International Parasitic Plant Society

Welcome to the homepage of the International Parasitic Plant Society (IPPS). The IPPS is dedicated to advancing scientific research on parasitic plants. Our goals include increasing the understanding of these amazing plants, providing a platform for exchange among and beyond the scientific community as well as helping to decrease the crop damage inflicted by weedy parasitic plants.

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Most recent ‘Parasitic Plant’ publications

on the Web

he Effects of Soil Treatments and Yellow Rattle on the Soil Properties of Newly Established Meadows L Blair - 2024 - helda.helsinki.fi Thursday 13 June 2024 Meadows at Lammi biological stations, there is evidence that soil properties do change as a result of different soil treatments and the introduction of a hemi-parasitic plant. domain : helda.helsinki.fi
Chemical composition, pharmacological effects, and parasitic mechanisms of Cistanche deserticola: An update S Zhang, Y Ma, J Chen, M Yu, Q Zhao, B Jing, N Yang… - Phytomedicine, 2024 - Elsevier Saturday 08 June 2024 Furthermore, as a unique parasitic plant, the current research on its parasitic mechanisms is limited, hampering efforts to enhance both its medicinal composition and domain : www.sciencedirect.com
Parasitic Plants—Potential Vectors of Phytopathogens S Savov, B Marinova, D Teofanova, M Savov… - Pathogens, 2024 - mdpi.com Saturday 08 June 2024 Parasitic plants are dangerous pathogens on their own. Probably the most devastating are the members of the Striga in the very early stages of Striga infection [19]. This domain : www.mdpi.com
Screened of Genestein in Mistletoe as a Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq Growthup in Lancium domesticum M Lazuardi - Konferensi Ilmiah Veteriner Nasional (KIVNAS) XX, 2024 - conference.ipb.ac.id Friday 07 June 2024 It was also known that the leaves of parasitic plants known as mistletoe which have been known to be efficacious against reproductive organs as androgenic were benalu domain : conference.ipb.ac.id
aize yields have stagnated in sub-Sahara Africa: a possible transgenic solution to weed, pathogen and insect constraints J Gressel, P Mbogo, F Kanampiu… - Pest management … - pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov Thursday 06 June 2024 Despite major breeding efforts by various national and international agencies, yields for the ~40 million hectares of maize, the major food crop in sub-Saharan Africa, have domain : pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Application E de processus modélisé dans PHERASYS - hal.science Wednesday 05 June 2024 Modlisation des effets des systmes de culture sur la dynamique de lorobanche rameuse en interaction avec les adventices. 23. Confrence du COLUMA - Journes domain : hal.science
he Physiological Impacts of Nanoparticle Size, Morphology, and Concentration on the Phytopathogens Causing Plant Biotic Stress K Sayed-Ahmed, YM Shabana - Nanoparticles in Plant Biotic Stress …, 2024 - Springer Wednesday 05 June 2024 This chapter focuses on the mechanisms of nanoparticles (NPs) against various phytopathogens (PHPs) responsible for plant biotic stress. Several environmental factors domain : link.springer.com versions : 2
Uji Aktivitas Antioksidan Ekstrak Etanol Daun Benalu Jeruk (Dendrophthoe glabrescens (Blakely) Barlow) dengan Metode DPPH (2, 2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl) NKA Widyantari, NPMA Arthana… - Indonesian Journal of …, 2024 - ejurnal.ung.ac.id Tuesday 04 June 2024 Benalu is a parasitic plant that requires a host to live and grow. Benalu leaves have long been used for the treatment of several diseases such as coughs, cancer, domain : ejurnal.ung.ac.id
Sunflower Broomrape (Wallr.) and Weeds in Sunflower Crops with Minimized Tillage in a Steppe Ecotype Crop Rotation S Shevchenko, K Derevenets-Shevchenko… - Ekológia …, 2024 - sciendo.com Tuesday 04 June 2024 Broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.). Weed control measures and the spread of the parasitic weed sunflower broomrape in The highest degree of sunflower broomrape domain : sciendo.com
iology of Hemiparasitic Rhinanthus Species in the Context of Grassland Biodiversity G Ievinsh - Land, 2024 - mdpi.com Monday 03 June 2024 Knowledge about the complex effects of parasitic plants on ecosystems. parasitic plants that are economically important weeds (such as Striga, Orobanche, Phelipanche), domain : www.mdpi.com versions : 2
arasitic Plants—Potential Vectors of Phytopathogens S Savov, B Marinova, D Teofanova, M Savov… - Pathogens, 2024 - mdpi.com Sunday 02 June 2024 Parasitic plants are dangerous pathogens on their own. Probably the most devastating are the members of the Striga in the very early stages of Striga infection [19]. This domain : www.mdpi.com
Exploring the biochemical dynamics in faba bean (Vicia faba L. minor) in response to Orobanche foetida Poir. parasitism under inoculation with different rhizobia … M Bouraoui, Z Abbes, B L'taief, MO Alshaharni, N Abdi… - PloS one, 2024 - journals.plos.org Saturday 01 June 2024 In Tunisia, Orobanche foetida Poir. is considered an important agricultural biotic constraint on faba bean (Vicia faba L.) production. An innovative control method for domain : journals.plos.org versions : 2
Технология первичного семеноводства крупноплодного заразихоустойчивого сорта подсолнечника Казак ВИ Хатнянский, АА Децына… - Масличные …, 2024 - cyberleninka.ru Friday 31 May 2024 Economically useful traits of broomrape-resistant confectionery sunflower in of broomrape-resistant sunflower varieties is the usage of a plots infected with broom-rape domain : cyberleninka.ru
Сбор гербологического материала в Гонконге ЮЮ Кулакова, ВГ Кулаков - Фитосанитария. Карантин …, 2024 - phytosanitary.vniikr.ru Thursday 30 May 2024 : Bidens pilosa L., Bidens bipinnata L., Ipomoea hederacea Jacq., Cuscuta sp., Striga domain : phytosanitary.vniikr.ru
rone-based multispectral imaging and deep learning for timely detection of branched broomrape in tomato farms M Narimani, A Pourreza, A Moghimi… - … Air and Ground …, 2024 - spiedigitallibrary.org Thursday 30 May 2024 Threat of branched broomrape (Phelipanche ramosa) to The research was conducted on a known broomrape- growth stage at which broomrape could be detected domain : www.spiedigitallibrary.org

Most recent 'Parasitic Plant' publications

in Scopus

  1. Exploring the Wound Healing Potential of a Cuscuta chinensis Extract-Loaded Nanoemulsion-Based Gel Nichcha Nitthikan, Weeraya Preedalikit, Kanittapon Supadej, Siripat Chaichit, Pimporn Leelapornpisid, Kanokwan Kiattisin Pharmaceutics, volume 16 Friday 14 June 2024 Cuscuta chinensis (C. chinensis) presents many pharmacological activities, including antidiabetic effects, and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor properties. However, the wound care properties of this plant have not yet been reported. Therefore, this research aimed to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial activit... Cuscuta chinensis (C. chinensis) presents many pharmacological activities, including antidiabetic effects, and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor properties. However, the wound care properties of this plant have not yet been reported. Therefore, this research aimed to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial activities of ethanol and ethyl acetate C. chinensis extracts. The phytochemical markers in the extracts were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Then, the selected C. chinensis extract was developed into a nanoemulsion-based gel for wound care testing in rats. The results showed that both of the C. chinensis extracts exhibited antioxidant activity when tested using 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. They reduced the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in RAW264.7 cells induced with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The ethyl acetate extract also had antibacterial properties. Kaempferol was found in both extracts, whereas hyperoside was found only in the ethanol extract. These compounds were found to be related to the biological activities of the extracts, confirmed via molecular docking. The C. chinensis extract-loaded nanoemulsions had a small particle size, a narrow polydispersity index (PDI), and good stability. Furthermore, the C. chinensis extract-loaded nanoemulsion-based gel had a positive effect on wound healing, presenting a better percentage wound contraction Fucidin cream. In conclusion, this formulation has the potential for use as an alternative wound treatment and warrants further study in clinical trials.
  2. Wine- and stir-frying processing of Cuscutae Semen enhance its ability to alleviate oxidative stress and apoptosis via the Keap 1-Nrf2/HO-1 and PI3K/AKT pathways in H<inf>2</inf>O<inf>2</inf>-challenged KGN human granulosa cell line Yusha Liang, Yun Shi, Rong Guo, Changli Xu, Mian Fu, Jinyang Shen, Xun Gao, Weidong Li, Kunming Qin BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies, volume 24 Thursday 13 June 2024 Background: Cuscutae Semen (CS) has been prescribed in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for millennia as an aging inhibitor, an anti-inflammatory agent, a pain reliever, and an aphrodisiac. Its three main forms include crude Cuscutae Semen (CCS), wine-processed CS (WCS), and stir-frying-processed CS (SFCS). Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) i... Background: Cuscutae Semen (CS) has been prescribed in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for millennia as an aging inhibitor, an anti-inflammatory agent, a pain reliever, and an aphrodisiac. Its three main forms include crude Cuscutae Semen (CCS), wine-processed CS (WCS), and stir-frying-processed CS (SFCS). Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a globally occurring medical condition. The present work sought a highly efficacious multi-target therapeutic approach against POI with minimal side effects. Finally, it analyzed the relative differences among CCS, WCS and SFCS in terms of their therapeutic efficacy and modes of action against H2O2-challenged KGN human granulosa cell line. Methods: In this study, ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-Q-ExactiveTM Orbitrap-mass spectrometry (MS), oxidative stress indices, reactive oxygen species (ROS), Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), real-time PCR, Western blotting, and molecular docking were used to investigate the protective effect of CCS, WCS and SFCS on KGN cells oxidative stress and apoptosis mechanisms. Results: The results confirmed that pretreatment with CCS, WCS and SFCS reduced H2O2-induced oxidative damage, accompanied by declining ROS levels and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation in the KGN cells. CCS, WCS and SFCS upregulated the expression of antioxidative levels (GSH, GSH/GSSG ratio, SOD, T-AOC),mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the relative mRNA(Nrf2, Keap1, NQO-1, HO-1, SOD-1, CAT). They inhibited apoptosis by upregulating Bcl-2, downregulating Bax, cleaved caspase-9, and cleaved caspase-3, and lowering the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. They also exerted antioxidant efficacy by partially activating the PI3K/Akt and Keap1-Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathways. Conclusions: The results of the present work demonstrated the inhibitory efficacy of CCS, WCS and SFCS against H2O2-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in KGN cells and showed that the associated mechanisms included Keap1-Nrf2/HO-1 activation, P-PI3K upregulation, and P-Akt-mediated PI3K-Akt pathway induction.
  3. Comparative secretome analysis of Striga and Cuscuta species identifies candidate virulence factors for two evolutionarily independent parasitic plant lineages James M. Bradley, Roger K. Butlin, Julie D. Scholes BMC Plant Biology, volume 24 Wednesday 12 June 2024 Background: Many parasitic plants of the genera Striga and Cuscuta inflict huge agricultural damage worldwide. To form and maintain a connection with a host plant, parasitic plants deploy virulence factors (VFs) that interact with host biology. They possess a secretome that represents the complement of proteins secreted from cells and like other pl... Background: Many parasitic plants of the genera Striga and Cuscuta inflict huge agricultural damage worldwide. To form and maintain a connection with a host plant, parasitic plants deploy virulence factors (VFs) that interact with host biology. They possess a secretome that represents the complement of proteins secreted from cells and like other plant parasites such as fungi, bacteria or nematodes, some secreted proteins represent VFs crucial to successful host colonisation. Understanding the genome-wide complement of putative secreted proteins from parasitic plants, and their expression during host invasion, will advance understanding of virulence mechanisms used by parasitic plants to suppress/evade host immune responses and to establish and maintain a parasite-host interaction. Results: We conducted a comparative analysis of the secretomes of root (Striga spp.) and shoot (Cuscuta spp.) parasitic plants, to enable prediction of candidate VFs. Using orthogroup clustering and protein domain analyses we identified gene families/functional annotations common to both Striga and Cuscuta species that were not present in their closest non-parasitic relatives (e.g. strictosidine synthase like enzymes), or specific to either the Striga or Cuscuta secretomes. For example, Striga secretomes were strongly associated with ‘PAR1’ protein domains. These were rare in the Cuscuta secretomes but an abundance of ‘GMC oxidoreductase’ domains were found, that were not present in the Striga secretomes. We then conducted transcriptional profiling of genes encoding putatively secreted proteins for the most agriculturally damaging root parasitic weed of cereals, S. hermonthica. A significant portion of the Striga-specific secretome set was differentially expressed during parasitism, which we probed further to identify genes following a ‘wave-like’ expression pattern peaking in the early penetration stage of infection. We identified 39 genes encoding putative VFs with functions such as cell wall modification, immune suppression, protease, kinase, or peroxidase activities, that are excellent candidates for future functional studies. Conclusions: Our study represents a comprehensive secretome analysis among parasitic plants and revealed both similarities and differences in candidate VFs between Striga and Cuscuta species. This knowledge is crucial for the development of new management strategies and delaying the evolution of virulence in parasitic weeds.
  4. Research in revealing the effects on Cuscuta chinensis to diarrhea type irritable bowel syndrome based on network pharmacology and molecular docking potential mechanism Shili Yang, Huaiquan Liu, Kewei Li, Bo Chen, Yi Tang, Jie Li, Dan Wang, Xinyan Zhang Medicine (United States), volume 103, pages E38113 Wednesday 12 June 2024 To explore the potential mechanism in Cuscuta sinensis on diarrhea-Type irritable bowel syndrome using network pharmacology and molecular docking techniques. First, the active components and related targets of Cuscuta were found setting oral utilization >30% and drug-like properties greater than or equal to 0.18 as filter information from TCMSP dat... To explore the potential mechanism in Cuscuta sinensis on diarrhea-Type irritable bowel syndrome using network pharmacology and molecular docking techniques. First, the active components and related targets of Cuscuta were found setting oral utilization >30% and drug-like properties greater than or equal to 0.18 as filter information from TCMSP database. The targets of diarrheal irritable bowel syndrome were compiled by searching DrugBank, GeneCards, OMIM, PharmGkb, and TTD databases. The intersections of drugs and targets related to the disease were taken for gene ontology enrichment and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes enrichment analyses, to elucidate the potential molecular mechanisms and pathway information of Cuscuta sinensis for the treatment of diarrheal irritable bowel syndrome. The protein-protein interaction network was constructed by using the STRING database and visualized with Cytoscape_v3.10.0 software to find the protein-protein interaction network core At last, molecular docking was performed to validate the combination of active compounds with the core target. The target information of Cuscuta and diarrhea-Type irritable bowel syndrome was compiled, which can be resulted in 11 active compounds such as quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, β-sitosterol, and another 17 core targets such as TP53, IL6, AKT1, IL1B, TNF, EGFR, etc, whose Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes was enriched in the pathways of lipids and atherosclerosis, chemical carcinogenesis-receptor activation, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, and fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis, etc. Docking demonstrated that the core targets and the active compounds were able to be better combined. Cuscuta chinensis may exert preventive effects on diarrhea-Type irritable bowel syndrome by reducing intestinal inflammation, protecting intestinal mucosa, and playing an important role in antioxidant response through multi-Targets and multi-pathways.
  5. Proteomic characterization and cytotoxic potential of proteins from Cuscuta (Cuscuta epithymum (L.) crude herbal product against MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line Umaima Akhtar, Yamna Khurshid, Bishoy El-Aarag, Basir Syed, Ishtiaq A. Khan, Keykavous Parang, Aftab Ahmed BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies, volume 24 Tuesday 11 June 2024 Background: The burden of breast cancer, the second leading cause of death worldwide, is increasing at an alarming rate. Cuscuta, used in traditional medicine for different ailments, including cancer, is known for containing phytochemicals that exhibit anticancer activity; however, the bioactivities of proteins from this plant remain unexplored. Th... Background: The burden of breast cancer, the second leading cause of death worldwide, is increasing at an alarming rate. Cuscuta, used in traditional medicine for different ailments, including cancer, is known for containing phytochemicals that exhibit anticancer activity; however, the bioactivities of proteins from this plant remain unexplored. This study aimed to screen the cytotoxic potential of proteins from the crude herbal product of Cuscuta epithymum(L.) (CE) harvested from the host plants Alhagi maurorum and Medicago sativa. Methods: The proteins from CE were extracted using a salting-out method, followed by fractionation with a gel filtration chromatography column. Gel-free shotgun proteomics was subsequently performed for protein characterization. The viability assay using MTT was applied to deduce the cytotoxic potential of proteins against MCF-7 breast cancer cells, with further exploration of the effect of treatment on the expression of the apoptotic mediator BCL2-associated X protein (BAX) and B-cell lymphoma protein 2 (BCL-2) proteins, using western blotting to strengthen the findings from the in vitro viability assay. Results: The crude proteins (CP) of CE were separated into four protein peaks (P1, P2, P3, and P4) by gel filtration chromatography. The evaluation of potency showed a dose-dependent decline in the MCF-7 cell line after CP, P1, P2, and P3 treatment with the respective IC50 values of 33.8, 43.1, 34.5, and 28.6 µg/ml. The percent viability of the cells decreased significantly upon treatment with 50 µg/ml CP, P1, P2, and P3 (P < 0.001). Western-blot analysis revealed upregulation of proapoptotic protein BAX in the cells treated with CP, P3 (P < 0.01), and P2 (P < 0.05); however, the antiapoptotic protein, BCL-2 was downregulated in the cells treated with CP and P3 (P < 0.01), but no significant change was detected in P2 treated cells. The observed cytotoxic effects of proteins in the CP, P1, P2, and P3 from the in vitro viability assay and western blot depicted the bioactivity potential of CE proteins. The database search revealed the identities of functionally important proteins, including nonspecific lipid transfer protein, superoxide dismutase, carboxypeptidase, RNase H domain containing protein, and polyribonucleotide nucleotidyltransferase, which have been previously reported from other plants to exhibit anticancer activity. Conclusion: This study indicated the cytotoxic activity of Cuscuta proteins against breast cancer MCF-7 cells and will be utilized for future investigations on the mechanistic effect of active proteins. The survey of CE proteins provided substantial data to encourage further exploration of biological activities exhibited by proteins in Cuscuta.
  6. Management of the Striga epidemics in pearl millet production: a review Armel Rouamba, Hussein Shimelis, Inoussa Drabo, Kwame Wilson Shamuyarira, Emmanuel Mrema CABI Agriculture and Bioscience, volume 5 Tuesday 11 June 2024 Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R. Br.) is a drought-resilient and nutritious staple food crop widely cultivated in arid and semi-arid regions. Worldwide, pearl millet is ranked the 6th most widely produced cereal crop after wheat, rice, maize, barley, and sorghum, with a total production of 30.5 million tons on 32.1 million hectares. In Burk... Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R. Br.) is a drought-resilient and nutritious staple food crop widely cultivated in arid and semi-arid regions. Worldwide, pearl millet is ranked the 6th most widely produced cereal crop after wheat, rice, maize, barley, and sorghum, with a total production of 30.5 million tons on 32.1 million hectares. In Burkina Faso, it is the 3rd widely cultivated crop next to sorghum and maize, with a mean yield of 0.8 ton ha−1, far below the potential yield of 3.0 tons ha−1 attributable to various production challenges. Among the production constraints, the parasitic weed Striga species, particularly S. hermonthica is endemic and causes up to 80% yield losses under heavy infestation. Different control methods (e.g., cultural practices, chemicals and bio-herbicides) have been recommended, but they have been largely ineffective due to diverse and complex problems, including the life cycle, seed production, and prolonged seed dormancy of S. hermonthica; poor access and cost of implementation. Breeding for host plant resistance presents a cost-effective, environmentally friendly and affordable method for smallholder farmers to control and reduce Striga infestations and improve pearl millet yields. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to present the impact of S. hermonthica damage on pearl millet production and productivity and assess the effectiveness of different management methods of S. hermonthica with an emphasis on host plant resistance. The first section of the review assesses the impact of Striga infestation on pearl millet production, followed by the developmental stages of Striga, Striga infestation and damage management strategies, breeding for Striga resistance and other Striga control methods. The paper summarises genetic resources, new breeding technologies, and innovations for the precision and speed breeding of Striga-resistant cultivars. The review will guide the use of the best breeding strategies and accelerate the breeding of new pearl millet cultivars that are best-performing and resistant to S. hermonthica to reduce damage incurred by Striga infestations on farmers’ fields in Burkina Faso and related agro-ecologies.
  7. Spatial distribution of woody plants in relation to mistletoe-infected Vachellia karroo trees in a semi-arid African savanna Tsitsi Sithandiwe Maponga, Hilton Garikai Taambuka Ndagurwa, Justice Muvengwi, Ed T.F. Witkowski Global Ecology and Conservation, volume 51 Monday 10 June 2024 By increasing resource heterogeneity, mistletoe-infected trees can restructure plant community processes and distribution patterns. No information is available on how mistletoe-infected Vachellia (Acacia) karroo trees within V. karroo dominated stands are spatially distributed, and on how they influence the spatial patterns of their surrounding con... By increasing resource heterogeneity, mistletoe-infected trees can restructure plant community processes and distribution patterns. No information is available on how mistletoe-infected Vachellia (Acacia) karroo trees within V. karroo dominated stands are spatially distributed, and on how they influence the spatial patterns of their surrounding conspecifics and heterospecifics. Each woody plant was stem mapped using a cartesian plane (x, y) within three 50×50 m plots located in V. karroo dominated stands in a semi-arid savanna, South West Zimbabwe. Pair correlations g(r) were used for the univariate analysis and Poisson process null models were applied to quantify and detect overall departure from randomness. For the bivariate analysis, pair correlations g12(r) under the null model of independence were used, whilst the mark correlation function (kmm(r)) was used to analyse the correlation of tree canopy area and mistletoe infection intensity. For each plot, size class distributions, based on tree height and basal stem diameter displayed negative J curves, with steep negative regression slopes across the size classes, clearly indicating a strongly recruiting population of V. karroo. The univariate patterns of all trees (infected and non-infected) were consistent with a random pattern, which is attributed to unsystematic mistletoe seed dispersal by birds. The univariate analysis of all woody plants (adults and juveniles) exhibited aggregation at small spatial scales due to the high abundance of clustered seedlings and saplings. At small spatial scales, understory woody plants (both conspecifics and non-conspecifics) were positively associated with mistletoe-infected trees due to mistletoephily which is the facilitation (or nurse protégé interactions) within the more resource-rich mistletoe-infected tree subcanopies. These results provide strong evidence suggesting that the variations in spatial pattern modification by mistletoe-infected trees could further increase spatial heterogeneity in this semi-arid savanna. As such, by increasing heterogeneity, mistletoe-infected trees can increase the resilience of semi-arid savannas in the face of perturbations and stochastic events.
  8. Cuscuta chinensis Lam. Flavonoids (CCLF) alleviate the symptoms of sepsis-associated encephalopathy via PI3K/Nrf2 pathway Qi Boxiang, Sheng Liping, Qian Tong Behavioural Brain Research, volume 465 Monday 10 June 2024 Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) frequently encounters patients who are in intensive care units and ∼70% of patients with severe systemic infection. However, due to the unclear pathological mechanisms of SAE, the desease-modifying drug is still lack. Here, we aimed to explore whether the flavonoid components extracted from CCL (CCLF) seeds ... Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) frequently encounters patients who are in intensive care units and ∼70% of patients with severe systemic infection. However, due to the unclear pathological mechanisms of SAE, the desease-modifying drug is still lack. Here, we aimed to explore whether the flavonoid components extracted from CCL (CCLF) seeds possess protective effects on SAE animals, and systematically evaluate the transcriptomic alteration (in the hippocampus) after CCLF treatment on SAE animals employing RNA sequencing. We observed that CCLF improved the brain's learning and memory abilities and the structural integrity of BBB using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced SAE animal models, evaluated by behavioral test and tissue examination of animals respectively. RNA sequencing results showed that CCLF treatment reverses SAE-induced transcriptomic alteration in the hippocampus. Moreover, CCLF also dramatically relieved inflammatory (such as TNF-α, IL-2, and IL-6) and oxidative (MDA and SOD activity) stresses, and inhibited SAE-induced neuron apoptosis in brain tissues. More importantly, CCLF restored the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and then induced the Nrf2 nuclear translocation to drive HO-1 expression both in vitro and in vivo. LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3K, obviously blocked CCLF's functions on anti-apoptosis, anti-inflammation, and anti-oxidation in vivo, demonstrating that CCLF achieves its bioactivities in a PI3K/AKT signaling dependent manner. Altogether, CCLF exhibits remarkable neuro-protective function and may be a promising candidate for further clinical trials for SAE treatment.
  9. Insights into mistletoe seed germination: A study of hemiparasitic Psittacanthus Mart. (Santalales: Loranthaceae) mistletoes Juan Francisco Ornelas, Carlos Lara, Saddan Morales-Saldaña, Antonio Acini Vásquez-Aguilar, Diego F. Angulo, Eduardo Ruiz-Sanchez, Francisco Molina-Freaner, Etelvina Gándara, Sonia Galicia, Andrew P. Vovides, Victoria Sosa Flora: Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants, volume 316 Sunday 09 June 2024 Most Psittacanthus (Loranthaceae) mistletoes depend on frugivorous birds for seed dispersal, and the behaviour of seed dispersers strongly influences their spatial distribution. However, the timing of seed germination stages remains poorly studied. In this study, ripe fruits from nine Psittacanthus species, inhabiting contrasting habitats and host ... Most Psittacanthus (Loranthaceae) mistletoes depend on frugivorous birds for seed dispersal, and the behaviour of seed dispersers strongly influences their spatial distribution. However, the timing of seed germination stages remains poorly studied. In this study, ripe fruits from nine Psittacanthus species, inhabiting contrasting habitats and host tree species, were collected for seed germination experiments, in which ripe fruits had their exocarp manually removed, and squashed seeds were placed and glued with their viscin on wooden rectangle sticks and daily monitored for 150 d under common environmental conditions. The germination process from seed attachment involved stages such as drying of the viscin, seed coat breaking, cotyledon expansion, and production of sticky latex-like exudates. Notably, the breakdown of the seed coat and cotyledon number varied among species. Breakdown of the seed coat did not occur in some species at least until the day the experiment ended (P. sonorae and P. auriculatus) and cotyledon number ranged from two to eight, with highest cotyledon count to date recorded for P. schiedeanus. Germination indices differed among species, with P. schiedeanus exhibiting higher values for germination rate and synchrony. A strong phylogenetic signal was found in fruit length, fruit width and cotyledon number. After accounting for phylogeny, cotyledon number was negatively associated with mean germination time and germination uncertainty, and positively associated with mean germination rate and germination speed coefficient. The other germination indices were not significantly associated with fruit or seed morphological traits or altitude. Interspecific variation in cotyledon number, seed coat characteristics, and in the timing and duration of seed germination stages highlights distinct processes, likely influenced by environmental differences. These findings highlight species-specific germination processes, the impact of cotyledon number on germination speed, and the potential evolutionary significance of specific morphological traits among Psittacanthus species.
  10. Chromosome-level genome assembly of Pedicularis kansuensis illuminates genome evolution of facultative parasitic plant Longfa Fang, Mingyu Li, Jia Zhang, Chenglin Jia, Yuqing Qiang, Xiaojuan He, Tao Liu, Qiang Zhou, Dong Luo, Yuling Han, Zhen Li, Wenxian Liu, Yongzhi Yang, Jianquan Liu, Zhipeng Liu Molecular Ecology Resources, volume 24 Sunday 09 June 2024 Parasitic plants have a heterotrophic lifestyle, in which they withdraw all or part of their nutrients from their host through the haustorium. Despite the release of many draft genomes of parasitic plants, the genome evolution related to the parasitism feature of facultative parasites remains largely unknown. In this study, we present a high-qualit... Parasitic plants have a heterotrophic lifestyle, in which they withdraw all or part of their nutrients from their host through the haustorium. Despite the release of many draft genomes of parasitic plants, the genome evolution related to the parasitism feature of facultative parasites remains largely unknown. In this study, we present a high-quality chromosomal-level genome assembly for the facultative parasite Pedicularis kansuensis (Orobanchaceae), which invades both legume and grass host species in degraded grasslands on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. This species has the largest genome size compared with other parasitic species, and expansions of long terminal repeat retrotransposons accounting for 62.37% of the assembly greatly contributed to the genome size expansion of this species. A total of 42,782 genes were annotated, and the patterns of gene loss in P. kansuensis differed from other parasitic species. We also found many mobile mRNAs between P. kansuensis and one of its host species, but these mobile mRNAs could not compensate for the functional losses of missing genes in P. kansuensis. In addition, we identified nine horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events from rosids and monocots, as well as one single-gene duplication events from HGT genes, which differ distinctly from that of other parasitic species. Furthermore, we found evidence for HGT through transferring genomic fragments from phylogenetically remote host species. Taken together, these findings provide genomic insights into the evolution of facultative parasites and broaden our understanding of the diversified genome evolution in parasitic plants and the molecular mechanisms of plant parasitism.
  11. Lectotypifications and taxonomic changes in Alectra, Boschniakia, Cistanche, Orobanche, Phelipanche and Phelypaea (all Orobanchaceae) Holger Uhlich, Stefan Rätzel Nordic Journal of Botany, volume 2024 Saturday 08 June 2024 Based on extensive studies of specimens in various herbaria, lectotypes are designated for many taxa of holoparasitic Orobanchaceae. In total, 31 names in the genera Alectra, Boschniakia, Cistanche, Orobanche, Phelipanche and Phelypaea are lectotypified and type references are provided for 46 names. All types are illustrated by scanned images. The ... Based on extensive studies of specimens in various herbaria, lectotypes are designated for many taxa of holoparasitic Orobanchaceae. In total, 31 names in the genera Alectra, Boschniakia, Cistanche, Orobanche, Phelipanche and Phelypaea are lectotypified and type references are provided for 46 names. All types are illustrated by scanned images. The following new names are proposed due to rank changes: Orobanche amoena var. dzejveri, O. amoena var. regeliana, Orobanche camptolepis f. sideana, Orobanche lutea var. hians, Phelipanche arenaria var. sareptana, Phelipanche caesia var. acuminata, Phelipanche caucasica, Phelipanche lavandulacea var. serratocalyx, Phelipanche pulchella var. bungeana, Phelipanche purpurea var. hirsuta and Phelipanche purpurea var. iberica. The following names are synonymized: Orobanche arenaria f. personata, Orobanche borkhausenii, Orobanche caesia f. tomentosa, Orobanche caryophyllacea f. besseri, Orobanche cernua f. subgrandis, Orobanche cumana f. helianthi, Orobanche eriophora, Orobanche glaucantha, Orobanche heyniae, Orobanche psilostemon, Orobanche sideritidis and Phelypaea helenae.
  12. Exploring the biochemical dynamics in faba bean (Vicia faba L. minor) in response to Orobanche foetida Poir. parasitism under inoculation with different rhizobia strains Manel Bouraoui, Zouhaier Abbes, Boulbaba L’taief, Mohammed O. Alshaharni, Neila Abdi, Amira Hachana, Bouaziz Sifi PLoS ONE, volume 19 Saturday 08 June 2024 In Tunisia, Orobanche foetida Poir. is considered an important agricultural biotic constraint on faba bean (Vicia faba L.) production. An innovative control method for managing this weed in faba bean is induced resistance through inoculation by rhizobia strains. In this study, we explored the biochemical dynamics in V. faba L. minor inoculated by r... In Tunisia, Orobanche foetida Poir. is considered an important agricultural biotic constraint on faba bean (Vicia faba L.) production. An innovative control method for managing this weed in faba bean is induced resistance through inoculation by rhizobia strains. In this study, we explored the biochemical dynamics in V. faba L. minor inoculated by rhizobia in response to O. foetida parasitism. A systemic induced resistant reaction was evaluated through an assay of peroxidase (POX), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and phenyl alanine ammonialyase (PAL) activity and phenolic compound and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation in faba bean plants infested with O. foetida and inoculated with rhizobia. Two rhizobia strains (Mat, Bj1) and a susceptible variety of cultivar Badi were used in a co-culture Petri dish experiment. We found that Mat inoculation significantly decreased O. foetida germination and the number of tubercles on the faba bean roots by 87% and 88%, respectively. Following Bj1 inoculation, significant decreases were only observed in O. foetida germination (62%). In addition, Mat and Bj1 inoculation induced a delay in tubercle formation (two weeks) and necrosis in the attached tubercles (12.50% and 4.16%, respectively) compared to the infested control. The resistance of V. faba to O. foetida following Mat strain inoculation was mainly associated with a relatively more efficient enzymatic antioxidative response. The antioxidant enzyme activity was enhanced following Mat inoculation of the infected faba bean plant. Indeed, increases of 45%, 67% and 86% were recorded in the POX, PPO and PAL activity, respectively. Improvements of 56% and 12% were also observed in the soluble phenolic and H2O2 contents. Regarding inoculation with the Bj1 strain, significant increases were only observed in soluble phenolic and H2O2 contents and PPO activity (especially at 45 days after inoculation) compared to the infested control. These results imply that inoculation with the rhizobia strains (especially Mat) induced resistance and could bio-protect V. faba against O. foetida parasitism by inducing systemic resistance, although complete protectionwas not achieved by rhizobia inoculation. The Mat strain could be used as a potential candidate for the development of an integrated method for controlling O. foetida parasitism in faba bean.
  13. Genetic potential and inheritance pattern of agronomic traits in faba bean under free and infested Orobanche soil conditions Alaa A. Soliman, Mohamed A. Ibrahim, Manar I. Mousa, Elsayed Mansour, Yuhua He, Haitian Yu BMC Plant Biology, volume 24 Friday 07 June 2024 Background: Orobanche is an obligate parasite on faba bean in the Mediterranean region, causes considerable yield losses. Breeding tolerant faba bean genotypes to Orobanche is pivotal to sustain production and ensuring global food security, particularly considering the challenges posed by population growth. In the present study, seven faba bean lin... Background: Orobanche is an obligate parasite on faba bean in the Mediterranean region, causes considerable yield losses. Breeding tolerant faba bean genotypes to Orobanche is pivotal to sustain production and ensuring global food security, particularly considering the challenges posed by population growth. In the present study, seven faba bean lines and four testers were used in a line×tester mating design during 2020–2021 and 2021–2022 growing seasons. The eleven parents and their 28 F1 crosses were evaluated under Orobanche free and naturally infested soils. Results: The results demonstrated considerable variations among the evaluated genotypes, wide diversity among the parental materials, and heterotic effects for all studied agronomic traits under Orobanche-free and infested soils. Orbanche infestation displayed a significant adverse impact on all the studied agronomic traits. The genotypes Line1, Line2, Line3, and Line5 displayed superior performance under Orobanche-infested conditions and recorded the highest values of all studied agronomic traits. Additionally, Line1, Line2, Line3, Line5, and Line7 exhibited desirable significant GCA for most evaluated traits under the two infestation conditions. The obtained crosses displayed significant negative or positive heterosis for studied agronomic characters such as plant height, number of branches per plant, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant, and seed weight per plant were observed. Furthermore, specific cross combinations such as Line2×Sakha3, Line3×Nubaria5, Line7 × Nubaria5, Line6×Nubaria1, Line5×Sakha3, Line1×Sakha3, and Line1 × Nubaria5 exhibited superior performance in seed yield and contributing traits under Orobanche-infested conditions. Moreover, these specific crosses showed superior efficacy in reducing dry weight of Orobanche spikes. The results obtained from GGE biplot analysis closely aligned with those from the line×tester procedure, affirming the significance of GGE biplot as a valuable statistical tool for assessing genotype combining ability in line× tester data. Both additive and non-additive gene actions were reported to be predominantly involved in the inheritance of the studied agronomic traits in faba bean. Conclusions: The detected genetic diversity within the evaluated faba bean genotypes and their developed crosses exhibits substantial potential for improving faba bean productivity under Orobanche-infested conditions. The parental genotypes, Line1, Line2, Line3, Line5, and Line7, were identified as effective and promising combiners. Moreover, the developed crosses Line2×Sakha3, Line3×Nubaria5, Line7×Nubaria5, Line6×Nubaria1, Line5×Sakha3, Line1×Sakha3, and Line1×Nubaria5 could be considered valuable candidates for developing high-yielding and tolerant faba bean genotypes to Orobanche.
  14. Testcross performance of Striga-resistant maize inbred lines and testers with varying levels of Striga reaction Degife Zebire, Abebe Menkir, Victor Adetimirin, Wende Mengesha, Meseka Silvestro, Melaku Gedil CABI Agriculture and Bioscience, volume 5 Thursday 06 June 2024 Background: Using a desirable tester is considered one method used to maximise genetic differences among test crosses derived from new inbred lines and improves the overall performance of maize. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the potency of the tester with varying levels of resistance to Striga hermonthica in determining the testcross performan... Background: Using a desirable tester is considered one method used to maximise genetic differences among test crosses derived from new inbred lines and improves the overall performance of maize. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the potency of the tester with varying levels of resistance to Striga hermonthica in determining the testcross performance of the hybrids for Striga resistance and yield-related traits. Method: The experiment was conducted with these test crosses and two standard checks (susceptible and tolerant) for different Striga resistance and agronomic traits during the 2018 cropping season in Abuja and Mokwa, Nigeria. The experiment was laid out in a 23 × 4 alpha-lattice design with two replications in each location. Field evaluation data was collected from Striga resistance and yield-related traits to estimate the performance of test crosses. Analysis of variance was conducted to determine the variance of the testcross performance. Results: There were significant differences among test crosses for days to silking, days to pollen shedding, ear at harvest, ear aspect, ear per plant, grain yield, Striga damage rating at 8 and 10 weeks after planting (WAP), and Striga count at 8 and 10 WAP. Variations among test crosses were always higher than the corresponding variations due to the interaction between test crosses and the environment for all traits. Conclusion: The inbred lines with low yield reduction crossed with different testers under Striga infested were recorded. These inbreds should be used to develop high-yielding hybrids and synthetics with elevated levels of Striga resistance to improve the maize breeding program.
  15. Genome-wide association studies reveals new candidate genes associated with resistance to Striga gesneroides in Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] accessions from sub-Saharan Africa Abdoulaye Ali Koura, Alexander Wireko Kena, Benjamin Annor, Idris I. Adejumobi, Abdoul Raouf Sayadi Maazou, Fredercik Justice Awuku, Patrick Attamah, Ousmane Boukar, Akromah Richard Ecological Genetics and Genomics, volume 32 Wednesday 05 June 2024 Parasitic plant Striga gesneroides reduces cowpea productivity in sub-Saharan Africa, leading to substantial yield losses. This weed is the major reason for land abandonment by many farmers. While various methods have been proposed for managing Striga invasion and parasitism, host-plant resistance remains the most effective and affordable option fo... Parasitic plant Striga gesneroides reduces cowpea productivity in sub-Saharan Africa, leading to substantial yield losses. This weed is the major reason for land abandonment by many farmers. While various methods have been proposed for managing Striga invasion and parasitism, host-plant resistance remains the most effective and affordable option for small-scale farmers in the sub-region. This study aims to expedite the improvement of Striga resistance breeding through marker-assisted selection by identifying genomic regions and candidate genes associated with Striga resistance indicator traits using association mapping. A panel of 188 cowpea accessions assembled from five gene banks in West Africa were phenotyped for two years under Striga-infested and non-infested research conditions. These accessions were equally genotyped using the medium-density genotyping of the Diversity Arrays Technology sequencing (DArTseq) platform to obtain marker information. High broad-sense heritability estimates were observed for Striga resistance status (SRS), number of Striga per plot (NSPlot), and Pod weight (PW) while low heritability estimates were observed for fodder weight (FW) and Plant Aspect (PASP). Twenty-four SNP markers were identified across SRS, NSPlot, FW, PASP, and PW under Striga-infested conditions. Under non-infested conditions, 17 SNPs were identified across FW, PASP, and PW. Gene annotation of the significant SNPs revealed candidate genes such as ubiquitin ligase activity, cell wall reinforcement protein, and pathogenesis-related protein. These genes function in plant growth regulation, development, and defense mechanisms. This study offers valuable insights for marker selection, validation, and deployment in cowpea improvement for Striga resistance in SSA.

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