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International Parasitic Plant Society

Welcome to the homepage of the International Parasitic Plant Society (IPPS). The IPPS is dedicated to advancing scientific research on parasitic plants. Our goals include increasing the understanding of these amazing plants, providing a platform for exchange among and beyond the scientific community as well as helping to decrease the crop damage inflicted by weedy parasitic plants.

IPPS seminar series

The IPPS organises an online monthly-seminar series accessible to members and their students. Want to become an IPPS member? See Membership info 

4-Aug-21 Francisco Fontúrbel (Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso) – Cascade impacts of climate change on ecological interactions: lessons from a keystone mistletoe
  Min-Yao Jhu (University of California, Davis) – CcLBD25 functions as a key regulator of haustorium development in Cuscuta campestris
1-Sep-21 Soyon Park (University of Missouri) – Molecular host-parasite interactions
  Nicoleta Muchira and Damaris Odeny (ICRISAT, Eastern and Southern Africa) – What we know about SorghumStriga interactions
6-Oct-21 Thomas Spallek (University of Hohenheim) – Signaling between Phtheirospermum and Arabidopsis
  Immaculate Mwangangi (University of Greenwich) – tba
3-Nov-21 Salim Al-Babili (King Abdullah University) – Harnessing hormones and signaling molecules for combating Striga
  Stephane Munos (INRA, France) – tba
1-Dec-21 Kateřina Knotková (Masaryk University, Czech Republic) – Interactions between parasitic plants and invasive hosts: the experimental evidence
  Emily Bellis (Arkansas State University) – Evolution of parasitic plant-host interactions from gene to continent scales

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Most Recent ‘Parasitic Plant’ Publications

in Google Scholar

  1. Cytinus hypocistis (L.) L.: Optimised heat/ultrasound-assisted extraction of tannins by response surface methodology AR Silva, J Pinela, PA García, ICFR Ferreira… - Separation and …, 2021 - Elsevier Tuesday 27 July 2021  … Cytinus hypocistis (L.) L. is a wild edible parasitic plant whose biological properties have been correlated with its high tannin content … Keywords. Parasitic plant. Hydrolysable tannins. Heat/Ultrasound-assisted extraction. Extraction optimisation. Hydroethanolic solvent …
  2. [PDF][PDF] A SIMPLIFIED REVIEW ON AFTIMOON (CUSCUTA REFLEXA ROXB.), A PARASITIC VINE WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO UNANI MEDICINE MN Mannan, M Zakir, I Ahmad, T Ahmad, MH Kazmi - researchgate.net Tuesday 27 July 2021 Abstract Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.(Fam. Convolvulaceae) is commonly known as aftimoon, amarbel, akashbel, or dodder in the alternative medicine system. It is widely used in the Unani system of medicine (USM) for its useful therapeutic effects due to its active …
  3. Breeding strategies for resistance to sunflower broomrape: New sources of resistance and markers for resistance and avirulence genes Á Calderón González - 2021 - helvia.uco.es Tuesday 27 July 2021  … Among the major limitations in the growth and production of sunflower is a parasitic plant called … the agricultural systems. Parasitic plants of commercial importance include six … family, genera Orobanche, Phelipanche and Striga belonging to the Orobanchaceae …
  4. Septemeranthus (Loranthaceae), a new monotypic genus from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India and its relationship with allied genera LJ Singh - Feddes Repertorium - Wiley Online Library Monday 26 July 2021  … Copy URL. Share a link. Share on: Email; Facebook; Twitter; Linked In; Reddit; Wechat. Abstract. A new showy mistletoe genus, Septemeranthus LJ Singh with a type species, S. nicobaricus LJ Singh sp. nov., is described and illustrated from the Andaman and Nicobar …
  5. Genetic interrelationships of elite sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) genotypes bred for Striga resistance and compatibility with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp … A Makebe, H Shimelis… - … Scandinavica, Section B …, 2021 - Taylor & Francis Saturday 24 July 2021 Genetic diversity is key for breeding population development, hybrid breeding, heterotic grouping and genetic analysis, among others. The objective of this study was to examine genetic interrelationships among elite sorghum genotypes bred for resistance to …
  6. Detection of mistletoe infected trees using UAV high spatial resolution images M Miraki, H Sohrabi, P Fatehi… - Journal of Plant Diseases …, 2021 - Springer Friday 23 July 2021 Remote detection of aerial parasitic plants in forests is imperative in precision forestry, as it can help to manage tree stands and to monitor forest ecosystem health. The plain forests located in Noor and Hyrcanian forests (Iran), characterized by mixed …
  7. [HTML][HTML] Ethnoveterinary knowledge of sheep and goat farmers in Benin (West Africa): effect of socioeconomic and environmental factors E Tchetan, AP Olounlade, TD Houehanou… - Heliyon, 2021 - Elsevier Saturday 24 July 2021  … Chemical and biological analysis are needed on less studied plants such as, Striga hermonthica, Crossopteryx febrifuga, Elaeis guineensis and Momordica charantia. Keywords. Ethnoveterinary. Diseases. Sheep. Goats. Benin. 1. Introduction …
  8. Three mutations repurpose a plant karrikin receptor to a strigolactone receptor A Arellano-Saab, M Bunsick… - Proceedings of the …, 2021 - National Acad Sciences Saturday 24 July 2021 Skip to main content. Main menu. Home; Articles: Current; Special Feature Articles - Most Recent; Special Features; Colloquia; Collected Articles; PNAS Classics; List of Issues. Front Matter: Front Matter Portal; Journal Club. News: For …
  9. [HTML][HTML] Correlational nutritional relationships and interactions between expansive holoparasite Orobanche laxissima and woody hosts on metal-rich soils R Piwowarczyk, I Ochmian, S Lachowicz, I Kapusta… - Phytochemistry, 2021 - Elsevier Saturday 24 July 2021 Plant parasitism by other plants, combined with abiotic environmental stress, offers a unique opportunity to study correlational nutritional relationships in terms of parasite–host interactions and their functional roles in nutrient cycling in ecosystems. Our study …
  10. Herbivory-induced systemic signals are likely evolutionarily conserved in euphyllophytes Y Lei, Y Xu, J Zhang, J Song, J Wu - Journal of Experimental …, 2021 - academic.oup.com Friday 23 July 2021  … Dodder (Cuscuta campestris) seedlings were infested on soybean (Glycine max) plants to form stocks … 2019. Molecular dialog between parasitic plants and their hosts. Annual Review of Phytopathology 11, 1-21. Dicke M, Baldwin IT … 2017. Stem parasitic plant Cuscuta …
  11. Future climate CO2 can harness ROS homeostasis and improve cell wall fortification to alleviate the hazardous effect of Phelipanche infection in pea seedlings II Shabbaj, H AbdElgawad, A Tammar… - Plant Physiology and …, 2021 - Elsevier Thursday 22 July 2021 Parasitic weeds such as Phelipanche aegyptiaca pose one of the most significant environmental constraints to cropping systems worldwide. The influence of P. aegyptiaca upon host plant is well studied, nevertheless, how future climate CO 2 (eCO 2) …
  12. [HTML][HTML] Image analysis for the automatic phenotyping of Orobanche cumana tubercles on sunflower roots A Le Ru, G Ibarcq, MC Boniface… - Plant …, 2021 - plantmethods.biomedcentral.com Thursday 22 July 2021 The parasitic plant Orobanche cumana is one of the most important threats to sunflower crops in Europe. Resistant sunflower varieties have been developed, but new O. cumana races have evolved and have overcome introgressed resistance genes, leading to …
  13. [PDF][PDF] Inventory of invasive alien plant taxa in gundla brahmeswaram wildlife sanctuary, Nallamalais, India: Implications for monitoring and management O Kanneboyena, S Suthari, VJS Rani, K Jayaramulu… - researchgate.net Tuesday 20 July 2021  … and most serious invasive species were recognized in the sanctuary, namely, Hyptis suaveolens, Lantana camara, Senna uniflora, Parthenium hysterophorus, Ageratum conyzoides, Waltheria indica, Chromolaena odorata, Mimosa pudica and Prosopis juliflora, Cuscuta …
  14. In Defense Of Plants: Salicylic Acid In A Host-Parasite-Pathogen System TK Martin - 2021 - ir.library.illinoisstate.edu Tuesday 20 July 2021  … Cuscuta pentagona is an obligate parasitic plant that uses a specialized organ, known as a … 8 Cultivation and Preparation of Cuscuta pentagona and Tomato 8 … parasitic plants can enable the movement of secondary metabolites and proteins between their hosts (LeBlanc …
  15. Specific features of the response of the antioxidant system of urban trees to mistletoe infection L Skrypnik, P Maslennikov, P Feduraev… - E3S Web of …, 2021 - e3s-conferences.org Tuesday 20 July 2021 Urban green spaces are an important component of sustainable urban development. Infestation of urban trees by mistletoe white leads to a decrease in the growth energy of woody plants and their longevity. In the present study, the peculiarities of oxidative …

Most Recent 'Parasitic Plant' publications

in Scopus

  1. Designing a model to investigate cropping systems aiming to control both parasitic plants and weeds Olivia Pointurier, Stéphanie Gibot-Leclerc, Delphine Moreau, Carole Reibel, Eric Vieren, Nathalie Colbach European Journal of Agronomy, volume 129 Monday 02 August 2021 Branched broomrape (Phelipanche ramosa (L.) Pomel) is a parasitic plant, which causes severe yield losses in major crops worldwide. Because of its broad host range, including numerous non-parasitic weed species, the persistence of its seeds in the soil, and the poor efficiency of available management techniques, broomrape management is complex. The... Branched broomrape (Phelipanche ramosa (L.) Pomel) is a parasitic plant, which causes severe yield losses in major crops worldwide. Because of its broad host range, including numerous non-parasitic weed species, the persistence of its seeds in the soil, and the poor efficiency of available management techniques, broomrape management is complex. The objective of the present paper was to develop a broomrape-dynamics model to support the design of management strategies combining multiple techniques aiming at long-term control of broomrape. Towards this goal, we developed a simulation model with formalisms and parameters based on data from our own experiments and the literature. This model called PHERASYS combines 1) a demographic submodel to predict broomrape seed bank dynamics, 2) a trophic-relationships submodel to predict the effect of parasitism on crops and weeds, and 3) a submodel of weed dynamics in agroecosystems to predict the growth of crops and weeds from cropping techniques and pedoclimate. Thanks to an individual representation of each host plant, PHERASYS is able to simulate complex heterogeneous canopies. This model can be used as a tool to test management strategies including crop mixtures and relying on biological regulations by weeds.
  2. How does mistletoe infection affect seasonal physiological responses of hosts with different leaf phenology? Marina Corrêa Scalon, Davi Rodrigo Rossatto, Augusto Cesar Franco Flora: Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants, volume 281 Monday 02 August 2021 Plants should have the ability to perceive physiological changes within their branches when infected by mistletoes, adjusting the use of resources between infected and uninfected branches which can be crucial for their survival in the long-term. Here we investigated how branches infected by the mistletoe Passovia ovata (Pohl ex DC.) Tiegh. and unin... Plants should have the ability to perceive physiological changes within their branches when infected by mistletoes, adjusting the use of resources between infected and uninfected branches which can be crucial for their survival in the long-term. Here we investigated how branches infected by the mistletoe Passovia ovata (Pohl ex DC.) Tiegh. and uninfected branches within the same individual tree respond to seasonal environmental changes across two hosts of contrasting leaf phenology (the evergreen Miconia albicans (SW.) Triana and the deciduous Byrsonima verbascifolia (L.) DC.). We measured key leaf traits (instantaneous gas exchange rates, diurnal courses of stomatal conductance, leaf water potential, specific leaf area and leaf macronutrient concentrations) during the peak of the wet and dry season in a seasonal savanna of central Brazil. Pre-dawn leaf water potentials were consistently more negative for infected branches of both hosts, suggesting that overnight water refilling of infected branches was more limited. However, infected and uninfected branches exhibited similar leaf water potentials at midday, suggesting that they undergo similar imbalances in water supply and demand during periods of high atmospheric evaporative demand. Infected and non-infected branches of the evergreen mistletoe showed tighter regulation of water loss, whereas infected branches of the deciduous host were less constrained in regulating leaf transpiration. We also found differences for nutrient concentrations: N, P and K were lower, while Ca was higher in leaves of infected branches. Physiological changes induced by mistletoe infection affected host performance, and were reflected in water and nutrient use differences between infected and uninfected branches. Our findings show that infection responses by mistletoes can be detected between branches within individual trees, and that host species with distinct patterns of leaf phenology are capable to adjust, at the individual level, to cope with mistletoe's imposed physiological stress throughout the year.
  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on cytotoxicity, phenolics content and acute toxicity of Cuscuta chinensis L. extract Fatemeh Alijaniha, Fatemeh Emadi, Mohsen Naseri, Mohammad Kamalinejad, Elahe Motevaseli, Malihe soodi, Roya Karimi Radiation Physics and Chemistry, volume 185 Sunday 01 August 2021 Gamma irradiation is used as an efficient method for decontamination of some foodstuffs and herbal medicines. Several studies have shown that low to moderate doses of gamma irradiation do not alter the chemical composition and biological activities of herbal medicine; however, some changes in herbal composition, appearance or properties have been o... Gamma irradiation is used as an efficient method for decontamination of some foodstuffs and herbal medicines. Several studies have shown that low to moderate doses of gamma irradiation do not alter the chemical composition and biological activities of herbal medicine; however, some changes in herbal composition, appearance or properties have been observed in another studies, and this remains controversial. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the biological activity and the content of bioactive compounds of Cuscuta chinensis L. extract. The dose of 5 kGy was studied for decontamination. The results of the in vitro study showed that the cytotoxic effects on A549 and HT-29 cell lines were improved without any alteration of cytotoxicity on normal cell line. Also, acute oral toxicity of the extract did not change according to in vivo study. However, due to the significant reduction of total phenol and flavonoids contents by 12% and 18% respectively, the improvement of cytotoxic properties maybe due to the formation of new active compounds, the identification of which requires further studies.
  4. Strategies for selecting early maturing maize inbred lines for hybrid production under low soil nitrogen and striga infestation Gloria B. Adu, Baffour Badu-Apraku, Richard Akromah Agronomy, volume 11 Sunday 01 August 2021 Development, testing and selection of superior inbred lines is crucial for the success of a hybrid program targeting Striga-infested and low soil nitrogen (low-N) environments. The practical value of inbred lines is determined by multiple traits, most of which are inter-dependent. The main objective of this study was to identify early maturing inbr... Development, testing and selection of superior inbred lines is crucial for the success of a hybrid program targeting Striga-infested and low soil nitrogen (low-N) environments. The practical value of inbred lines is determined by multiple traits, most of which are inter-dependent. The main objective of this study was to identify early maturing inbred lines based on multiple traits under optimal, low-N and Striga-infested environments for hybrid development and population improvement. One hundred early maturing inbred lines were evaluated under artificial Striga-infestation, low-N and optimal growing environments for two years at Kwadaso and Nyankpala in Ghana. The inbred lines exhibited high levels of genetic variability for grain yield and other agronomic traits desirable for Striga resistance and low-N tolerance. Under optimal growing conditions, days to silking (DS), ears per plot (EHARV) and days to anthesis (DA) had high direct effects on grain yield (GYLD). Days to silking and ears per plant (EPP) had the highest positive direct effects on GYLD, while DA had the highest negative direct effect on grain yield in low-N environments. Under Striga-infestation, the highest negative direct effect on GYLD was obtained with EASP. All the measured traits previously identified to have direct influence on grain yield were associated with it and could be used for indirect selection for improved grain yield under the contrasting environments. Forty-eight of the 100 inbred lines studied were identified as low-N tolerant and forty-nine as Striga resistant.
  5. An exotic magnet plant alters pollinator abundance and behavior: a field test with a native mistletoe Javier Cuadra-Valdés, Jeferson Vizentin-Bugoni, Francisco E. Fontúrbel Biological Invasions, volume 23, pages 2515-2525 Saturday 31 July 2021 Exotic species can threaten biodiversity by disrupting ecological interactions among native species. Highly-attractive exotic species can exert a ‘magnet effect’ by attracting native pollinators, which may have either competitive or facilitative effects on co-flowering native plants. However, those effects may be context-dependent. We used a mi... Exotic species can threaten biodiversity by disrupting ecological interactions among native species. Highly-attractive exotic species can exert a ‘magnet effect’ by attracting native pollinators, which may have either competitive or facilitative effects on co-flowering native plants. However, those effects may be context-dependent. We used a mistletoe-hummingbird pollination system in the Valdivian rainforest (southern Chile) to test whether the exotic tree Eucalyptus globulus (a highly attractive species to pollinators) acts as a magnet species, affecting the co-flowering native mistletoe. We compared hummingbird abundance, visitation rates, and activity patterns between native forest and abandoned E. globulus plantations. We found that hummingbirds were more abundant and visited more flowers at the plantation irrespective of E. globulus flowering. We observed a significant change of pollinator activity at the native habitat during E. globulus flowering, as hummingbirds visited mistletoe flowers more frequently early in the morning at the plantations and in the afternoon at the native forests. Our results showed that E. globulus acts as an exotic magnet species and can alter pollinator abundance and behavior. Our findings demonstrate the importance of considering local- and landscape-scale processes to understand the effects of magnet species on native plants and suggest that magnet species may influence even highly-attractive plants.
  6. Plant parasites under pressure: Effects of abiotic stress on the interactions between parasitic plants and their hosts Lyuben Zagorchev, Wolfgang Stöggl, Denitsa Teofanova, Junmin Li, Ilse Kranner International Journal of Molecular Sciences, volume 22 Saturday 31 July 2021 Parasitic angiosperms, comprising a diverse group of flowering plants, are partially or fully dependent on their hosts to acquire water, mineral nutrients and organic compounds. Some have detrimental effects on agriculturally important crop plants. They are also intriguing model systems to study adaptive mechanisms required for the transition from ... Parasitic angiosperms, comprising a diverse group of flowering plants, are partially or fully dependent on their hosts to acquire water, mineral nutrients and organic compounds. Some have detrimental effects on agriculturally important crop plants. They are also intriguing model systems to study adaptive mechanisms required for the transition from an autotrophic to a heterotrophic metabolism. No less than any other plant, parasitic plants are affected by abiotic stress factors such as drought and changes in temperature, saline soils or contamination with metals or herbicides. These effects may be attributed to the direct influence of the stress, but also to diminished host availability and suitability. Although several studies on abiotic stress response of parasitic plants are available, still little is known about how abiotic factors affect host preferences, defense mechanisms of both hosts and parasites and the effects of combinations of abiotic and biotic stress experienced by the host plants. The latter effects are of specific interest as parasitic plants pose additional pressure on contemporary agriculture in times of climate change. This review summarizes the existing literature on abiotic stress response of parasitic plants, highlighting knowledge gaps and discussing perspectives for future research and potential agricultural applications.
  7. Phytochemical characterization of phoradendron bollanum and viscum album subs. Austriacum as mexican mistletoe plants with antimicrobial activity José Daniel García-García, Julia Cecilia Anguiano-Cabello, Roberto Arredondo-Valdés, Claudio Alexis Candido Del Toro, José Luis Martínez-Hernández, Elda Patricia Segura-Ceniceros, Mayela Govea-Salas, Mónica Lizeth González-Chávez, Rodolfo Ramos-González, Sandra Cecilia Esparza-González, Juan Alberto Ascacio-Valdés, Claudia Magdalena López-Badillo, Anna Ilyina Plants, volume 10 Saturday 31 July 2021 In Mexico, mistletoes have several applications in traditional medicine due to the great variety of compounds with biological activities that have not been characterized to date. The goals of the present study are to analyze the composition of minerals and phytochemical compounds in Mexican mistletoes Phoradendron bollanum and Viscum album subs. au... In Mexico, mistletoes have several applications in traditional medicine due to the great variety of compounds with biological activities that have not been characterized to date. The goals of the present study are to analyze the composition of minerals and phytochemical compounds in Mexican mistletoes Phoradendron bollanum and Viscum album subs. austriacum qualitatively and quantitatively, identify the compounds using HPLC-MS, and assess the antimicrobial potential in phytopathogenic microorganism control. Mineral content was evaluated with X-ray fluorescence. Three types of extracts were prepared: ethanol, water, and aqueous 150 mM sodium chloride solution. Characterization was carried out using qualitative tests for phytochemical compound groups, analytical methods for proteins, reducing sugars, total phenol, flavonoids quantification, and HPLC-MS for compound identification. The antimicrobial activity of mistletoe’s liquid extracts was evaluated by microplate assay. K and Ca minerals were observed in both mistletoes. A qualitative test demon-strated alkaloids, carbohydrates, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, and quinones. Ethanolic extract showed flavonoids, 3845 ± 69 and 3067 ± 17.2 mg QE/g for Phoradendron bollanum and Viscum album subs. austriacum, respectively, while aqueous extracts showed a total phenol content of 65 ± 6.9 and 90 ± 1.19 mg GAE/g Phoradendron bollanum and Viscum album subs. austriacum, respectively. HPLC-MS identified largely hydroxycinnamic acids and methoxycinnamic acids. Clavibacter michiganenses was successfully inhibited by aqueous extract of both mistletoes.
  8. How to resist parasitic plants: pre- and post-attachment strategies Maxwell R. Fishman, Ken Shirasu Current Opinion in Plant Biology, volume 62 Friday 30 July 2021 The lifecycle of parasitic plants can be divided into pre-attachment and post-attachment phases that equate to free living and parasitic stages. Similarly, plant resistance to parasitic plants can be defined as pre-attachment and post-attachment resistance. Parasitic plants rely on host cues for successful host invasion. During pre-attachment resis... The lifecycle of parasitic plants can be divided into pre-attachment and post-attachment phases that equate to free living and parasitic stages. Similarly, plant resistance to parasitic plants can be defined as pre-attachment and post-attachment resistance. Parasitic plants rely on host cues for successful host invasion. During pre-attachment resistance, changes in the composition of host signals can disrupt parasitic plant development and ultimately host invasion. Recent studies have only now begun to elucidate the genetic elements in the host that promote pre-attachment resistance. In comparison, new research points to post-attachment resistance using the common molecular mechanisms utilized by the plant immune system during plant-pathogen interactions. In kind, parasitic plants secrete proteinaceous and RNA-based effectors post-attachment to subvert the host immune system.
  9. The difficulty of predicting eastern spruce dwarf mistletoe in lowland black spruce: model benchmarking in northern minnesota, usa Ella R. Gray, Matthew B. Russell, Marcella A. Windmuller-Campione Forests, volume 12 Friday 30 July 2021 Insects, fungi, and diseases play an important role in forest stand development and subsequently, forest management decisions and treatments. As these disturbance agents commonly occur within and across landscapes, modeling has often been used to inform forest planning and management decisions. However, models are rarely benchmarked, leaving questi... Insects, fungi, and diseases play an important role in forest stand development and subsequently, forest management decisions and treatments. As these disturbance agents commonly occur within and across landscapes, modeling has often been used to inform forest planning and management decisions. However, models are rarely benchmarked, leaving questions about their utility. Here, we assessed the predictive performance of a Bayesian hierarchical model through on– the-ground sampling to explore what features of stand structure or composition may be important factors related to eastern spruce dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium pusillum Peck) presence in lowland black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B. S. P.). Twenty-five state-owned stands included in the predictive model were sampled during the 2019 and 2020 growing seasons. Within each stand, data related to the presence of eastern spruce dwarf mistletoe, stand structure, and species composition were collected. The model accurately predicted eastern spruce dwarf mistletoe occurrence for 13 of the 25 stands. The amount of living and dead black spruce basal area differed significantly based on model prediction and observed infestation, but trees per hectare, total living basal area, diameter at breast height, stand age, and species richness were not significantly different. Our results highlight the benefits of model benchmarking to improve model interpretation as well as to inform our understanding of forest health problems across diverse stand conditions.
  10. CRISPR/Cas9 mediated mutagenesis of MORE AXILLARY GROWTH 1 in tomato confers resistance to root parasitic weed Phelipanche aegyptiaca Vinay Kumar Bari, Jackline Abu Nassar, Radi Aly Scientific Reports, volume 11 Thursday 29 July 2021 Root parasitic weeds infect numerous economically important crops, affecting total yield quantity and quality. A lack of an efficient control method limits our ability to manage newly developing and more virulent races of root parasitic weeds. To control the parasite induced damage in most host crops, an innovative biotechnological approach is urge... Root parasitic weeds infect numerous economically important crops, affecting total yield quantity and quality. A lack of an efficient control method limits our ability to manage newly developing and more virulent races of root parasitic weeds. To control the parasite induced damage in most host crops, an innovative biotechnological approach is urgently required. Strigolactones (SLs) are plant hormones derived from carotenoids via a pathway involving the Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase (CCD) 7, CCD8 and More Axillary Growth 1 (MAX1) genes. SLs act as branching inhibitory hormones and strictly required for the germination of root parasitic weeds. Here, we demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targted editing of SL biosynthetic gene MAX1, in tomato confers resistance against root parasitic weed Phelipanche aegyptiaca. We designed sgRNA to target the third exon of MAX1 in tomato plants using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. The T0 plants were edited very efficiently at the MAX1 target site without any non-specific off-target effects. Genotype analysis of T1 plants revealed that the introduced mutations were stably passed on to the next generation. Notably, MAX1-Cas9 heterozygous and homozygous T1 plants had similar morphological changes that include excessive growth of axillary bud, reduced plant height and adventitious root formation relative to wild type. Our results demonstrated that, MAX1-Cas9 mutant lines exhibit resistance against root parasitic weed P. aegyptiaca due to reduced SL (orobanchol) level. Moreover, the expression of carotenoid biosynthetic pathway gene PDS1 and total carotenoid level was altered, as compared to wild type plants. Taking into consideration, the impact of root parasitic weeds on the agricultural economy and the obstacle to prevent and eradicate them, the current study provides new aspects into the development of an efficient control method that could be used to avoid germination of root parasitic weeds.
  11. An integrated approach to uncover quality markers of stir-baking Semen Cuscuta with salt solution preventing recurrent spontaneous abortion based on chemical and metabolomic profiling Xiaoli Wang, Haiyan Gao, Song Tan, Chao Xu, Fengqing Xu, Tongsheng Wang, Jijun Chu, Yanquan Han, Deling Wu, Chuanshan Jin Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, volume 1177 Thursday 29 July 2021 The previous research of clinical big data mining showed that stir-baking Semen Cuscuta with salt solution (YP) ranked the first in the usage rate of treating abortion caused by kidney deficiency. At the same time, pharmacodynamic studies also showed that YP has better effect on improving recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) compared to raw product... The previous research of clinical big data mining showed that stir-baking Semen Cuscuta with salt solution (YP) ranked the first in the usage rate of treating abortion caused by kidney deficiency. At the same time, pharmacodynamic studies also showed that YP has better effect on improving recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) compared to raw products of Semen Cuscuta (SP). However, there were few studies on the biomarkers of YP improving RSA. In this study, the chemical and metabonomic profiling were used to screen the quality markers of YP on improving RSA. Firstly, a metabolomics study was carried out to select representative biomarkers of RSA. The ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS) technique was used to investigate the components of exogenous and endogenous in serum of rats after administrated with YP and SP. As a result, 14 differential compounds were identified between the serum of rats administrated SP and YP. Compared to SP, there was an upward trend in YP of the compounds including kaempferol-3-glucuronide, iso-kaempferol-3-glucuronide, (1S) −11-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid and 3-phenylpropionic acid. Meanwhile, there was a reducing trend in YP of the compounds including kaempferol 3-arabinofuranoside, apigenin-3-O-glucoside, hyperoside, caffeic acid-β-D glucoside, dicaffeoylquinic acid, linoleic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, caffeic acid, palmitic acid and methyl myristate. 12 biomarkers for RSA indication were identified. SP and YP have a certain effect on the endogenous biomarker. The regulation effect of YP was higher than that of SP. The main metabolic pathways included phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis, glycerophospholipid metabolism, fatty acid biosynthesis, sphingolipid metabolism, biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids. This study demonstrated a promising way to elucidate the active chemical and endogenous material basis of TCM.
  12. Large-scale sequencing paves the way for genomic and genetic analyses in parasitic plants Satoko Yoshida, Yee Jia Kee Current Opinion in Biotechnology, volume 70, pages 248-254 Wednesday 28 July 2021 Parasitic plants pose a serious agricultural threat, but are also precious resources for valuable metabolites. The heterotrophic nature of these plants has resulted in the development of several morphological and physiological features that are of evolutionary significance. Recent advances in large-scale sequencing technology have provided insights... Parasitic plants pose a serious agricultural threat, but are also precious resources for valuable metabolites. The heterotrophic nature of these plants has resulted in the development of several morphological and physiological features that are of evolutionary significance. Recent advances in large-scale sequencing technology have provided insights into the evolutionary and molecular mechanisms of plant parasitism. Genome sequencing has revealed gene losses and horizontal gene transfers in parasitic plants. Mobile signals traveling between the parasite and host may have contributed to the increased fitness of parasitic life styles. Transcriptome analyses implicate shared processes among various parasitic species and the establishment of functional analysis is beginning to reveal molecular mechanisms during host and parasite interactions.
  13. Spatial distribution of dwarf mistletoe in monarch butterfly biosphere reserve Nancy Martínez-Martínez, José Francisco Ramírez-Dávila, Fidel Lara-Vázquez, Dulce Karen Figueroa-Figueroa Colombia Forestal, volume 24, pages 65-81 Wednesday 28 July 2021 The genus Arceuthobium are parasitic plants of great ecological impact by causing the loss of forest species, in which it is affected the habitat of the monarch butterfly. The objective of this work was to determine the spatial distribution of dwarf mistletoe in Pinus pseudostrobus, through the use of spatial statistics (SADIE and Geostatistics), i... The genus Arceuthobium are parasitic plants of great ecological impact by causing the loss of forest species, in which it is affected the habitat of the monarch butterfly. The objective of this work was to determine the spatial distribution of dwarf mistletoe in Pinus pseudostrobus, through the use of spatial statistics (SADIE and Geostatistics), in 12 plots of four hectares, in the Piedra Herrada Sanctuary located in the State of Mexico. With the SADIE index, the spatial distribution was determined, in the case of geostatistics, semivarygrams, space distribution maps and the estimation of the infested area were developed. The results showed that mistletoe presents an aggregate distribution, adjusting to spherical and Gaussian statistical models. Infestations are not distributed at 100 % because there is not an uniform infestation within the plots, which will allow directing control measures in areas with greater infestation.
  14. Untargeted metabolomics approach to discriminate mistletoe commercial products Cécile Vanhaverbeke, David Touboul, Nicolas Elie, Martine Prévost, Cécile Meunier, Sylvie Michelland, Valérie Cunin, Ling Ma, David Vermijlen, Cédric Delporte, Stéphanie Pochet, Audrey Le Gouellec, Michel Sève, Pierre Van Antwerpen, Florence Souard Scientific Reports, volume 11 Tuesday 27 July 2021 Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) is used in German-speaking European countries in the field of integrative oncology linking conventional and complementary medicine therapies to improve quality of life. Various companies sell extracts, fermented or not, for injection by subcutaneous or intra-tumoral route with a regulatory status of anthroposophic medici... Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) is used in German-speaking European countries in the field of integrative oncology linking conventional and complementary medicine therapies to improve quality of life. Various companies sell extracts, fermented or not, for injection by subcutaneous or intra-tumoral route with a regulatory status of anthroposophic medicinal products (European Medicinal Agency (EMA) assessment status). These companies as well as anthroposophical physicians argue that complex matrices composed of many molecules in mixture are necessary for activity and that the host tree of the mistletoe parasitic plant is the main determining factor for this matrix composition. The critical point is that parenteral devices of European mistletoe extracts do not have a standard chemical composition regulated by EMA quality guidelines, because they are not drugs, regulatory speaking. However, the mechanism of mistletoe’s anticancer activity and its effectiveness in treating and supporting cancer patients are not fully understood. Because of this lack of transparency and knowledge regarding the matrix chemical composition, we undertook an untargeted metabolomics study of several mistletoe extracts to explore and compare their fingerprints by LC-(HR)MS(/MS) and 1H-NMR. Unexpectedly, we showed that the composition was primarily driven by the manufacturer/preparation method rather than the different host trees. This differential composition may cause differences in immunostimulating and anti-cancer activities of the different commercially available mistletoe extracts as illustrated by structure–activity relationships based on LC–MS/MS and 1H-NMR identifications completed by docking experiments. In conclusion, in order to move towards an evidence-based medicine use of mistletoe, it is a priority to bring rigor and quality, chemically speaking.
  15. Modeling the dynamics of a spruce forest and dwarf mistletoe population: a coupled system Dianguang Xiong, Zhouyuan Li, Yingmei Liang, Chengming Tian Journal of Forestry Research, volume 32, pages 1579-1585 Wednesday 21 July 2021 The parasitic plant dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium) is currently one of the most threatening infestations of coniferous forests worldwide, especially in Eurasia and North America, but its population dynamics in relation to one of its hosts (spruce) remain unclear. Here, toward understanding the population dynamics, differential equations were used t... The parasitic plant dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium) is currently one of the most threatening infestations of coniferous forests worldwide, especially in Eurasia and North America, but its population dynamics in relation to one of its hosts (spruce) remain unclear. Here, toward understanding the population dynamics, differential equations were used to construct a life history model for the two populations, and two relatively independent subsystems, host and parasite, were generated from their symbiotic relationships. A suspected-infection model was used to couple them. The resulting models were used to analyze structural changes in the forest. When each infected spruce was assumed to support 1000 parasite shoots, the spruce population first increased rapidly, then slows. When 2000 parasite shoots were assumed, the forest declined dramatically, slipping to zero in the 10th year, and the spruce seedlings were unable to regenerate. Parasite shoot population curves transformed from exponential J-shapes to logistic S-shapes, reaching population limitations as germination rates changed. These results provide important clues to understanding developmental trends of the present parasite population and will assist in reconstructing invasion histories.

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