International Parasitic Plant Society

Welcome to the homepage of the International Parasitic Plant Society (IPPS). The IPPS is dedicated to advancing scientific research on parasitic plants. Our goals include increasing the understanding of these amazing plants, providing a platform for exchange among and beyond the scientific community as well as helping to decrease the crop damage inflicted by weedy parasitic plants.

WCPP17 - 17th World Congress On Parasitic Plants, to be held in Nara, Japan in 2024

The next World Congress on Parasitic Plants will take place in Nara, Japan in 2024. Please, help find the best meeting date in our member-only section (login required). 

Become a member to get access to hi-res versions of above photos.

Member benefits

Discount

Get a member discount for our biennial congress

Meet

Entry in and access to the member’s directory

Inform & get informed

Have access to IPPS seminars; post news on parasitic plants

Meet our talent

Post vacancies for jobs in parasitic plant research

A picture tells

Non-commercial usage rights of the photo gallery

Most Recent ‘Parasitic Plant’ publications

in Google Scholar

  1. [HTML][HTML] Endogenous knowledge and structures of parks dominated by Adansonia digitata (Baobab) species in the Soudano-Sahelian agro-ecological zone of … KC Flore, BN Claudette, DD Danra - Environmental Challenges, 2022 - Elsevier Wednesday 28 September 2022 … However, the use of trunk bark, root and mistletoe varies per area and is probably related … The bark, root and mistletoe are used in medicine at 88.9 %, 77.8 % and 73.3 % …
  2. Dodder parasitism limited the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on litter decomposition Y Yuan, J Li - Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 2022 - Elsevier Tuesday 27 September 2022 … of litter produced by the holoparasite Cuscuta australis is promoted more strongly by … a key role in the parasitism and litter effects of parasitic plants on soil nutrient cycling. …
  3. Utilization of the Viscum Species for Diet and Medicinal Purposes in Ruminants: A Review O Hawu, KE Ravhuhali, MG Musekwa, N Sipango… - Animals, 2022 - mdpi.com Tuesday 27 September 2022 … to eradicate mistletoe in rangelands or forests is mechanical removal of mistletoe by clipping … Further, injecting a chemical into the trunk of a plant with mistletoe has been …
  4. [HTML][HTML] MEVALI BOG 'LARDAGI KARANTIN BEGONA O 'T–ZARPECHAK (CUSCUTA L.) VA QARSHI KURASH SAMARADORLIGI X Abdullayeva, L Ro'Ziyev - Science and innovation, 2022 - cyberleninka.ru Sunday 25 September 2022 … This article discusses the issues of biology, harm and control of the quarantine weed dodder (Cuscuta L.), which today damages gardens. … В этой статье рассматриваются …
  5. Effects of Drought and Host on the Growth of Santalum album Seedlings in Pot Culture Q Zhang, X Liu, D Xu, Z Hong, N Zhang… - International Journal of …, 2022 - mdpi.com Saturday 24 September 2022 Santalum album is a semi parasitic plant and its growth is often restricted due to a lack of a host or water during plantation establishment. In this study, the effects of water …
  6. Selective Immune Modulating Activities of Viscum album and Its Components; A Possibility of Therapeutics on Skin Rash Induced by EGFR Inhibitors HJ Choi, SJ Park, YN Choi, SD Kim… - Integrative Cancer …, 2022 - journals.sagepub.com Sunday 25 September 2022 … Korean mistletoe in the Viscaceae family. Viscum album (VA) is a semi-parasitic plant … Mistletoe leaves were used in India to treat diabetes. Viscum album was used to treat …
  7. Discerning Friend From Foe: Systematic Revision of Cuscuta L. Section Indecorae Using A Combined Ecological, Morphometric, and Phylogenetic Approach. C Burt - 2023 - scholars.wlu.ca Saturday 24 September 2022 … Cuscuta indecora has a long and complicated … Cuscuta coryli is a distinct species nested within a clade … Cuscuta indecora sl is confirmed at species level based on …
  8. Parental evaluation, polymorphic loci marker survey and allelism study of earliness in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) walp) EY Owusu, F Kusi, AW Kena, R Akromah… - Ecological Genetics and …, 2022 - Elsevier Thursday 22 September 2022 … of Striga and Aphid resistant loci, respectively. Plants which had both Striga and Aphid … SSR1 is also linked to striga race 3 resistance gene and set right on the gene [44]. …
  9. Gender and Legume Production in a Changing Climate Context: Experiences from Chipata, Eastern Zambia E Mphande, BB Umar, CF Kunda-Wamuwi - Sustainability, 2022 - mdpi.com Thursday 22 September 2022 This study explored legume production by female and men smallholder farmers in Chipata, in a changing climate context. The study objectives were to (i) find out how men …
  10. Kırşehir ili şeker pancarı (Beta vulgaris L.) üretim alanlarında yayılış gösteren yabancı otların flora, yaygınlık ve yoğunluklarının belirlenmesi M YILAR, Y BAYAR, A Kadir, İ TÜRKAY - Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri … - dergipark.org.tr Wednesday 21 September 2022 … It was determined that Cuscuta species were less prevalent (11.6%) with low density (YSD:E) (0.216 units/m2). As a result; the species, frequency and density of weeds …
  11. ARVENSES NATIVAS Y EXÓTICAS EN PARCELAS DE CHILE JALAPEÑO GD Ávila-Quezada, JG Torres-Martínez… - Revista Fitotecnia …, 2022 - 167.172.243.173 Wednesday 21 September 2022 Las arvenses juegan un papel importante en el desarrollo y producción de los cultivos al competir por agua, nutrientes del suelo y luz, además de ser reservorio de …
  12. [HTML][HTML] Plant-derived immuno-adjuvants in vaccines formulation: a promising avenue for improving vaccines efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 virus A Kumar, A Sharma, NV Tirpude, Y Padwad… - Pharmacological …, 2022 - Springer Wednesday 21 September 2022 … QS and Mistletoe lectin, used in the human viral pandemic, which have been … Mistletoe Lectin, a glycoprotein from mistletoe plant, has also been shown to have …
  13. Genetic Diversity And Differential Gene Expression In Crotalaria Species From Selected Counties In Kenya JK MULI - 2022 - repository.embuni.ac.ke Wednesday 21 September 2022 Slender leaf (Crotalaria spp) is a vegetable of importance in East Africa because of its use as a food crop, a soil improvement legume and its role in Striga hermonthica …
  14. [HTML][HTML] The extremely reduced, diverged and reconfigured plastomes of the largest mycoheterotrophic orchid lineage Y Wen, Y Qin, B Shao, J Li, C Ma… - BMC Plant …, 2022 - bmcplantbiol.biomedcentral.com Tuesday 20 September 2022 … of Gastrodieae not only serve as an excellent model for illustrating the evolution of plastomes but also provide new insights into plastome evolution in parasitic plants. …
  15. Non-destructive and non-invasive methodology for the in situ identification of Mexican yellow lake pigments MA Garcia-Bucio, E Casanova-González, A Mitrani… - Microchemical …, 2022 - Elsevier Tuesday 20 September 2022 … All the plant specimens came from Mexican territory; zacatlaxcalli (Cuscuta tinctoria) and weld (Reseda luteola) were collected in Mexico City, orange xochipalli (Cosmos …

Most Recent 'Parasitic Plant' publications

in Scopus

  1. Nitrogen represses haustoria formation through abscisic acid in the parasitic plant Phtheirospermum japonicum Anna Kokla, Martina Leso, Xiang Zhang, Jan Simura, Phanu T. Serivichyaswat, Songkui Cui, Karin Ljung, Satoko Yoshida, Charles W. Melnyk Nature Communications, volume 13 Saturday 01 October 2022 Parasitic plants are globally prevalent pathogens that withdraw nutrients from their host plants using an organ known as the haustorium. The external environment including nutrient availability affects the extent of parasitism and to understand this phenomenon, we investigated the role of nutrients and found that nitrogen is sufficient to repress h... Parasitic plants are globally prevalent pathogens that withdraw nutrients from their host plants using an organ known as the haustorium. The external environment including nutrient availability affects the extent of parasitism and to understand this phenomenon, we investigated the role of nutrients and found that nitrogen is sufficient to repress haustoria formation in the root parasite Phtheirospermum japonicum. Nitrogen increases levels of abscisic acid (ABA) in P. japonicum and prevents the activation of hundreds of genes including cell cycle and xylem development genes. Blocking ABA signaling overcomes nitrogen’s inhibitory effects indicating that nitrogen represses haustoria formation by increasing ABA. The effect of nitrogen appears more widespread since nitrogen also inhibits haustoria in the obligate root parasite Striga hermonthica. Together, our data show that nitrogen acts as a haustoria repressing factor and suggests a mechanism whereby parasitic plants use nitrogen availability in the external environment to regulate the extent of parasitism.
  2. Diacetoxyscirpenol, a Fusarium exometabolite, prevents efficiently the incidence of the parasitic weed Striga hermonthica Williams Oyifioda Anteyi, Iris Klaiber, Frank Rasche BMC Plant Biology, volume 22 Friday 30 September 2022 Background: Certain Fusarium exometabolites have been reported to inhibit seed germination of the cereal-parasitizing witchweed, Striga hermonthica, in vitro. However, it is unknown if these exometabolites will consistently prevent S. hermonthica incidence in planta. The study screened a selection of known, highly phytotoxic Fusarium exometabolites... Background: Certain Fusarium exometabolites have been reported to inhibit seed germination of the cereal-parasitizing witchweed, Striga hermonthica, in vitro. However, it is unknown if these exometabolites will consistently prevent S. hermonthica incidence in planta. The study screened a selection of known, highly phytotoxic Fusarium exometabolites, in identifying the most potent/efficient candidate (i.e., having the greatest effect at minimal concentration) to completely hinder S. hermonthica seed germination in vitro and incidence in planta, without affecting the host crop development and yield. Results: In vitro germination assays of the tested Fusarium exometabolites (i.e., 1,4-naphthoquinone, equisetin, fusaric acid, hymeglusin, neosolaniol (Neo), T-2 toxin (T-2) and diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS)) as pre-Striga seed conditioning treatments at 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 µM, revealed that only DAS, out of all tested exometabolites, completely inhibited S. hermonthica seed germination at each concentration. It was followed by T-2 and Neo, as from 10 to 20 µM respectively. The remaining exometabolites reduced S. hermonthica seed germination as from 20 µM (P < 0. 0001). In planta assessment (in a S. hermonthica-sorghum parasitic system) of the exometabolites at 20 µM showed that, although, none of the tested exometabolites affected sorghum aboveground dry biomass (P > 0.05), only DAS completely prevented S. hermonthica incidence. Following a 14-d incubation of DAS in the planting soil substrate, bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and fungal 18S rRNA gene copy numbers of the soil microbial community were enhanced; which coincided with complete degradation of DAS in the substrate. Metabolic footprinting revealed that the S. hermonthica mycoherbicidal agent, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. strigae (isolates Foxy-2, FK3), did not produce DAS; a discovery that corresponded with underexpression of key genes (Tri5, Tri4) necessary for Fusarium trichothecene biosynthesis (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Among the tested Fusarium exometabolites, DAS exhibited the most promising herbicidal potential against S. hermonthica. Thus, it could serve as a new biocontrol agent for efficient S. hermonthica management. Further examination of DAS specific mode of action against the target weed S. hermonthica at low concentrations (≤ 20 µM), as opposed to non-target soil organisms, is required.
  3. Estimating mistletoe biomass in a semi-arid savanna woodland, southwest Zimbabwe Hilton G.T. Ndagurwa, Wayne Mutirwara, Sibonokuhle F. Ncube, Justice Muvengwi Acta Oecologica, volume 117 Thursday 29 September 2022 Despite the biological importance of mistletoes in forests and woodlands globally, mistletoe biomass is rarely quantified, particularly in tropical regions. Thus, we constructed allometric models to predict the biomass of three mistletoe species (Erianthemum ngamicum, Plicosepalus kalachariensis, and Viscum verrucosum) in semi-arid savanna, southwe... Despite the biological importance of mistletoes in forests and woodlands globally, mistletoe biomass is rarely quantified, particularly in tropical regions. Thus, we constructed allometric models to predict the biomass of three mistletoe species (Erianthemum ngamicum, Plicosepalus kalachariensis, and Viscum verrucosum) in semi-arid savanna, southwest Zimbabwe. We destructively sampled 30 individuals of each mistletoe species and recorded their broad haustorium diameter, narrow haustorium diameter, and the width, breadth, vertical depth, and percentage of leaves of the whole plant. After measuring the dry biomass of each mistletoe, we fitted linear regression models – selected and compared based on corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc) minimization. Mistletoe volume (r2 = 0.95) best predicted biomass in E. ngamicum, while mistletoe size was the best predictor for P. kalachariensis (r2 = 0.90) and V. verrucosum (r2 = 0.95). Models using haustorium diameter had the lowest predictive power in all species. V. verrucosum and P. kalachariensis had greater total mean dry biomass than E. ngamicum. Stems constituted the larger proportion of total biomass than leaves in E. ngamicum (75 vs. 23%) but the reverse is true for P. kalachariensis (40 vs. 58%). Of the total biomass, fruits and flowers constituted 6% in V. verrucosum and E. ngamicum and 2% in P. kalachariensis. The leaf to stem biomass contribution decreases in E. ngamicum but increases in P. kalachariensis as the plant grows. Models using mistletoe biometry (width, breadth, and vertical depth of the whole plant), rather than host size (height, diameter at breast height, and canopy area), best predicted total mistletoe biomass. Not only does this enable estimation of mistletoe biomass beyond the scale of infected individuals, but the contribution of mistletoes to local biomass, carbon stock, and ecosystem processes (e.g., nutrient cycling) can also be quantified at different spatial scales helping elucidate their keystone role in semi-arid savanna.
  4. A pilot study of the mistletoe and breast cancer (MAB) trial: a protocol for a randomised double-blind controlled trial Susan Bryant, Lorna Duncan, Gene Feder, Alyson L. Huntley Pilot and Feasibility Studies, volume 8 Wednesday 28 September 2022 Background: A Cochrane review of mistletoe therapy concludes that there is some evidence that mistletoe extracts may offer benefits on measures of quality of life during chemotherapy for breast cancer, but these results need replication. Our aim is to add to this evidence base by initially testing the feasibility of a UK pilot placebo-controlled,... Background: A Cochrane review of mistletoe therapy concludes that there is some evidence that mistletoe extracts may offer benefits on measures of quality of life during chemotherapy for breast cancer, but these results need replication. Our aim is to add to this evidence base by initially testing the feasibility of a UK pilot placebo-controlled, double-blind randomised controlled trial of mistletoe therapy in patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy. Methods/design: A mixed phase pilot placebo-controlled, double-blind randomised controlled trial of mistletoe therapy in patients with breast cancer (EudraCT number: 2018-000279-34). There will be three arms (groups) in the trial: Iscador M, Iscador P, with physiological saline as the placebo. The aim is to recruit 45 adult patients with a new diagnosis of early or locally advanced breast cancer, up to 12 weeks following definitive breast surgery whose standard treatment plan includes chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy. They will be taught to administer the mistletoe and breast cancer (MAB) therapies subcutaneously. MAB therapy will continue throughout their standard chemotherapy and radiotherapy and 1 month beyond. The main outcome of the MAB study is the feasibility of conducting such a trial within the NHS in order to inform a future fully powered investigative trial. Feasibility will be measured through recruitment, retention and patient experience using clinical research forms, patient diaries, cancer-related questionnaires and qualitative interviews conducted with both patients and oncology staff. Discussion: This trial is the first of its kind in the UK. Currently, mistletoe therapy is mostly available through private practice in the UK. Completion of this feasibility study will support applications for further funding for a fully powered randomised controlled trial which will measure effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this herbal therapy.
  5. Unprecedented organelle genomic variations in morning glories reveal independent evolutionary scenarios of parasitic plants and the diversification of plant mitochondrial complexes Yanxiang Lin, Pan Li, Yuchan Zhang, Delara Akhter, Ronghui Pan, Zhixi Fu, Mingqing Huang, Xiaobo Li, Yanlei Feng BMC Biology, volume 20 Tuesday 27 September 2022 Background: The morning glories (Convolvulaceae) are distributed worldwide and produce economically important crops, medicinal herbs, and ornamentals. Members of this family are diverse in morphological characteristics and trophic modes, including the leafless parasitic Cuscuta (dodders). Organelle genomes were generally used for studying plant phy... Background: The morning glories (Convolvulaceae) are distributed worldwide and produce economically important crops, medicinal herbs, and ornamentals. Members of this family are diverse in morphological characteristics and trophic modes, including the leafless parasitic Cuscuta (dodders). Organelle genomes were generally used for studying plant phylogeny and genomic variations. Notably, plastomes in parasitic plants always show non-canonical features, such as reduced size and accelerated rates. However, few organelle genomes of this group have been sequenced, hindering our understanding of their evolution, and dodder mitogenome in particular. Results: We assembled 22 new mitogenomes and 12 new plastomes in Convolvulaceae. Alongside previously known ones, we totally analyzed organelle genomes of 23 species in the family. Our sampling includes 16 leafy autotrophic species and 7 leafless parasitic dodders, covering 8 of the 12 tribes. Both the plastid and mitochondrial genomes of these plants have encountered variations that were rarely observed in other angiosperms. All of the plastomes possessed atypical IR boundaries. Besides the gene and IR losses in dodders, some leafy species also showed gene and intron losses, duplications, structural variations, and insertions of foreign DNAs. The phylogeny reconstructed by plastid protein coding sequences confirmed the previous relationship of the tribes. However, the monophyly of ‘Merremieae’ and the sister group of Cuscuta remained uncertain. The mitogenome was significantly inflated in Cuscuta japonica, which has exceeded over 800 kb and integrated massive DNAs from other species. In other dodders, mitogenomes were maintained in small size, revealing divergent evolutionary strategies. Mutations unique to plants were detected in the mitochondrial gene ccmFc, which has broken into three fragments through gene fission and splicing shift. The unusual changes likely initially happened to the common ancestor of the family and were caused by a foreign insertion from rosids followed by double-strand breaks and imprecise DNA repairs. The coding regions of ccmFc expanded at both sides after the fission, which may have altered the protein structure. Conclusions: Our family-scale analyses uncovered unusual scenarios for both organelle genomes in Convolvulaceae, especially in parasitic plants. The data provided valuable genetic resources for studying the evolution of Convolvulaceae and plant parasitism.
  6. Cuscuta spp. Segmentation Based on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and Orthomasaics Using a U-Net Xception-Style Model Lucia Gutiérrez-Lazcano, César J. Camacho-Bello, Eduardo Cornejo-Velazquez, José Humberto Arroyo-Núñez, Mireya Clavel-Maqueda Remote Sensing, volume 14 Monday 26 September 2022 Cuscuta spp. is a weed that infests many crops, causing significant losses. Traditional assessment methods and onsite manual measurements are time consuming and labor intensive. The precise identification of Cuscuta spp. offers a promising solution for implementing sustainable farming systems in order to apply appropriate control tactics. This docu... Cuscuta spp. is a weed that infests many crops, causing significant losses. Traditional assessment methods and onsite manual measurements are time consuming and labor intensive. The precise identification of Cuscuta spp. offers a promising solution for implementing sustainable farming systems in order to apply appropriate control tactics. This document comprehensively evaluates a Cuscuta spp. segmentation model based on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images and the U-Net architecture to generate orthomaps with infected areas for better decision making. The experiments were carried out on an arbol pepper (Capsicum annuum Linnaeus) crop with four separate missions for three weeks to identify the evolution of weeds. The study involved the performance of different tests with the input image size, which exceeded (Formula presented.) of the mean intersection-over-union (MIoU). In addition, the proposal outperformed DeepLabV3+ in terms of prediction time and segmentation rate. On the other hand, the high segmentation rates allowed approximate quantifications of the infestation area ranging from (Formula presented.) to 83 m (Formula presented.). The findings of this study show that the U-Net architecture is robust enough to segment pests and have an overview of the crop.
  7. Mistletoe infested Moringa oleifera and Terminalia catappa leaves supplemented diet enhances antioxidant and insulin-like peptide mRNA levels in Drosophila melanogaster Olubukola H. Oyeniran, Ganiyu Oboh, Adedayo O. Ademiluyi, Haruna I. Umar Food Chemistry: Molecular Sciences, volume 5 Saturday 17 September 2022 Moringa and Almond are common plants of medicinal and economic value which are often infested with mistletoe. Host plants’ infestation could result in major differences in their phytoconstituents and biological activities. Thus, effects of mistletoe infestation on Moringa and Almond host plants supplemented diets on mRNA expression levels of Dros... Moringa and Almond are common plants of medicinal and economic value which are often infested with mistletoe. Host plants’ infestation could result in major differences in their phytoconstituents and biological activities. Thus, effects of mistletoe infestation on Moringa and Almond host plants supplemented diets on mRNA expression levels of Drosophila insulin-like peptide-2 (Dilp2), heat shock protein-70 (Hsp70) and superoxide dismutase (Sod) in diabetic-like flies were evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR system. Mistletoe infestation on host leaves caused significant upregulation of Sod and significant downregulation of Hsp70 and Dilp2 genes. Hence, we opined that infestation of Moringa and Almond trees with mistletoe resulted in improved expression level of antioxidant and insulin-like peptide genes. This may be the mechanism by which host plants caused enhanced regulation of circulating glucose and oxidative stress. Therefore, consumption of mistletoe infested Moringa and Almond host leaves could possibly offer better antioxidant and hypoglycemic effects.
  8. Herbicidal secondary metabolites from Bacillus velezensis JTB8-2 against Orobanche aegyptiaca Wei He, Yan Li, Wenfang Luo, Junhui Zhou, Sifeng Zhao, Jianjun Xu AMB Express, volume 12 Friday 16 September 2022 Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca) is a parasitic plants that cause significant losses to important crops. The effective methods for controlling this weed are rare. Biological control could be one of the possible strategies to tackle these weeds efficiently. In this work, a bacteria strain Bacillus velezensis JTB8–2 was proven to possesse ... Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca) is a parasitic plants that cause significant losses to important crops. The effective methods for controlling this weed are rare. Biological control could be one of the possible strategies to tackle these weeds efficiently. In this work, a bacteria strain Bacillus velezensis JTB8–2 was proven to possesse biological control functions against broomrapes in both pot and field experiments. Four secondary metabolites (1–4) were isolated from the B. velezensis JTB8–2 crude extracts, and all of them could inhibit the germination of O. aegyptiaca seeds at concentrations from 0.5 mM to 4 mM. Their structures were further elucidated by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Mass Spectrometry (MS) analysis. Among the isolated compounds, 1 and 2 exhibited the strongest herbicidal activity with 100% inhibition rate against the germination of O. aegyptiaca seeds at 4 mM, and thus had great potential in the development of new herbicidal products to control O. aegyptiaca in the future.
  9. Morphological and molecular profiling of Striga gesnerioides on cowpea in Ghana Frederick Justice Awuku, Francis Kusi, Agyemang Danquah, Pangyirayi Tongoona, Michael P. Timko Ecological Genetics and Genomics, volume 25 Thursday 15 September 2022 This study accessed the morphological and molecular diversity of Striga gesnerioides populations from endemic regions of Northern Ghana. Morphological variations revealed the existence of two flower types: purple and white, with the purple being the major occurring type. The reaction of Striga populations on selected cowpea genotypes grouped the ge... This study accessed the morphological and molecular diversity of Striga gesnerioides populations from endemic regions of Northern Ghana. Morphological variations revealed the existence of two flower types: purple and white, with the purple being the major occurring type. The reaction of Striga populations on selected cowpea genotypes grouped the genotypes into three classes of which, 10 were resistant to all the population, 9 were susceptible to all the population and 8 showed differential response to the population. However, virulence study of the Striga population on these genotypes revealed three Striga clusters. Molecular diversity using newly designed markers showed that the markers were very informative with 73% being polymorphic. Principal Coordinate and Neighbour-joining analysis of molecular data grouped the Striga populations also into three clusters. However, population structure analysis resulted in five sub-populations with fixation index (Fst) values ranging from 0.0799 to 0.2533. The results obtained indicate the presence of multiple races of S. gesnerioides in Ghana. The identities of the races present are S. gesnerioides (SG) races 3, 2 and 5. The current study significantly broadens the information on the diversity and population structure of S. gesnerioides in the country and has established a new set of markers for S. gesnerioides fingerprinting. The study also identified cowpea varieties resistant to all collections of S. gesnerioides, which can serve as parents in the improvement of cowpea in Ghana and West Africa at large.
  10. Investigation of the mechanisms and experimental verification of Cuscuta-Salvia in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) via network pharmacology Ying ying Zhang, Jian xiong Ma, Yu tian Zhu, Yi xuan Wang, Wang qiang Chen, Xin Sun, Wei Zhang, Chen ye Wang, Cai fei Ding Journal of Ovarian Research, volume 15 Thursday 15 September 2022 Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disease associated with reproduction. The Cuscuta-Salvia formula has been widely used to treat for PCOS in clinic. However, its chemical and pharmacological properties remain unclear. We identified the active components and related targets of Cuscuta-Salvia using UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS and TCMSP database... Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disease associated with reproduction. The Cuscuta-Salvia formula has been widely used to treat for PCOS in clinic. However, its chemical and pharmacological properties remain unclear. We identified the active components and related targets of Cuscuta-Salvia using UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS and TCMSP database. Disease targets were obtained from the DisGeNET and GeneCards databases. Subsequently, common targets between Cuscuta-Salvia and PCOS were identified using a Venn diagram. PPI network was established. Core genes were selected using a Cytoscape software plugin. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses were performed for common targets using the “pathview” package in R. Several core targets were verified using molecular and Immunological methods. By combining UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS with a network pharmacology study, 14 active components and a total of 80 common targets were obtained. Ten core genes were regulated by Cuscuta-Salvia in PCOS, including IL6, AKT1, VEGFA, TP53, TNF, MAPK1, JUN, EGF, CASP3, and EGFR. GO results showed that cellular response to drugs, response to oxygen levels, response lipopolysaccharides, and response to molecule of bacterial origin in BP category; membrane, transcription regulator complex, nuclear chromatin, postsynaptic membrane, and vesicle lumen in CC category; DNA-binding transcription factor binding, RNA polymerase II-specific DNA-binding transcription factor binding, DNA-binding transcription activator activity, RNA polymerase II-specific, DNA-binding transcription activator activity, and cytokine receptor binding in MF terms. The KEGG enrichment pathway was mainly involved in the PI3K − Akt, MAPK, TNF, IL-17 signalling pathways, and in cellular senescence. Furthermore, the results of the experimental study showed that Cuscuta-Salvia ameliorated the pathological changes in the ovaries, liver and adipose tissue. And it improved the expressions of the genes or proteins. Our results demonstrate that Cuscuta-Salvia may provide a novel pharmacological basis in an experimental model of PCOS by regulating gene expression. This study provides a basis for future research and clinical applications.
  11. Optimizing use of U.S. Ex-PVP inbred lines for enhancing agronomic performance of tropical Striga resistant maize inbred lines Abdoul Raouf Sayadi Maazou, Melaku Gedil, Victor O. Adetimirin, Wende Mengesha, Silvestro Meseka, Oluyinka Ilesanmi, Paterne A. Agre, Abebe Menkir BMC Plant Biology, volume 22 Wednesday 14 September 2022 Background: Temperate maize inbred lines with expired Plant Variety Protection Act certificates (Ex-PVP) are potential sources of desirable alleles for tropical germplasm improvement. Up to now, the usefulness of the Ex-PVP inbred lines as a potential source of novel beneficial alleles for Striga hermonthica resistance breeding to enhance genetic g... Background: Temperate maize inbred lines with expired Plant Variety Protection Act certificates (Ex-PVP) are potential sources of desirable alleles for tropical germplasm improvement. Up to now, the usefulness of the Ex-PVP inbred lines as a potential source of novel beneficial alleles for Striga hermonthica resistance breeding to enhance genetic gain in tropical maize has not been reported. Results: This study was thus conducted to characterize the combining ability of 24 Ex-PVP inbred lines in crosses with two tropical Striga resistant inbred testers under Striga-infested and non-infested conditions and across three locations for 2 years. Many testcrosses between Ex-PVP inbred lines and the first tester (T1) produced competitive or significantly higher grain yields compared to the hybrid between the two resistant testers under Striga infested and non-infested conditions and across multiple test locations. Also, most of the testcrosses with positive heterosis for grain yield and negative heterosis for Striga damage and emerged Striga count involved T1 as a tester. Our study identified six Ex-PVP inbred lines with positive GCA effects for grain yield under Striga infested and non-infested conditions and across multiple test locations. Amongst these, inbred lines HB8229-1 and WIL900-1 also displayed negative GCA effects for emerged Striga count and Striga damage rating. The inbred line HB8229-1 showed positive SCA effects for grain yield with T2, whereas WIL900-1 had positive SCA effects for grain yield with T1. Over 70% of the Ex-PVP inbred lines were consistently assigned to specific heterotic groups using yield-based classifying methods (mean grain yield and SCA effects). Conclusions: These results could facilitate systematic introgression of the Ex-PVP inbred lines into the existing Striga resistant heterotic groups in IITA. The Ex-PVP inbred lines with positive GCA effects and producing high grain yields in hybrid combinations could be useful parents for enhancing Striga resistance and agronomic performance of tropical maize hybrids.
  12. Structural characteristics of black spruce (Picea mariana) infested with eastern spruce dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium pusillum), Minnesota, USA Ella R. Gray, Matthew B. Russell, Chad Babcock, Marcella A. Windmuller-Campione Forest Ecology and Management, volume 523 Tuesday 13 September 2022 Disturbances are important processes within forested ecosystems, influencing stand dynamics, species composition, and ecosystem services, with effects across multiple spatial scales. Interacting effects across scales can influence the suitability and results of management actions, necessitating a thorough understanding of disturbances at multiple s... Disturbances are important processes within forested ecosystems, influencing stand dynamics, species composition, and ecosystem services, with effects across multiple spatial scales. Interacting effects across scales can influence the suitability and results of management actions, necessitating a thorough understanding of disturbances at multiple scales. Eastern spruce dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium pusillum Peck, hereafter ESDM) is a native disturbance agent of lowland black spruce (Picea marina (Mill.) B.S.P.) in Minnesota, USA. ESDM results in mortality at the individual tree scale but is commonly managed through stand-level silvicultural treatments; ESDM can also influence landscape-scale forest composition. Despite its role as a mortality agent of black spruce, little is known about the relationship between structure and infestation at scales finer than the stand. Here, our objective was to quantify the relationship between ESDM infestation and structure at the stand, plot, and neighborhood scales. Twenty-five black spruce stands, 12 infested and 13 uninfested, were sampled using fixed radius plots; variables collected relate to ESDM infestation severity, forest structure, and forest composition. The relationship between forest structure and ESDM infestation presence was analyzed at the stand, plot, individual tree, and neighborhood (a hybrid scale focused on individual trees but including variables measured in the plot in which the tree is located) scales. Infested plots and neighborhoods had significantly lower trees per hectare and higher species richness and Shannon's Diversity than uninfested plots and neighborhoods; these differences were not significant the stand scale. At the stand scale, stand structure and composition variables, including trees per hectare and species diversity metrics, shift with ESDM severity. However, at the tree level, the presence or absence of ESDM is more strongly related to structure than is severity. When incorporating ESDM infestations in management planning and decision making, considering the appropriate scale is important. By documenting the effects of ESDM at multiple scales, we can deepen our understanding of stand dynamics and succession in lowland black spruce and use this information to develop new, ecologically based management approaches in these forests that more closely reflect the local disturbance regimes.
  13. Integrated metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses of the parasitic plant Cuscuta japonica Choisy on host and non-host plants Chenglin Guo, Liuyan Qin, Yongling Ma, Jianlin Qin BMC Plant Biology, volume 22 Thursday 08 September 2022 Background: Cuscuta japonica Choisy (Japanese dodder) is a parasitic weed that damages many plants and affects agricultural production. The haustorium of C. japonica plays a key role during parasitism in host plants; in contrast, some non-host plants effectively inhibit its formation. However, the metabolic differences between normal dodder in host... Background: Cuscuta japonica Choisy (Japanese dodder) is a parasitic weed that damages many plants and affects agricultural production. The haustorium of C. japonica plays a key role during parasitism in host plants; in contrast, some non-host plants effectively inhibit its formation. However, the metabolic differences between normal dodder in host plants and dodder inhibition in non-host plants are largely unknown. Here, we utilized an integrative analysis of transcriptomes and metabolomes to compare the differential regulatory mechanisms between C. japonica interacting with the host plant Ficus microcarpa and the non-host plant Mangifera indica. Results: After parasitization for 24 h and 72 h, the differentially abundant metabolites between these two treatments were enriched in pathways associated with α-linolenic acid metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and pyrimidine metabolism. At the transcriptome level, the flavor biosynthesis pathway was significantly enriched at 24 h, whereas the plant–pathogen interaction, arginine and proline metabolism, and MARK signaling-plant pathways were significantly enriched at 72 h, based on the differentially expressed genes between these two treatments. Subsequent temporal analyses identified multiple genes and metabolites that showed different trends in dodder interactions between the host and non-host plants. In particular, the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway showed significant differential regulation between C. japonica in host and non-host plants. Conclusions: These results provide insights into the metabolic mechanisms of dodder–host interactions, which will facilitate future plant protection from C. japonica parasitism.
  14. Impact of white mistletoe (Viscum album ssp. abietis) infection severity on morphology, anatomy and photosynthetic pigment content of the needles of cilicican fir (Abies cilicica) Murat Ozturk, Kadir Alperen Coskuner, Bedri Serdar, Fahrettin Atar, Ertugrul Bilgili Flora: Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants, volume 294 Wednesday 07 September 2022 White mistletoe (Viscum album ssp. abietis, Santalaceae) is a hemi-parasitic plant and is regarded as one of the most significant biotic factors affecting fir forests. Mistletoe affects its host in many ways, including changes in leaf development. This paper studies and quantifies the effect of white mistletoe on morphological, anatomical traits an... White mistletoe (Viscum album ssp. abietis, Santalaceae) is a hemi-parasitic plant and is regarded as one of the most significant biotic factors affecting fir forests. Mistletoe affects its host in many ways, including changes in leaf development. This paper studies and quantifies the effect of white mistletoe on morphological, anatomical traits and photosynthetic pigment content of cilicican fir (Abies cilicica (Antoine & Kotschy) Carrière, Pinaceae) needles growing on uninfected branches of infected and uninfected trees in relation to varying mistletoe infection severity. Morphological (needle length and width, area and weight, and specific leaf area), anatomical (needle width and thickness, epidermis and central vein thickness, needle cross sectional and mesophyll area, epidermis plus hypodermis and central vein area, xylem and phloem area, transfusion and resin duct area), stomatal (number of stomata rows, stomatal band width, stomata length and density) traits and photosynthetic pigment content (chlorophyll a and b, total chlorophyll (a+b), total carotenoid) were measured in one-year-old needles growing on uninfected branches from a total of 48 cilicican fir trees. Of the trees, 10 were uninfected, 13 lightly infected, 14 moderately infected and 11 severely infected. The results indicated that morphological dimension of needles decreased steadily with increasing infection severity. Stomatal size of needles decreased gradually while stomatal density increased gradually with increasing infection severity. Reduced anatomical dimension were only evident in needles from moderate and severe infection classes, while chlorophyll content decreased in only severely infected trees.
  15. Strigolactones are chemoattractants for host tropism in Orobanchaceae parasitic plants Satoshi Ogawa, Songkui Cui, Alexandra R.F. White, David C. Nelson, Satoko Yoshida, Ken Shirasu Nature Communications, volume 13 Tuesday 06 September 2022 Parasitic plants are worldwide threats that damage major agricultural crops. To initiate infection, parasitic plants have developed the ability to locate hosts and grow towards them. This ability, called host tropism, is critical for parasite survival, but its underlying mechanism remains mostly unresolved. To characterise host tropism, we used the... Parasitic plants are worldwide threats that damage major agricultural crops. To initiate infection, parasitic plants have developed the ability to locate hosts and grow towards them. This ability, called host tropism, is critical for parasite survival, but its underlying mechanism remains mostly unresolved. To characterise host tropism, we used the model facultative root parasite Phtheirospermum japonicum, a member of the Orobanchaceae. Here, we show that strigolactones (SLs) function as host-derived chemoattractants. Chemotropism to SLs is also found in Striga hermonthica, a parasitic member of the Orobanchaceae, but not in non-parasites. Intriguingly, chemotropism to SLs in P. japonicum is attenuated in ammonium ion-rich conditions, where SLs are perceived, but the resulting asymmetrical accumulation of the auxin transporter PIN2 is diminished. P. japonicum encodes putative receptors that sense exogenous SLs, whereas expression of a dominant-negative form reduces its chemotropic ability. We propose a function for SLs as navigators for parasite roots.

Parasitic Plants on Twitter

Use hashtag #parasiticplants to get your own tweets listed in this overview.