International Parasitic Plant Society

Welcome to the homepage of the International Parasitic Plant Society (IPPS). The IPPS is dedicated to advancing scientific research on parasitic plants. Our goals include increasing the understanding of these amazing plants, providing a platform for exchange among and beyond the scientific community as well as helping to decrease the crop damage inflicted by weedy parasitic plants.

WCPP17 - 17th World Congress On Parasitic Plants, to be held in Nara, Japan in 2024

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Most Recent ‘Parasitic Plant’ publications

in Google Scholar

  1. Characterization of potential hypoglycaemic agents from Tapinanthus sessilifolius parasitic on Psidium guajava FD Tarfa, JO Igoli, AI Gray, GI Adoga… - Journal of Phytomedicine …, 2022 - ajol.info Tuesday 06 December 2022 Tapinanthus sessilifolius (Loranthaceae)(P. Beauv) Blume. commonly known as African mistletoe is a well-known medicinal plant in Africa and Europe. A bioassay-guided …
  2. Dendrophthora kuijtiana (Santalaceae: Visceae), una nueva especie y adiciones para el género en Venezuela DS Canelón, SM Niño, LJ Dorr, MA Caraballo-Ortiz - Brittonia, 2022 - Springer Tuesday 06 December 2022 Dendrophthora kuijtiana (Santalaceae), a new species of mistletoe endemic to the páramos and subpáramos of the Venezuelan Andes, is described and illustrated. We …
  3. An RNA-seq transcriptome analysis for investigating the anti-lung cancer activity of medicinal Cuscuta chinensis Lam plant. A Maimaiti, J Xu, L Shi - The British Journal of Nutrition, 2022 - europepmc.org Tuesday 06 December 2022 Cuscuta chinensis Lam. is a traditional medicinal herb used to treat female sterility, and male reproductive system disorders. However, the anti-lung cancer properties of …
  4. Ecological determinants and risk areas of Striga hermonthica infestation in western Kenya under changing climate E Kimathi, EM Abdel‐Rahman, C Lukhoba… - Weed … - Wiley Online Library Sunday 04 December 2022 … influential ecological predictor variables for Striga hermonthica establishment. The … Striga's prevalence. The methodology used in this study should be tested in other Striga …
  5. [PDF][PDF] Рождественские символы в англоязычных песнях ГА Родионов - 2022 - e-lib.mslu.by Saturday 03 December 2022 … Для рассказа о символе mistletoe необходимо отправиться в 800 год н.э. Считается, … Что касается mistletoe, этот рождественский атрибут встречается во многих …
  6. Prediction of pine mistletoe infection using remote sensing imaging: A comparison of the artificial neural network model and logistic regression model A Usta, M Yilmaz - Forest Pathology, 2022 - Wiley Online Library Saturday 03 December 2022 In this study, the prediction of pine mistletoe distribution in Scots pine ecosystems was explored using remote sensing variables to compare the multilayer perceptron (MLP…
  7. SIMPLE CORRELATION BETWEEN STRIGA VIGOR AND GROWTH CHARACTERS OF SORGHUM TAKEN DURING THE 2018, 2019 AND 2020 RAINY SEASONS … JB Bako, AS Fagam, AA Garba, MU Sabo… - Journal of …, 2022 - njaat.atbu.edu.ng Saturday 03 December 2022 … by transplanted age and nitrogen rate on striga (Striga hermonthica L. Benth) … Striga vigor was carried out based on visual observation using Striga vigor chart and Striga …
  8. ASSESSMENT OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF SOME OROBANCHACEAE SPECIES FROM ARMENIA NA Zakaryan, VS Gevorgyan, NG Kartashyan… - Proceedings of the YSU …, 2022 - pub.ysu.am Saturday 03 December 2022 … The highest antioxidant activities were recorded for Orobanche kurdica alcoholic extract. Water soluble phenols may explain the great antioxidant capacity of the aqueous …
  9. Genotypic Response to Striga (Striga Hermonthica) Infestation in Wild Relatives and Landraces of Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor) and the Introgression of the Resistance … NW Muchira - 2022 - erepository.uonbi.ac.ke Saturday 03 December 2022 … of development of Striga tolerant varieties that give substantial yield under Striga pressure. The study showed that Striga resistance and Striga tolerance alleles are …
  10. A meta‐analysis of the effects of Striga control methods on maize, sorghum, and major millets production in sub‐Saharan Africa EN Dossa, H Shimelis, AIT Shayanowako, MD Laing - Crop Science - Wiley Online Library Friday 02 December 2022 … Striga control methods in the production of maize, sorghum, and the major millets, as a guide to effective Striga … the assessed crops and Striga parameters such as damage …
  11. Genetic identification of submersed dodder (Cuscuta: Convolvulaceae) in Texas, USA CR Williams, NP Tippery, DH Les - Journal of the Botanical …, 2022 - journals.brit.org Wednesday 30 November 2022 … The Cuscuta plants in the Comal River were robust and more localized than those in … on submersed Cuscuta specimens, but in early 2013 we observed flowering Cuscuta …
  12. The Effect of 10 Crop Plants That Served as Hosts on the Primary Metabolic Profile of the Parasitic Plant Phelipanche aegyptiaca K Kumar, Y Hacham, R Amir - Metabolites, 2022 - mdpi.com Wednesday 30 November 2022 … The Orobanche and Phelipanche species are holoparasitic plants that lack chlorophyll. In Israel, there are five species that belong to this genus that attack agricultural …
  13. The trans‐kingdom communication of noncoding RNAs in plant–environment interactions T Liu, LG Xu, CG Duan - The Plant Genome, 2022 - Wiley Online Library Wednesday 30 November 2022 … plants and other organisms, such as plant response to pathogen attack, the symbiosis between legume plants and rhizobia and the interactions with parasitic plants. In …
  14. Phytotherapy in uro-oncology C Bauer-Büntzel, J Büntzel… - Urologie (Heidelberg …, 2022 - europepmc.org Tuesday 29 November 2022 … Currently, there is no sufficient evidence for the use of pomegranate or mistletoe for tumor therapy. Guideline recommendations for or against symptom-oriented use exist …
  15. [PDF][PDF] Evaluation of Push-pull technology for pest and soil fertility management on maize in north western Ethiopia. M Abate, G Atnafu, B Alemu, A Molla, G Gebremariam… - 2022 - researchsquare.com Monday 28 November 2022 Aims The aims of the study were (i) to evaluate the effectiveness of the push-pull technology against stemborer and striga infestation,(ii) to investigate the impact of the …

Most Recent 'Parasitic Plant' publications

in Scopus

  1. Nitrogen represses haustoria formation through abscisic acid in the parasitic plant Phtheirospermum japonicum Anna Kokla, Martina Leso, Xiang Zhang, Jan Simura, Phanu T. Serivichyaswat, Songkui Cui, Karin Ljung, Satoko Yoshida, Charles W. Melnyk Nature Communications, volume 13 Thursday 08 December 2022 Parasitic plants are globally prevalent pathogens that withdraw nutrients from their host plants using an organ known as the haustorium. The external environment including nutrient availability affects the extent of parasitism and to understand this phenomenon, we investigated the role of nutrients and found that nitrogen is sufficient to repress h... Parasitic plants are globally prevalent pathogens that withdraw nutrients from their host plants using an organ known as the haustorium. The external environment including nutrient availability affects the extent of parasitism and to understand this phenomenon, we investigated the role of nutrients and found that nitrogen is sufficient to repress haustoria formation in the root parasite Phtheirospermum japonicum. Nitrogen increases levels of abscisic acid (ABA) in P. japonicum and prevents the activation of hundreds of genes including cell cycle and xylem development genes. Blocking ABA signaling overcomes nitrogen’s inhibitory effects indicating that nitrogen represses haustoria formation by increasing ABA. The effect of nitrogen appears more widespread since nitrogen also inhibits haustoria in the obligate root parasite Striga hermonthica. Together, our data show that nitrogen acts as a haustoria repressing factor and suggests a mechanism whereby parasitic plants use nitrogen availability in the external environment to regulate the extent of parasitism.
  2. Habitat suitability and dispersal of invasive Striga species under climate change in Africa Oyinade A. David, Maxwell C. Obiakara, Gift O. Fabolude, Gbenga F. Akomolafe, Modupe D. Ajiboye African Journal of Ecology, volume 60, pages 1143-1154 Wednesday 07 December 2022 Striga species are highly invasive annual parasitic plants posing significant economic losses to the production of cereal grains and legumes in Africa. There is no explicit knowledge about the potential distribution of some important Striga species in Africa. In this study, we used the Maximum Entropy modelling algorithm (MaxEnt 3.4) to identify th... Striga species are highly invasive annual parasitic plants posing significant economic losses to the production of cereal grains and legumes in Africa. There is no explicit knowledge about the potential distribution of some important Striga species in Africa. In this study, we used the Maximum Entropy modelling algorithm (MaxEnt 3.4) to identify the bioclimatic variables that best explain the current geographic distribution of the three most aggressive Striga species in Africa. Present-day climatically suitable areas were estimated at 14.53 million km2 (S. asiatica), 14.89 million km2 (S. hermonthica) and 12.13 million km2 (S. generioides), amounting to about 48%, 49% and 60% of the climatic space in Africa, respectively. Approximately, 11 million km2 were identified as stable and suitable across present and future periods for S. hermonthica, compared with 9 and 6 million km2 for S. asiatica and S. gesnerioides, respectively. Model projections showed that none of the study species would be able to disperse across much of northern and southern Africa. Striga hermonthica had the highest proportion (3.4%–9.3%) of colonised areas after dispersal simulations. The three Strigas predicted to be invasive in the tropical rainforest and tropical savannah of Africa. Breeding of polyploid Striga which causes sterility is considered as an alternative biological control to its spread.
  3. A pilot study of the mistletoe and breast cancer (MAB) trial: a protocol for a randomised double-blind controlled trial Susan Bryant, Lorna Duncan, Gene Feder, Alyson L. Huntley Pilot and Feasibility Studies, volume 8 Friday 02 December 2022 Background: A Cochrane review of mistletoe therapy concludes that there is some evidence that mistletoe extracts may offer benefits on measures of quality of life during chemotherapy for breast cancer, but these results need replication. Our aim is to add to this evidence base by initially testing the feasibility of a UK pilot placebo-controlled,... Background: A Cochrane review of mistletoe therapy concludes that there is some evidence that mistletoe extracts may offer benefits on measures of quality of life during chemotherapy for breast cancer, but these results need replication. Our aim is to add to this evidence base by initially testing the feasibility of a UK pilot placebo-controlled, double-blind randomised controlled trial of mistletoe therapy in patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy. Methods/design: A mixed phase pilot placebo-controlled, double-blind randomised controlled trial of mistletoe therapy in patients with breast cancer (EudraCT number: 2018-000279-34). There will be three arms (groups) in the trial: Iscador M, Iscador P, with physiological saline as the placebo. The aim is to recruit 45 adult patients with a new diagnosis of early or locally advanced breast cancer, up to 12 weeks following definitive breast surgery whose standard treatment plan includes chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy. They will be taught to administer the mistletoe and breast cancer (MAB) therapies subcutaneously. MAB therapy will continue throughout their standard chemotherapy and radiotherapy and 1 month beyond. The main outcome of the MAB study is the feasibility of conducting such a trial within the NHS in order to inform a future fully powered investigative trial. Feasibility will be measured through recruitment, retention and patient experience using clinical research forms, patient diaries, cancer-related questionnaires and qualitative interviews conducted with both patients and oncology staff. Discussion: This trial is the first of its kind in the UK. Currently, mistletoe therapy is mostly available through private practice in the UK. Completion of this feasibility study will support applications for further funding for a fully powered randomised controlled trial which will measure effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this herbal therapy.
  4. Adaptive bacterial and fungal matching between a parasitic plant and its host: A case of Cistanche deserticola and Haloxylon ammodendron Yujing Miao, Xinke Zhang, Jin Pei, Chang Liu, Linfang Huang Industrial Crops and Products, volume 191 Thursday 01 December 2022 How the unique heterotrophic life history of parasitic plants influences the root and rhizosphere microbiota of symbiotic host plants is relatively unknown. In this study, we used Cistanche deserticola and Haloxylon ammodendron from cultivated populations as our model parasite and host plants, respectively. We collected samples from root (PR) and r... How the unique heterotrophic life history of parasitic plants influences the root and rhizosphere microbiota of symbiotic host plants is relatively unknown. In this study, we used Cistanche deserticola and Haloxylon ammodendron from cultivated populations as our model parasite and host plants, respectively. We collected samples from root (PR) and rhizosphere (PS) of the parasite, root (HIR) and rhizosphere (HIS) of the host plant infected, and root (HUR) and rhizosphere (HUS) of host plant uninfected. We conducted Illumina high-throughput DNA sequencing technology, and compared the diversity, composition, co-occurring network structure of their microbiota, and traced the composition of the parasitic plant microbiota. Our results showed that the diversity of root bacteria and fungi was lower than those in the rhizosphere, the co-association complexity of the root was simpler than those of the rhizosphere, but the compositional similarity of root microbiota was increased relative to those of the rhizosphere. Infection had localized and systemic effects on microbiota of HIR and HIS. Seven taxa were enriched in HIR and HIS, including Microvigra, Sphingomonas, Rubrobacter, Gaiella, Quadrisphaera, Chaetomium, and Penicillum. Additionally, infection also led to the co-association network of HIR being simpler than HUR. Meanwhile, the diversity, composition, and co-association network were similar between PR and HUR. Community assembly mechanisms analysis showed that the variable selection and homogenizing dispersal were highly similar between C. deserticola (Bacteria: 0.8 and 0.2; Fungi: 0.4 and 0.4) and H. ammodendron (Bacteria: 0.8 and 0.2; Fungi: 0.4 and 0.36). And PR displayed a high level of congruence with HUR in both bacterial (t0=0.69) and fungal (t0=0.53) communities. Collectively, our results suggested that the root microbiota of parasitic plant was highly congruent with those of the host plant, consistent with the phenomena of ‘parasitic equilibrium’. Our findings on parasite and host microbiota provide a new novel line of evidence supporting the complex interaction of parasitic plants and their hosts.
  5. Mistletoe infested Moringa oleifera and Terminalia catappa leaves supplemented diet enhances antioxidant and insulin-like peptide mRNA levels in Drosophila melanogaster Olubukola H. Oyeniran, Ganiyu Oboh, Adedayo O. Ademiluyi, Haruna I. Umar Food Chemistry: Molecular Sciences, volume 5 Wednesday 30 November 2022 Moringa and Almond are common plants of medicinal and economic value which are often infested with mistletoe. Host plants’ infestation could result in major differences in their phytoconstituents and biological activities. Thus, effects of mistletoe infestation on Moringa and Almond host plants supplemented diets on mRNA expression levels of Dros... Moringa and Almond are common plants of medicinal and economic value which are often infested with mistletoe. Host plants’ infestation could result in major differences in their phytoconstituents and biological activities. Thus, effects of mistletoe infestation on Moringa and Almond host plants supplemented diets on mRNA expression levels of Drosophila insulin-like peptide-2 (Dilp2), heat shock protein-70 (Hsp70) and superoxide dismutase (Sod) in diabetic-like flies were evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR system. Mistletoe infestation on host leaves caused significant upregulation of Sod and significant downregulation of Hsp70 and Dilp2 genes. Hence, we opined that infestation of Moringa and Almond trees with mistletoe resulted in improved expression level of antioxidant and insulin-like peptide genes. This may be the mechanism by which host plants caused enhanced regulation of circulating glucose and oxidative stress. Therefore, consumption of mistletoe infested Moringa and Almond host leaves could possibly offer better antioxidant and hypoglycemic effects.
  6. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry–based plasma metabolomics study of hepatoprotective effect of cuscutae semen on CCl<inf>4</inf>-induced liver injury model of rats Shu ya Xu, Ying Zhang, Ting Han, Xiang ri Li, Li hong Li, Li jie Zuo Biomedical Chromatography, volume 36 Wednesday 30 November 2022 Hepatic disorders are a serious health problem threatening human beings. Cuscutae semen (CS), a widely used Chinese medicine, is a tonic to nourish the liver and kidney. Our research aimed to assess the hepatoprotective effect of CS on CCl4-induced liver injury rats using plasma metabolomics. Liver injury in rats was induced by 40% CCl4 in olive oi... Hepatic disorders are a serious health problem threatening human beings. Cuscutae semen (CS), a widely used Chinese medicine, is a tonic to nourish the liver and kidney. Our research aimed to assess the hepatoprotective effect of CS on CCl4-induced liver injury rats using plasma metabolomics. Liver injury in rats was induced by 40% CCl4 in olive oil twice a week for 21 days. The CS group received 2 g/kg of CS every day for 21 days. The liver tissues were used for histological studies. The serum was used for the analysis of biochemical parameters. Plasma metabolomic analysis was performed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. CS could relieve hepatocyte necrosis and decrease the levels of serum biochemical parameters in comparison the with CCl4 group. Principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis on plasma metabolomes showed an obvious separation among the control, model, and CS groups. Heatmap showed that CS-administered mice had similar metabolite profiles as the control group. Seven influential pathways in plasma of the hepatoprotective effect impacted by CS were identified. This study confirmed the hepatoprotective effect of CS, and the related metabolic pathways were discussed.
  7. Morphological and molecular profiling of Striga gesnerioides on cowpea in Ghana Frederick Justice Awuku, Francis Kusi, Agyemang Danquah, Pangyirayi Tongoona, Michael P. Timko Ecological Genetics and Genomics, volume 25 Tuesday 29 November 2022 This study accessed the morphological and molecular diversity of Striga gesnerioides populations from endemic regions of Northern Ghana. Morphological variations revealed the existence of two flower types: purple and white, with the purple being the major occurring type. The reaction of Striga populations on selected cowpea genotypes grouped the ge... This study accessed the morphological and molecular diversity of Striga gesnerioides populations from endemic regions of Northern Ghana. Morphological variations revealed the existence of two flower types: purple and white, with the purple being the major occurring type. The reaction of Striga populations on selected cowpea genotypes grouped the genotypes into three classes of which, 10 were resistant to all the population, 9 were susceptible to all the population and 8 showed differential response to the population. However, virulence study of the Striga population on these genotypes revealed three Striga clusters. Molecular diversity using newly designed markers showed that the markers were very informative with 73% being polymorphic. Principal Coordinate and Neighbour-joining analysis of molecular data grouped the Striga populations also into three clusters. However, population structure analysis resulted in five sub-populations with fixation index (Fst) values ranging from 0.0799 to 0.2533. The results obtained indicate the presence of multiple races of S. gesnerioides in Ghana. The identities of the races present are S. gesnerioides (SG) races 3, 2 and 5. The current study significantly broadens the information on the diversity and population structure of S. gesnerioides in the country and has established a new set of markers for S. gesnerioides fingerprinting. The study also identified cowpea varieties resistant to all collections of S. gesnerioides, which can serve as parents in the improvement of cowpea in Ghana and West Africa at large.
  8. Herbicidal secondary metabolites from Bacillus velezensis JTB8-2 against Orobanche aegyptiaca Wei He, Yan Li, Wenfang Luo, Junhui Zhou, Sifeng Zhao, Jianjun Xu AMB Express, volume 12 Tuesday 29 November 2022 Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca) is a parasitic plants that cause significant losses to important crops. The effective methods for controlling this weed are rare. Biological control could be one of the possible strategies to tackle these weeds efficiently. In this work, a bacteria strain Bacillus velezensis JTB8–2 was proven to possesse ... Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca) is a parasitic plants that cause significant losses to important crops. The effective methods for controlling this weed are rare. Biological control could be one of the possible strategies to tackle these weeds efficiently. In this work, a bacteria strain Bacillus velezensis JTB8–2 was proven to possesse biological control functions against broomrapes in both pot and field experiments. Four secondary metabolites (1–4) were isolated from the B. velezensis JTB8–2 crude extracts, and all of them could inhibit the germination of O. aegyptiaca seeds at concentrations from 0.5 mM to 4 mM. Their structures were further elucidated by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Mass Spectrometry (MS) analysis. Among the isolated compounds, 1 and 2 exhibited the strongest herbicidal activity with 100% inhibition rate against the germination of O. aegyptiaca seeds at 4 mM, and thus had great potential in the development of new herbicidal products to control O. aegyptiaca in the future.
  9. Optimizing use of U.S. Ex-PVP inbred lines for enhancing agronomic performance of tropical Striga resistant maize inbred lines Abdoul Raouf Sayadi Maazou, Melaku Gedil, Victor O. Adetimirin, Wende Mengesha, Silvestro Meseka, Oluyinka Ilesanmi, Paterne A. Agre, Abebe Menkir BMC Plant Biology, volume 22 Monday 28 November 2022 Background: Temperate maize inbred lines with expired Plant Variety Protection Act certificates (Ex-PVP) are potential sources of desirable alleles for tropical germplasm improvement. Up to now, the usefulness of the Ex-PVP inbred lines as a potential source of novel beneficial alleles for Striga hermonthica resistance breeding to enhance genetic g... Background: Temperate maize inbred lines with expired Plant Variety Protection Act certificates (Ex-PVP) are potential sources of desirable alleles for tropical germplasm improvement. Up to now, the usefulness of the Ex-PVP inbred lines as a potential source of novel beneficial alleles for Striga hermonthica resistance breeding to enhance genetic gain in tropical maize has not been reported. Results: This study was thus conducted to characterize the combining ability of 24 Ex-PVP inbred lines in crosses with two tropical Striga resistant inbred testers under Striga-infested and non-infested conditions and across three locations for 2 years. Many testcrosses between Ex-PVP inbred lines and the first tester (T1) produced competitive or significantly higher grain yields compared to the hybrid between the two resistant testers under Striga infested and non-infested conditions and across multiple test locations. Also, most of the testcrosses with positive heterosis for grain yield and negative heterosis for Striga damage and emerged Striga count involved T1 as a tester. Our study identified six Ex-PVP inbred lines with positive GCA effects for grain yield under Striga infested and non-infested conditions and across multiple test locations. Amongst these, inbred lines HB8229-1 and WIL900-1 also displayed negative GCA effects for emerged Striga count and Striga damage rating. The inbred line HB8229-1 showed positive SCA effects for grain yield with T2, whereas WIL900-1 had positive SCA effects for grain yield with T1. Over 70% of the Ex-PVP inbred lines were consistently assigned to specific heterotic groups using yield-based classifying methods (mean grain yield and SCA effects). Conclusions: These results could facilitate systematic introgression of the Ex-PVP inbred lines into the existing Striga resistant heterotic groups in IITA. The Ex-PVP inbred lines with positive GCA effects and producing high grain yields in hybrid combinations could be useful parents for enhancing Striga resistance and agronomic performance of tropical maize hybrids.
  10. Investigation of the mechanisms and experimental verification of Cuscuta-Salvia in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) via network pharmacology Ying ying Zhang, Jian xiong Ma, Yu tian Zhu, Yi xuan Wang, Wang qiang Chen, Xin Sun, Wei Zhang, Chen ye Wang, Cai fei Ding Journal of Ovarian Research, volume 15 Monday 28 November 2022 Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disease associated with reproduction. The Cuscuta-Salvia formula has been widely used to treat for PCOS in clinic. However, its chemical and pharmacological properties remain unclear. We identified the active components and related targets of Cuscuta-Salvia using UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS and TCMSP database... Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disease associated with reproduction. The Cuscuta-Salvia formula has been widely used to treat for PCOS in clinic. However, its chemical and pharmacological properties remain unclear. We identified the active components and related targets of Cuscuta-Salvia using UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS and TCMSP database. Disease targets were obtained from the DisGeNET and GeneCards databases. Subsequently, common targets between Cuscuta-Salvia and PCOS were identified using a Venn diagram. PPI network was established. Core genes were selected using a Cytoscape software plugin. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses were performed for common targets using the “pathview” package in R. Several core targets were verified using molecular and Immunological methods. By combining UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS with a network pharmacology study, 14 active components and a total of 80 common targets were obtained. Ten core genes were regulated by Cuscuta-Salvia in PCOS, including IL6, AKT1, VEGFA, TP53, TNF, MAPK1, JUN, EGF, CASP3, and EGFR. GO results showed that cellular response to drugs, response to oxygen levels, response lipopolysaccharides, and response to molecule of bacterial origin in BP category; membrane, transcription regulator complex, nuclear chromatin, postsynaptic membrane, and vesicle lumen in CC category; DNA-binding transcription factor binding, RNA polymerase II-specific DNA-binding transcription factor binding, DNA-binding transcription activator activity, RNA polymerase II-specific, DNA-binding transcription activator activity, and cytokine receptor binding in MF terms. The KEGG enrichment pathway was mainly involved in the PI3K − Akt, MAPK, TNF, IL-17 signalling pathways, and in cellular senescence. Furthermore, the results of the experimental study showed that Cuscuta-Salvia ameliorated the pathological changes in the ovaries, liver and adipose tissue. And it improved the expressions of the genes or proteins. Our results demonstrate that Cuscuta-Salvia may provide a novel pharmacological basis in an experimental model of PCOS by regulating gene expression. This study provides a basis for future research and clinical applications.
  11. Clinal versus disruptive latitudinal variation in fruit traits of a South American mistletoe Guillermo C. Amico, Agustina di Virgilio, Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann, Marcelo A. Aizen Oecologia, volume 200, pages 397-411 Sunday 27 November 2022 Fruit traits have historically been interpreted as plant adaptations to their seed dispersers. On the other hand, different environmental factors, which vary spatially and temporally, can shape fruit-trait variation. The mistletoe Tristerix corymbosus has a latitudinal distribution along the South American Pacific rim that encompasses two different... Fruit traits have historically been interpreted as plant adaptations to their seed dispersers. On the other hand, different environmental factors, which vary spatially and temporally, can shape fruit-trait variation. The mistletoe Tristerix corymbosus has a latitudinal distribution along the South American Pacific rim that encompasses two different biomes, the matorral of central Chile and the temperate forest that extends south of the matorral. This mistletoe shows contrasting fruiting phenology (spring vs summer), fruit color (yellow vs green), and seed dispersers (birds vs marsupial) in these two biomes. We characterized geographic variation of morphological and nutritional fruit traits of T. corymbosus to evaluate which macroecological factor, biome or latitude, better explains spatial variation in these variables. For each of 22 populations, we obtained environmental data (temperature, precipitation, and canopy cover), measured fruit and seed morphology traits (size, shape, and weight), and pulp moisture and nutritional content (fiber, protein, fat, carbohydrates, ash, and caloric content). Patterns of variation for each variable were described by fitting and comparing five different simple models varying in slope, intercept or both. Fruit morphology showed a clear biome-related disruptive pattern, seed morphological traits were unrelated to either biome or latitude, whereas nutritional variables showed diverse patterns. Different environmental factors seem to affect fruit development and phenology, determining the observed fruit characteristics, with seed dispersers playing a minor role in shaping these patterns. More generally, the contrasting plant-seed disperser associations we addressed can be interpreted as the outcome of an ecological-fitting rather than of a coevolutionary process.
  12. Strigolactones are chemoattractants for host tropism in Orobanchaceae parasitic plants Satoshi Ogawa, Songkui Cui, Alexandra R.F. White, David C. Nelson, Satoko Yoshida, Ken Shirasu Nature Communications, volume 13 Sunday 27 November 2022 Parasitic plants are worldwide threats that damage major agricultural crops. To initiate infection, parasitic plants have developed the ability to locate hosts and grow towards them. This ability, called host tropism, is critical for parasite survival, but its underlying mechanism remains mostly unresolved. To characterise host tropism, we used the... Parasitic plants are worldwide threats that damage major agricultural crops. To initiate infection, parasitic plants have developed the ability to locate hosts and grow towards them. This ability, called host tropism, is critical for parasite survival, but its underlying mechanism remains mostly unresolved. To characterise host tropism, we used the model facultative root parasite Phtheirospermum japonicum, a member of the Orobanchaceae. Here, we show that strigolactones (SLs) function as host-derived chemoattractants. Chemotropism to SLs is also found in Striga hermonthica, a parasitic member of the Orobanchaceae, but not in non-parasites. Intriguingly, chemotropism to SLs in P. japonicum is attenuated in ammonium ion-rich conditions, where SLs are perceived, but the resulting asymmetrical accumulation of the auxin transporter PIN2 is diminished. P. japonicum encodes putative receptors that sense exogenous SLs, whereas expression of a dominant-negative form reduces its chemotropic ability. We propose a function for SLs as navigators for parasite roots.
  13. Integrated metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses of the parasitic plant Cuscuta japonica Choisy on host and non-host plants Chenglin Guo, Liuyan Qin, Yongling Ma, Jianlin Qin BMC Plant Biology, volume 22 Sunday 27 November 2022 Background: Cuscuta japonica Choisy (Japanese dodder) is a parasitic weed that damages many plants and affects agricultural production. The haustorium of C. japonica plays a key role during parasitism in host plants; in contrast, some non-host plants effectively inhibit its formation. However, the metabolic differences between normal dodder in host... Background: Cuscuta japonica Choisy (Japanese dodder) is a parasitic weed that damages many plants and affects agricultural production. The haustorium of C. japonica plays a key role during parasitism in host plants; in contrast, some non-host plants effectively inhibit its formation. However, the metabolic differences between normal dodder in host plants and dodder inhibition in non-host plants are largely unknown. Here, we utilized an integrative analysis of transcriptomes and metabolomes to compare the differential regulatory mechanisms between C. japonica interacting with the host plant Ficus microcarpa and the non-host plant Mangifera indica. Results: After parasitization for 24 h and 72 h, the differentially abundant metabolites between these two treatments were enriched in pathways associated with α-linolenic acid metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and pyrimidine metabolism. At the transcriptome level, the flavor biosynthesis pathway was significantly enriched at 24 h, whereas the plant–pathogen interaction, arginine and proline metabolism, and MARK signaling-plant pathways were significantly enriched at 72 h, based on the differentially expressed genes between these two treatments. Subsequent temporal analyses identified multiple genes and metabolites that showed different trends in dodder interactions between the host and non-host plants. In particular, the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway showed significant differential regulation between C. japonica in host and non-host plants. Conclusions: These results provide insights into the metabolic mechanisms of dodder–host interactions, which will facilitate future plant protection from C. japonica parasitism.
  14. Metabolic changes induced by Cuscuta campestris Yunck in the host species Artemisia campestris subsp. variabilis (Ten.) Greuter as a strategy for successful parasitisation Marco Landi, Biswapriya B. Misra, Fabio Francesco Nocito, Giorgio Lucchini, Leonardo Bruno, Angela Malara, Maria Rosa Abenavoli, Fabrizio Araniti Planta, volume 256 Saturday 26 November 2022 Main conclusions: C. campestris parasitisation increases internal host defences at the expense of environmentally directed ones in the host species A. campestris, thus limiting plant defence against progressive parasitisation. Abstract: Cuscuta campestris Yunck is a holoparasitic species that parasitises wild species and crops. Among their hosts, A... Main conclusions: C. campestris parasitisation increases internal host defences at the expense of environmentally directed ones in the host species A. campestris, thus limiting plant defence against progressive parasitisation. Abstract: Cuscuta campestris Yunck is a holoparasitic species that parasitises wild species and crops. Among their hosts, Artemisia campestris subsp. variabilis (Ten.) Greuter is significantly affected in natural ecosystems. Limited information is available on the host recognition mechanism and there are no data on the interactions between these species and the effects on the primary and specialised metabolism in response to parasitisation. The research aims at evaluating the effect of host–parasite interactions, through a GC–MS untargeted metabolomic analysis, chlorophyll a fluorescence, ionomic and δ13C measurements, as well as volatile organic compound (VOC) fingerprint in A. campestris leaves collected in natural environment. C. campestris parasitisation altered plant water status, forcing stomatal opening, stimulating plant transpiration, and inducing physical damages to the host antenna complex, thus reducing the efficiency of its photosynthetic machinery. Untargeted-metabolomics analysis highlighted that the parasitisation significantly perturbed the amino acids and sugar metabolism, inducing an increase in the production of osmoprotectants, which generally accumulate in plants as a protective strategy against oxidative stress. Notably, VOCs analysis highlighted a reduction in sesquiterpenoids and an increase in monoterpenoids levels; involved in plant defence and host recognition, respectively. Moreover, C. campestris induced in the host a reduction in 3-hexenyl-acetate, a metabolite with known repellent activity against Cuscuta spp. We offer evidences that C. campestris parasitisation increases internal host defences via primary metabolites at the expense of more effective defensive compounds (secondary metabolites), thus limiting A. campestris defence against progressive parasitisation.
  15. The possibilities of explicit Striga (Striga asiatica) risk monitoring using phenometric, edaphic, and climatic variables, demonstrated for Malawi and Zambia Emily Kimathi, Bester Tawona Mudereri, Elfatih M. Abdel-Rahman, Saliou Niassy, Henri E.Z. Tonnang, Tobias Landmann Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, volume 194 Saturday 26 November 2022 Food insecurity continues to affect more than two-thirds of the population in sub‐Saharan Africa (SSA), particularly those depending on rain-fed agriculture. Striga, a parasitic weed, has caused yield losses of cereal crops, immensely affecting smallholder farmers in SSA. Although earlier studies have established that Striga is a constraint to cr... Food insecurity continues to affect more than two-thirds of the population in sub‐Saharan Africa (SSA), particularly those depending on rain-fed agriculture. Striga, a parasitic weed, has caused yield losses of cereal crops, immensely affecting smallholder farmers in SSA. Although earlier studies have established that Striga is a constraint to crop production, there is little information on the spatial extent of spread and infestation severity of the weed in some SSA countries like Malawi and Zambia. This study aimed to use remotely sensed vegetation phenological (n = 11), climatic (n = 3), and soil (n = 4) variables to develop a data-driven ecological niche model to estimate Striga (Striga asiatica) spatial distribution patterns over Malawi and Zambia, respectively. Vegetation phenological variables were calculated from 250-m enhanced vegetation index (EVI) timeline data, spanning 2013 to 2016. A multicollinearity test was performed on all 18 predictor variables using the variance inflation factor (VIF) and Pearson’s correlation approach. From the initial 18 variables, 12 non-correlated predictor variables were selected to predict Striga risk zones over the two focus countries. The variable “start of the season” (start of the rainy season) showed the highest model relevance, contributing 26.8% and 37.9% to Striga risk models for Malawi and Zambia, respectively. This indicates that the crop planting date influences the occurrence and the level of Striga infestation. The resultant occurrence maps revealed interesting spatial patterns; while a very high Striga occurrence was predicted for central Malawi and eastern Zambia (mono-cultural maize growing areas), lower occurrence rates were found in the northern regions. Our study shows the possibilities of integrating various ecological factors with a better spatial and temporal resolution for operational and explicit monitoring of Striga-affected areas in SSA. The explicit identification of Striga “hotspot” areas is crucial for effectively informing intervention activities on the ground.

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