 million worldwide, with a soaring prevalence. Prolonged diabetes results in reproductive dysfunction. Mistletoe is widely used in ethnomedicine, including treatment of infertility. This study is aimed at evaluating effect of …
  5. «Sarà via mai striga?»: sorcières de ville au prisme des conventions comiques sur la scène italienne de la Renaissance C Jori - ILCEA. Revue de l'Institut des langues et cultures …, 2022 - journals.openedition.org Friday 21 January 2022 Dans la comédie de la Renaissance italienne, depuis La Cortigiana de 1525 de Pietro Aretino jusqu’à la comédie polyglotte vénitienne de la deuxième moitié du siècle, s’affirme progressivement un type comique et pittoresque aux attributs stéréotypés, la vieille …
  6. [HTML][HTML] Epimedium protects against dyszoospermia in mice with Pex3 knockout by exerting antioxidant effects and regulating the expression level of P16 H Zhao, T Zhao, J Yang, Q Huang, H Wu, Y Pan… - Cell Death & …, 2022 - nature.com Friday 21 January 2022 … Among them, Epimedium, Cuscuta, and Rhodiola have been used in the treatment of infertility for more than 2000 years and are extensively distributed in Asia, Europe, and other areas of the world [22,23,24]. Most related studies have focused on their …
  7. A host‐free transcriptome for haustoriogenesis in Cuscuta campestris: signature gene expression identifies markers of successive development stages T Bawin, J Bruckmüller, S Olsen, K Krause - Physiologia Plantarum - Wiley Online Library Friday 21 January 2022 The development of the infection organ of the parasitic angiosperm genus Cuscuta is a dynamic process that is normally obscured from view as it happens endophytically in its host. We artificially induced haustoriogenesis in C. campestris by far‐red light to define …
  8. [PDF][PDF] Combining Ability Analysis for Striga Tolerance among Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) Inbreds in a Line× Tester Cross GS Balami, AU Izge, MU Sabo, UM Buba, AS Fagam - 2022 - researchgate.net Friday 21 January 2022 … striga. It was also to evaluate the response of pearl millet to Striga hermonthica and identify high yielding genotypes and hybrid under striga … Twenty-nine F1 hybrids and two checks were evaluated under Striga infestation in Bauchi and Maiduguri rainy season in a …
  9. 9 Current Perspectives of Microbial Lipopeptides with Their Advanced Applications for Sustainable Agriculture U Pandya, M Saraf - … Surfactants: Volume 2: Applications in Food …, 2022 - books.google.com Thursday 20 January 2022 Soil borne plant diseases occur in a wide diversity of plants such as vegetables and fruits, ornamental plants, shrubs and trees. The causal agents such as fungi, oomycetes, nematodes, viruses and few parasitic plants are responsible for soil borne plant diseases. …
  10. [HTML][HTML] Integrated management of Striga gesnerioides in cowpea using resistant varieties, improved crop nutrition and rhizobium inoculants WM Abdullahi, M Dianda, O Boukar, I Dieng… - Plant and Soil, 2022 - Springer Thursday 20 January 2022 … Striga counts were the lowest for resistant varieties with no emerged plants. Rhizobial inoculants depressed Striga counts with … Inoculation with IRJ2180A performed the best against Striga attachment in resistant genotypes, and against Striga emergence in …
  11. [PDF][PDF] THE GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF WILD SUNFLOWER SPECIES (HELIANTHUS SPP.) AND INTERSPECIFIC HYBRIDS BASED ON BROOMRAPE … H AKAR, Y KAYA - researchgate.net Wednesday 19 January 2022 … Sunflower broomrape is a parasitic plant that causes yield losses of up to 100% in sunflower in our country, European and Balkan countries. thus, it causes rapid epidemics in sunflower production areas (Kaya, 2003). Ensuring effective and sustainable broomrape …
  12. Orobanche australis Moris ex Bertol. the correct name for O. thapsoides Lojac. (Orobanchaceae) G DOMINA, H UHLICH, G BARONE - Phytotaxa, 2022 - mapress.com Tuesday 18 January 2022 The taxonomic relationships between Orobanche australis and O. thapsoides are analyzed through the study of the original material. These species are also compared with other morphologically similar ones occurring in the Mediterranean (O. canescens, O. …
  13. Axial and radial wood maturation in three mistletoe 'giants'(Loranthaceae) V Sibinelli, G Ceccantini - IAWA Journal, 2022 - brill.com Tuesday 18 January 2022 … of the largest known mistletoe species to … parasitic plants start producing mature wood. We measured vessel element length, fibre length, vessel diameter, and vessel density on multiple points of either very thick or very long branches of three different mistletoe …
  14. Seed germination and seedling emergence in two populations of eastern dodder (Cuscuta monogyna Vahl.): evaluation of environmental factors and burial depth E Ebrahimi, EI Darbandi, MHR Mohassel… - Acta Physiologiae …, 2022 - Springer Sunday 16 January 2022 To compare C. monogyna seed germination and the seedling emergence of two populations from Quchan and Bardaskan in Khorasan-e-Razavi-I province in north east of Iran, experiments were carried out. From the results, the highest germination percentages …
  15. European Mistletoe (Viscum album) Extract Is Cytotoxic to Canine High-Grade Astrocytoma Cells In Vitro and Has Additive Effects with Mebendazole A Wright, R Watanabe, JW Koehler - Veterinary Sciences, 2022 - mdpi.com Sunday 16 January 2022 … to evaluate the effects of mistletoe extract (Viscum … of mistletoe extract alone to obtain an IC50. In separate experiments, cells were exposed to mebendazole at a previously determined IC50 (0.03 µM) alone or in conjunction with varying concentrations of mistletoe …

Most Recent 'Parasitic Plant' publications

in Scopus

  1. Antitumor and hepatoprotective effect of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. in a murine model of colon cancer Shobhit Mishra, Fahad Saad Alhodieb, Md Abul Barkat, Mohd Zaheen Hassan, Harshita Abul Barkat, Raisuddin Ali, Perwaiz Alam, Ozair Alam Journal of Ethnopharmacology, volume 282 Thursday 27 January 2022 Ethnopharmacological relevance: Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (C. reflexa) is a well-known traditional herbal plant, with numerous inherent therapeutic potentials including anticancer, antitumor, antibacterial, analgesic, anthelmintic, laxative and others. Moreover, the anticancer and antitumor potentials of this herb are ongoing with several trails, thus ... Ethnopharmacological relevance: Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (C. reflexa) is a well-known traditional herbal plant, with numerous inherent therapeutic potentials including anticancer, antitumor, antibacterial, analgesic, anthelmintic, laxative and others. Moreover, the anticancer and antitumor potentials of this herb are ongoing with several trails, thus an attempt was made to assess the anticancer and hepatoprotective potentials of traditional C. reflexa herbs. Method: The dried ethanolic extract of C. reflexa was tested for acute oral toxicity in the treated animals subsequently their behavioral, neurological, and autonomic profiles changes were observed. The preliminary anti-cancer effects of extracts against 1, 2- Dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) induced animals were assessed through barium enema X-ray, colonoscopy, and Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) studies. The blood samples of the animals (treated and untreated) were collected and their in-vitro histological parameters were evaluated by the experienced technician. Results: It was observed that C. reflexa significantly reduced Disease activity indexing (DAI) level and ACF counting, as well as demonstrated similar activity as of the standard drug 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). Histopathological results revealed that the apoptotic bodies decreased in the DMH-induced group (group II) during cancer progression while in 5-FU treated (group III) and C. reflexa treated (group IV and V) animals the apoptotic bodies were increased. Inversely, the mitotic bodies increased in group II animals and reduced in group III, IV, and V animals. In the colonic section, DMH-induced cancer assay exhibited significant effects on the levels of hemoglobin, Packed cell volume (PCV), Red blood cell (RBC) counts, Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and Mean cell hemoglobin (MCH), and was found to be less in group II animals whereas administration of C. reflexa efficiently recovered back the loss probably by healing the colon damage/depletion of cancer progression. Moreover, compared to the group II animals, the neutrophil count was within the normal range in C. reflexa administered group. Conclusions: In the present study, the major hematological parameters significantly increased within DMH treated animals and exhibited extensive damage in the hepatic regions. Moreover, the histopathological findings demonstrated that the C. reflexa extracts potentially reduced the cell proliferation, with no toxicity. The C. reflexa extracts exhibited impending anti-cancer activity as well as protected the hepatic cells and thus could be potentially used in the management of colon or colorectal cancer and hepatic impairments.
  2. Integrated management of Striga gesnerioides in cowpea using resistant varieties, improved crop nutrition and rhizobium inoculants Wajiha M. Abdullahi, Mahamadi Dianda, Ousmane Boukar, Ibnou Dieng, Gaya S. Mohammed, Nouhoun Belko, Abou Togola, Hayat Muhammad, Fred Kanampiu, Ken E. Giller, Bernard Vanlauwe Plant and Soil Thursday 27 January 2022 Background: Cowpea is a grain legume of major importance in sub-Saharan Africa where it is cultivated by smallholder farmers on poor soils and production is often constrained by the parasitic weed Striga gesnerioides. Method: Experiments were conducted to assess the potential of rhizobium inoculation to mitigate Striga infection and increase cowpea... Background: Cowpea is a grain legume of major importance in sub-Saharan Africa where it is cultivated by smallholder farmers on poor soils and production is often constrained by the parasitic weed Striga gesnerioides. Method: Experiments were conducted to assess the potential of rhizobium inoculation to mitigate Striga infection and increase cowpea productivity. We infested soils with S. gesnerioides and assessed the impact of treatments combining cowpea genotypes and bradyrhizobium inoculation on Striga dynamics and cowpea yield. In total, 20 cowpea genotypes were included, of which nine were resistant to Striga and 11 were susceptible. In the first experiment these were factorially combined with three inoculation options (two bradyrhizobium strains USDA3384 and IRJ2180A, and uninoculated control) in a screen-house using potted sterile soils. Second, the same trial was repeated in the field with basal phosphorus applied at sowing and a fourth treatment of fertilizer-N (urea) included testing whether N was limiting cowpea growth. The field trial also included a separate treatment with no input that served as a negative check. Result: Significant genotype x treatment interactions were observed in nodule counts, Striga attachment, emergence, and cowpea shoot growth in the screen-house. There were few nodules across all cowpea lines. Striga counts were the lowest for resistant varieties with no emerged plants. Rhizobial inoculants depressed Striga counts with consistent differences across cowpea genotypes. Inoculation with IRJ2180A performed the best against Striga attachment in resistant genotypes, and against Striga emergence in susceptible genotypes. In the field trial, cowpea grown without inputs had the least number of nodules. The genotype x treatment interaction was significant: resistant cowpea genotypes were free of emerged Striga while there was much more Striga emergence without input addition with susceptible genotypes. A significant genotype x treatment interaction was observed on cowpea grain yield. Yield response to inoculation was clearest with resistant genotypes inoculated with the strain IRJ2180A. Conclusion: The integrated use of Striga-resistant cowpea lines, basal phosphorus fertilizer and elite bradyrhizobium inoculants is a promising approach to mitigate Striga infection and increase cowpea productivity.
  3. Geographical context outweighs habitat disturbance effects in explaining mistletoe population genetic differentiation at a regional scale Francisco E. Fontúrbel, Gloria B. Rodríguez-Gómez, José I. Orellana, Jorge Cortés-Miranda, Noemí Rojas-Hernández, Caren Vega-Retter Molecular Ecology Thursday 27 January 2022 Genetic differentiation depends on ecological and evolutionary processes that operate at different spatial and temporal scales. While the geographical context is likely to determine large-scale genetic variation patterns, habitat disturbance events will probably influence small-scale genetic diversity and gene flow patterns. Therefore, the genetic ... Genetic differentiation depends on ecological and evolutionary processes that operate at different spatial and temporal scales. While the geographical context is likely to determine large-scale genetic variation patterns, habitat disturbance events will probably influence small-scale genetic diversity and gene flow patterns. Therefore, the genetic diversity patterns that we observe today result from the combination of both processes, but they are rarely assessed simultaneously. We determined the population structure and genetic diversity of a hemiparasitic mistletoe (Tristerix corymbosus) from the temperate rainforests of southern Chile to determine the effects of geographical context and habitat disturbance at a regional scale and if it is affected by the abundance and occurrence of its seed disperser mutualist (the arboreal marsupial Dromiciops gliroides). We genotyped 359 individuals from 12 populations using single nucleotide polymorphisms, across three different geographical contexts and four disturbance conditions. We also used camera traps to estimate the abundance and occurrence of the seed disperser. Our results suggest that genetic differences among populations are related more to geographical context than to habitat disturbance. However, as disturbance increased, D. gliroides abundance and occurrence decreased, and mistletoe inbreeding index (FIS) increased. We also found highly uneven gene flow among study sites. Despite the high levels of disturbance that these temperate rainforests are facing, our results suggest that mistletoe genetic differentiation at a regional scale was more influenced by historical events. However, habitat disturbance can indirectly affect mistletoe population genetic differentiation via the seed dispersal process, which may increase levels of inbreeding.
  4. Evaluation of immunomodulatory and antioxidants properties of Kwath, conventional extracts in plants Cocculus hirsutus and Cuscuta reflexa – in vitro & ex vivo studies Anita Singh, Vandana Singh, R. Ananthan, B. Dinesh Kumar Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine, volume 13 Wednesday 26 January 2022 Introduction: The consumption of ‘Patalagarudi’ (Cocculus hirsutus ‘CHP’) and ‘Amarbel’ (Cuscuta reflexa ‘CRA’) as ethnic plants for health promotions rarely validated. The limited literature reported these plants as antioxidant and immunomodulators. Objective: To evaluate the biodynamic properties of CHP and CRA extracts. Methodolo... Introduction: The consumption of ‘Patalagarudi’ (Cocculus hirsutus ‘CHP’) and ‘Amarbel’ (Cuscuta reflexa ‘CRA’) as ethnic plants for health promotions rarely validated. The limited literature reported these plants as antioxidant and immunomodulators. Objective: To evaluate the biodynamic properties of CHP and CRA extracts. Methodology: The traditional formulation, ‘Kwath’ (K) and conventional extracts were prepared with CRA and CHP. The total phenolic content (TPC) was estimated. Various polyphenol compounds in the extracts were eluted on UHPLC. The biodynamic activities; i. Free radical scavenging (FRS-DPPH and ABTS), ii. Intracellular ROS scavenging activity in RAW 264.7 cell line iii. Spleenocytes proliferation assay for Th1/Th2 Immunomodulatory potential by flow-cytometer were assessed. Results: The TPC in CRA (105–159 μg GAE/mg) and CHP (35–48 μg GAE/mg) recorded. The chromatographic peaks confirmed the presence of polyphenols in CRA and CHP extracts. UV spectra of the extracts to the extent possible have been correlated with certain polyphenols. The FRS (IC50) was significantly low in CRA-K (DPPH = 22.7; ABTS = 12.0 μg/ml) than CHP-K (DPPH = 70.4; ABTS = 50.2 μg/ml). Similarly, intracellular ROS scavenging activity with CRA-K (84%) showed the highest inhibitory potential compared to CHP-K (50%) and LPS control. The immunomodulatory activity of CRA-K significantly upregulated TH1 cytokines (TNFα and IFN-γ). The downregulation of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) was in all CRA and CHP extracts as compared to Con A. Conclusion: The current study confirms the immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties of CRA and CHP along with the presence of polyphenols.
  5. The classification of dwarf mistletoes (Arceuthobium spp., viscaceae) in section campylopoda, series campylopoda Robert L. Mathiasen, Shawn C. Kenaley Botany, volume 100, pages 1-31 Tuesday 25 January 2022 The taxonomic classification of dwarf mistletoes (Arceuthobium spp., Viscaceae) is complicated due to their reduced morphology, requiring the integration of not only morphology but also phenology, geography, and host relationships. This has been particularly true for the classification of taxa in subgenus Vaginata, section Campylopoda, series Campy... The taxonomic classification of dwarf mistletoes (Arceuthobium spp., Viscaceae) is complicated due to their reduced morphology, requiring the integration of not only morphology but also phenology, geography, and host relationships. This has been particularly true for the classification of taxa in subgenus Vaginata, section Campylopoda, series Campylopoda. Most of the species in this group have been recently circumscribed in synonymy with or reduced to subspecies of Arceuthobium campylopodum Engelm; however, we contend they deserve separate species recognition. To address this question, we have conducted morphological analyses of the taxa in ser. Campylopoda using univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Our results have demonstrated that these taxa can be determined to species using morphological data without consideration of geographic location or host specificity; however, the host specialization and geographic distribution exhibited by these taxa also supports their classification as species. Here, we discuss the evidence supporting the specific classification of ser. Campylopoda taxa. This taxonomic framework permits the treatment of several dwarf mistletoe populations with geographically restricted distributions, fewer morphological differences, and specialized host affinities as subspecies of Arceuthobium abietinum (Engelm.) Abrams, Arceuthobium microcarpum (Engelm.) Hawksw. & Wiens, and Arceuthobium tsugense (Rosend.) G.N.Jones. It is also the most practical classification for the management of these economically and ecologically important parasitic plants.
  6. Seed germination and seedling emergence in two populations of eastern dodder (Cuscuta monogyna Vahl.): evaluation of environmental factors and burial depth Esmail Ebrahimi, Ebrahim Izadi Darbandi, Mohammad Hassan Rashed Mohassel, Reza Tavakol Afshari Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, volume 44 Monday 24 January 2022 ... To compare C. monogyna seed germination and the seedling emergence of two populations from Quchan and Bardaskan in Khorasan-e-Razavi-I province in north east of Iran, experiments were carried out. From the results, the highest germination percentages for Quchan (98%) and Bardaskan (97%) populations were observed at alternating 25/15 and 30/20 °C day/night temperatures, respectively. Germination percentage of both populations was 42–92% over a wide range of constant temperatures (10–35 °C). The NaCl concentration of 399.5 and 443.6 mM caused 50% inhibition of germination for Quchan and Bardaskan populations, respectively. The osmotic potential for 50% inhibition of germination was − 0.63 for Quchan and − 0.66 MPa for Bardaskan populations. The maximum emergence of Quchan (74%) and Bardaskan (80%) populations were recorded in the seeds placed at 0.5 cm with emergence failure at 5 cm soil depth. In another experiment in which seeds were after-ripened at different depths of soil in the field, seed germination was lower on the soil surface and 20 cm soil depth compared to 2, 5, 10 and 15 cm depth; and the highest seed emergence in the field was observed at 5 cm soil depth, 270 days after seed burial. The information of this study would be useful for determining the potential of this parasitic species to spread to new areas and arrange management strategies in different environmental conditions.
  7. Mobile host mrnas are translated to protein in the associated parasitic plant cuscuta campestris So Yon Park, Kohki Shimizu, Jocelyn Brown, Koh Aoki, James H. Westwood Plants, volume 11 Monday 24 January 2022 Cuscuta spp. are obligate parasites that connect to host vascular tissue using a haustorium. In addition to water, nutrients, and metabolites, a large number of mRNAs are bidirectionally exchanged between Cuscuta spp. and their hosts. This trans-specific movement of mRNAs raises questions about whether these molecules function in the recipient spec... Cuscuta spp. are obligate parasites that connect to host vascular tissue using a haustorium. In addition to water, nutrients, and metabolites, a large number of mRNAs are bidirectionally exchanged between Cuscuta spp. and their hosts. This trans-specific movement of mRNAs raises questions about whether these molecules function in the recipient species. To address the possibility that mobile mRNAs are ultimately translated, we built upon recent studies that demonstrate a role for transfer RNA (tRNA)-like structures (TLSs) in enhancing mRNA systemic movement. C. campestris was grown on Arabidopsis that expressed a β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter transgene either alone or in GUS-tRNA fusions. Histochemical staining revealed localization in tissue of C. campestris grown on Arabidopsis with GUS-tRNA fusions, but not in C. campestris grown on Arabidopsis with GUS alone. This corresponded with detection of GUS transcripts in Cuscuta on Arabidopsis with GUS-tRNA, but not in C. campestris on Arabidopsis with GUS alone. Similar results were obtained with Arabidopsis host plants expressing the same constructs containing an endoplasmic reticulum localization signal. In C. campestris, GUS activity was localized in the companion cells or phloem parenchyma cells adjacent to sieve tubes. We conclude that host-derived GUS mRNAs are translated in C. campestris and that the TLS fusion enhances RNA mobility in the host-parasite interactions.
  8. Diversity of mistletoes and their distribution in Dramaga Campus, West Java, Indonesia S. Wahyuningtias, A. Mardiastuti, Y. A. Mulyani IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, volume 948 Sunday 23 January 2022 Mistletoes are flowering plants in the Santalales order that parasitize the branches of trees and shrubs. The objective of this research was to reveal the diversity of mistletoe species and record their distribution within this study site. The study site was Dramaga Campus (240 ha), which consisted of a mosaic of tree plantation, experimental field... Mistletoes are flowering plants in the Santalales order that parasitize the branches of trees and shrubs. The objective of this research was to reveal the diversity of mistletoe species and record their distribution within this study site. The study site was Dramaga Campus (240 ha), which consisted of a mosaic of tree plantation, experimental fields, buildings, and a housing complex. Field research was conducted in February-March 2021 by censusing all mistletoes, their distribution, and plant species parasitized by the mistletoes. There were 351 individual mistletoes found, consisted of 5 species: Dendrophthtoepentandra (55.2%), Viscum ovalifolium (32.3%), Scurrula atropurpurea (9.1%), Macrosolen chochinchinensis (2.8%), and Viscum articulatum (0.6%). These mistletoes were found mostly on branches or twigs (99.1%) and few on trunks (0.9%) of 49 tree species (25 families) having an average height of 14.9 4.2m, and diameter 34.11 22.22cm. Tree species frequently parasitized were Falcataria moluccana (32.8%), followed by Samanea saman (12.5%), and Averrhoa carambola (7.7%). Most mistletoes were found in the open area (99.1%), including on trees between/among buildings and along roads/streets, mainly on the south and southeast part of the campus. The mistletoe attacked in this research location was included in the low category (79.4%).
  9. Elicitation of submerged adventitious root cultures of stevia rebaudiana with cuscuta reflexa for production of biomass and secondary metabolites Nisar Ahmad, Palwasha Khan, Abdullah Khan, Maliha Usman, Mohammad Ali, Hina Fazal, Durrishahwar, Muhammad Nazir Uddin, Christophe Hano, Bilal Haider Abbasi Molecules, volume 27 Saturday 22 January 2022 Stevia rebaudiana is an important medicinal plant that belongs to the Asteraceae family. The leaves of Stevia rebaudiana are a rich source of many health-promoting agents such as polyphenols, flavonoids, and steviol glycoside, which play a key role in controlling obesity and diabetes. New strategies such as the elicitation of culture media are need... Stevia rebaudiana is an important medicinal plant that belongs to the Asteraceae family. The leaves of Stevia rebaudiana are a rich source of many health-promoting agents such as polyphenols, flavonoids, and steviol glycoside, which play a key role in controlling obesity and diabetes. New strategies such as the elicitation of culture media are needed to enhance the productivity of active components. Herein, the Cuscuta reflexa extracts were exploited as elicitors to enhance the productivity of active components. Cuscuta reflexa is one of the parasitic plants that has the ability to elongate very fast and cover the host plant. Consequently, it may be possible that the addition of Cuscuta reflexa extracts to adventitious root cultures (ADR) of Stevia rebaudiana may elongate the root more than control cultures to produce higher quantities of the desired secondary metabolites. Therefore, the main objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of Cuscuta reflexa extract as a biotic elicitor on the biomass accumulation and production of antioxidant secondary metabolite in submerged adventitious root cultures of Stevia rebaudiana. Ten different concentrations of Cuscuta reflexa were added to liquid media containing 0.5 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). The growth kinetics of adventitious roots was investigated for a period of 49 days with an interval of 7 days. The maximum biomass accumulation (7.83 g/3 flasks) was observed on medium containing 10 mg/L extract of Cuscuta reflexa on day 49. As the concentration of extract increases in the culture media, the biomass gradually decreases after 49 days of inoculation. In this study, the higher total phenolics content (0.31 mg GAE/g-DW), total flavonoids content (0.22 mg QE/g-DW), and antioxidant activity (85.54%) were observed in 100 mg/L treated cultures. The higher concentration (100 mg/L) of Cuscuta reflexa extract considerably increased the total phenolics content (TPC), total phenolics production (TPP), total flavonoids content (TFC), total flavonoids production (TFP), total polyphenolics content (TPPC), and total polyphenolics production (TPPP). It was concluded that the extract of Cuscuta reflexa moderately improved biomass accumulation but enhanced the synthesis of phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant activities. Here, biomass’s independent production of secondary metabolites was observed with the addition of extract. The present study will be helpful to scale up adventitious roots culture into a bioreactor for the production of secondary metabolites rather than biomass accumulation in medicinally important Stevia rebaudiana.
  10. Diverse RNA viruses in a parasitic flowering plant (spruce dwarf mistletoe) revealed through RNA-seq data mining Venkidusamy Kavi Sidharthan, Krishna Kumar Chaturvedi, Virendra Kumar Baranwal Journal of General Plant Pathology Friday 21 January 2022 Spruce dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium sichuanense) is an important vascular parasite of spruce. In this study of the virome of A. sichuanense parasitizing Picea crassifolia using public domain RNA-seq datasets, potential coding-complete genomes or segments of seven putative novel RNA viruses (Arceuthobium sichuanense-associated virus 1–7: ASaV1–... Spruce dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium sichuanense) is an important vascular parasite of spruce. In this study of the virome of A. sichuanense parasitizing Picea crassifolia using public domain RNA-seq datasets, potential coding-complete genomes or segments of seven putative novel RNA viruses (Arceuthobium sichuanense-associated virus 1–7: ASaV1–7) were identified. ASaV1, a putative emaravirus, contained five genomic segments with one open reading frame (ORF) in each, while ASaV2, a putative varicosavirus, had two segments. ASaV3 genome resembled that of an unusual plant virus- Dactylorhiza hatagirea beny-like virus. ASaV4, a putative amalgavirus contained two ORFs, while ASaV5–7 are putative deltapartitiviruses with one ORF per segment.
  11. Bidirectional lncRNA Transfer between Cuscuta Parasites and Their Host Plant Yuguo Wu, Dong Luo, Longfa Fang, Qiang Zhou, Wenxian Liu, Zhipeng Liu International Journal of Molecular Sciences, volume 23 Friday 21 January 2022 Dodder species (Cuscuta spp.) are holoparasites that have extensive material exchange with their host plants through vascular connections. Recent studies on cross-species transfer have provided breakthrough insights, but little is known about the interaction mechanisms of the inter-plant mobile substances in parasitic systems. We sequenced the tran... Dodder species (Cuscuta spp.) are holoparasites that have extensive material exchange with their host plants through vascular connections. Recent studies on cross-species transfer have provided breakthrough insights, but little is known about the interaction mechanisms of the inter-plant mobile substances in parasitic systems. We sequenced the transcriptomes of dodder growing on soybean hosts to characterize the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) transfer between the two species, and found that lncRNAs can move in high numbers (365 dodder lncRNAs and 14 soybean lncRNAs) in a bidirectional manner. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction further confirmed that individual lncRNAs were trafficked in the dodder–soybean parasitic system. To reveal the potential functions of mobile transcripts, the Gene Ontology terms of mobile lncRNA target genes were predicted, and mobile dodder target genes were found to be mainly enriched in “metabolic process”, “catalytic activity”, “signaling”, and “response to stimulus” categories, whereas mobile soybean target genes were enriched in organelle-related categories, indicating that specific mobile lncRNAs may be important in regulating dodder parasitism. Our findings reveal that lncRNAs are transferred between dodder and its host soybean plants, which may act as critical regulators to coordinate the host–dodder interaction at the whole parasitic level.
  12. Profiling mistletoe therapy research and identifying evidence gaps: A systematic review of conditions treated, mode of application and outcomes Q. Chen, F. Wright, L. J. Duncan, A. L. Huntley European Journal of Integrative Medicine, volume 49 Friday 21 January 2022 Introduction: Mistletoe has been used as a medicine since prehistoric times. Modern Western herbal practice continues to use mistletoe. This systematic review aimed to profile mistletoe therapy in research studies and to understand the gaps in the evidence to inform future research. Methods: We used standard systematic review methodology, searching... Introduction: Mistletoe has been used as a medicine since prehistoric times. Modern Western herbal practice continues to use mistletoe. This systematic review aimed to profile mistletoe therapy in research studies and to understand the gaps in the evidence to inform future research. Methods: We used standard systematic review methodology, searching three databases (Medline, Central and Anthromed) from inception to June 2020. Results: The search identified 31 relevant trials, and 10 systematic reviews published between 1996 -2020. These trials comprised 14 randomised controlled trials, 15 controlled trials and 2 cohort studies. The most common country for monocentric trials was Germany. Most of the trials declared direct or indirect financial support from companies that produce mistletoe products. All the included trials involved cancer patients, with breast cancer being the most common condition treated (n = 10). Subcutaneous injections were the most common route of administration (27/31). Quality of life was the most reported outcome. Quality appraisal of the individual trials shows that there was a lack of reporting on blinding of participants and blinding of assessors. A third of the trials did not adequately describe how they dealt with incomplete data. Recent published systematic reviews do not concur on the efficacy of mistletoe and patients’ quality of life; with the risk of bias of these publications being rated as ‘unclear’ overall. There were insufficient data to conduct a novel meta-analysis on mistletoe therapy efficacy. Conclusion: This systematic review identified gaps in mistletoe research for improving the evidence base for mistletoe therapy in supportive cancer care.
  13. Discrimination of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. and Cuscuta japonica Choisy based on a combination of chemometrics and fingerprint classification Xiaoran Zhao, Ziying Qiu, Meiqi Liu, Jiajia Mou, Lili Sun, Xiaoliang Ren, Yanru Deng Journal of Liquid Chromatography and Related Technologies Thursday 20 January 2022 Cuscuta chinensis Lam. is a medicinal herb widely used in Chinese medicine. However, it is often replaced illegally with extracts of Cuscuta japonica Choisy. Thus, there is a need to be able to distinguish between samples from these two species. In this study, a combination of chemical HPLC fingerprinting and chemometrics was used to compare and id... Cuscuta chinensis Lam. is a medicinal herb widely used in Chinese medicine. However, it is often replaced illegally with extracts of Cuscuta japonica Choisy. Thus, there is a need to be able to distinguish between samples from these two species. In this study, a combination of chemical HPLC fingerprinting and chemometrics was used to compare and identify samples of C. chinensis and C. japonica. The chemical composition of the samples was determined by HPLC fingerprinting. These results were then analyzed with chemometrics, namely hierarchical clustering analysis, and principal component analysis, both of which clearly distinguished between the two different herbal medicines. In addition, the partial least squares discriminant analysis model was selected for verification, given that it showed a stronger ability to predict the source of new samples. Ultimately, chemical markers were screened out using a Variable Importance Projection map. The results also indicated that flavonoids and organic acids have an important role in the discrimination of C. chinensis and C. japonica, which will be of relevance for determining the drug safety and quality control of herbal medicines containing C. chinensis.
  14. The pattern of germination of teak mistletoe seeds in relation with parasitism Z. Muttaqin, W. B. Sri, W. Basuki, I. Z. Siregar, Corryanti IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, volume 918 Thursday 20 January 2022 The objectives of this research are to test the initial viability and germination pattern of teak mistletoe seeds, namely Dendrophthoe pentandra and Macrosolen tetragonus in associated with parasitism. Research results showed that the pattern of D. pentandra germination was different from that of M. tetragonus. The germination process of D. pentand... The objectives of this research are to test the initial viability and germination pattern of teak mistletoe seeds, namely Dendrophthoe pentandra and Macrosolen tetragonus in associated with parasitism. Research results showed that the pattern of D. pentandra germination was different from that of M. tetragonus. The germination process of D. pentandra showed incomplete development of germination morphology, marked by an absence of development or growth of hypocotyl and cotyledon. Parasitism was more dominant in D. pentandra, supported by the fact that the sum of mean germination day (RH) in the stem of teak seedling was faster (17.54±2.77 days), as compared with that of M. tetragonus (35.13±1.76 days), although mortality of M. tetragonus seedlings was very low (±3%), whereas that of D. pentandra was fairly high (±34%). It was related to the life cycle of M. tetragonus, which was longer than that of D. pentandra. In the attachment of seeds in the standing tree stems, it was proven that the germination percentage (%K) of D. pentandra (38.5%) was higher than that of M. tetragonus (11.1%). Seed germination of D. pentandra from bird feces also showed that %K (46.4%) was higher than seed attachment in tree stem, including M. tetragonus. It was supposed that there was a correlation between the easiness of germination and parasitism character in teak mistletoes. It was considered that parasitism of D. pentandra was more prominent than that of M. tetragonus in a teak host.
  15. The gene space of European mistletoe (Viscum album) Lucie Schröder, Natalija Hohnjec, Michael Senkler, Jennifer Senkler, Helge Küster, Hans Peter Braun Plant Journal, volume 109, pages 278-294 Tuesday 18 January 2022 European mistletoe (Viscum album) is a hemiparasitic flowering plant that is known for its very special life cycle and extraordinary biochemical properties. Particularly, V. album has an unusual mode of cellular respiration that takes place in the absence of mitochondrial complex I. However, insights into the molecular biology of V. album so far ar... European mistletoe (Viscum album) is a hemiparasitic flowering plant that is known for its very special life cycle and extraordinary biochemical properties. Particularly, V. album has an unusual mode of cellular respiration that takes place in the absence of mitochondrial complex I. However, insights into the molecular biology of V. album so far are very limited. Since the genome of V. album is extremely large (estimated 600 times larger than the genome of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana) it has not been sequenced up to now. We here report sequencing of the V. album gene space (defined as the space including and surrounding genic regions, encompassing coding as well as 5′ and 3′ non-coding regions). mRNA fractions were isolated from different V. album organs harvested in summer or winter and were analyzed via single-molecule real-time sequencing. We determined sequences of 39 092 distinct open reading frames encoding 32 064 V. album proteins (designated V. album protein space). Our data give new insights into the metabolism and molecular biology of V. album, including the biosynthesis of lectins and viscotoxins. The benefits of the V. album gene space information are demonstrated by re-evaluating mass spectrometry-based data of the V. album mitochondrial proteome, which previously had been evaluated using the A. thaliana genome sequence. Our re-examination allowed the additional identification of nearly 200 mitochondrial proteins, including four proteins related to complex I, which all have a secondary function not related to respiratory electron transport. The V. album gene space sequences are available at the NCBI.

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