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International Parasitic Plant Society

Welcome to the homepage of the International Parasitic Plant Society (IPPS). The IPPS is dedicated to advancing scientific research on parasitic plants. Our goals include increasing the understanding of these amazing plants, providing a platform for exchange among and beyond the scientific community as well as helping to decrease the crop damage inflicted by weedy parasitic plants.

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Most Recent 'Parasitic Plant' Publications

in Google Scholar

  1. [PDF][PDF] Preferencje żywicielskie Cuscuta lupuliformis (Convolvulaceae) w Sandomierzu R KAźMIERCZAKOWA, J BLOCH4ORłOWSKA… - researchgate.net Friday 19 February 2021 Notatki botaniczne 697 pośród których trzy posiadają status efemerofitów, natomiast jeden (Cuscuta epilinum) uznawany jest za wymarły (MIREK i in. 2002). Cuscuta to kosmopolityczny rodzaj należący do rodziny Convolvulaceae, którego przedstawiciele …
  2. [CITATION][C] Moving genes through parasitism LM Zahn - Science, 2021 - science.sciencemag.org Friday 19 February 2021 Page 1. 794 19 FEBRUARY 2021 • VOL 371 ISSUE 6531 RESEARCH | IN SCIENCE JOURNALS antibodies, and then screened for binding to SARS-CoV-2. One of the affinity-matured progeny strongly neutralized SARS- CoV …
  3. Absolute configuration of seco‐eudesmanolide inuloxin D from experimental and predicted chiroptical studies of its 4‐O‐acetyl derivative JL Johnson, E Santoro, R Zatout, AG Petrovic… - Chirality, 2021 - Wiley Online Library Wednesday 17 February 2021  … Abstract. Sesquitepenoids inuloxins A–D, belonging to different subgroups, were isolated from Dittrichia viscosa and showed potential biocontrol of some parasitic plants as Pelipanche, Orobanche, and Cuscuta species. The …
  4. Phytochemical and Antioxidant Properties Of Traditionally Used Mistletoes In Nepal K Kumal, DR Pant, B Aryal, GR Tripathi, GP Joshi - Scientific World, 2021 - nepjol.info Tuesday 16 February 2021  … 18. Vicas, S., Prokisch, J., Rugina, D., Socaciu, C. 2009. Hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant activities of Mistletoe (Viscum album) as determined by FRAP method … 21. O'Neill, AR, Rana, SK 2016. An ethnobotanical analysis of parasitic plants (Parijibi) in the Nepal …
  5. [HTML][HTML] CRISPR/Cas9 mediated mutagenesis of MORE AXILLARY GROWTH 1 in tomato confers resistance to root parasitic weed Phelipanche aegyptiaca VK Bari, JA Nassar, R Aly - Scientific Reports, 2021 - nature.com Tuesday 16 February 2021 Root parasitic weeds infect numerous economically important crops, affecting total yield quantity and quality. A lack of an efficient control method limits our ability to manage newly developing and more virulent races of root parasitic weeds. To control the …
  6. Two-tier Witchweed (Striga hermonthica) Resistance in Wild Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum) 29Aw O Dayou, W Kibet, P Ojola, PI Gangashetty, S Wicke… - Weed Science - cambridge.org Tuesday 16 February 2021 The parasitic plant purple witchweed [Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth.] poses a serious threat to cereal production in sub-Saharan Africa. Under natural infestation, the wild pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] line 29Aw demonstrates resistance against …
  7. Kaba Yem Olarak Değerlendirilen Ökse Otunun Antioksidan Özellikleri ve Kondanse Tanen İçeriklerinin Belirlenmesi B YILDIZ, YE ÖZTÜRK, YM KARDEŞ… - Anadolu Tarım Bilimleri … - dergipark.org.tr Tuesday 16 February 2021  … Anahtar Sözcükler: Ökse otu Kaba yem Hayvan sağlığı Antioksidan Kondanse tanen ABSTRACT Mistletoe, whose distribution areas are widening in the world, is a semi-parasitic plant that lives by sucking the sap of the host plants it lives in, this harming its host …
  8. [PDF][PDF] The Study Of Cuscuta Chinensis Lam. With Respect Host Diversity SB Jadhav, SV Toro - researchgate.net Tuesday 16 February 2021 Genus Cuscuta is common parasite recorded on number of host species. It absorbs food material from host plants for its growth. It causes damage to host. Therefore, a survey was conducted to find out the host diversity of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. from different …
  9. Eradicating Cuscuta Invasive Killer Weeds for Environmental Sustainability LN Mburia - Africa Journal of Technical and Vocational Education …, 2021 - afritvet.org Sunday 14 February 2021 Cuscuta also referred to as (dodder) belongs to a genus of more than 200 species of obligate aerial parasitic plants in the morning glory family Convolvulaceae. Cuscuta is an invasive killer weed which adversely affects fruit set, and yields and it robs all …
  10. Combining host plant defence with targeted nutrition: key to durable control of hemi‐parasitic Striga in cereals in sub‐Saharan Africa? IM Mwangangi, L Büchi, SM Haefele… - New …, 2021 - Wiley Online Library Saturday 13 February 2021 Host plant defence mechanisms (resistance and tolerance) and plant nutrition are two of the most widely proposed components for the control of hemi‐parasitic weeds of the Striga genus in tropical cereal production systems. Neither of the two components alone …
  11. New pre‐attachment Striga resistant sorghum adapted to African Agro‐ecologies TS Mallu, S Mutinda, SM Githiri… - Pest Management …, 2021 - Wiley Online Library Saturday 13 February 2021 BACKGROUND Pre‐attachment resistance to the parasitic plants Striga hermonthica and S. asiatica occurs in sorghum mutants designated low germination stimulant 1 (lgs1). However, only a few of these mutants have been identified and their …
  12. New pre-attachment Striga resistant sorghum adapted to African Agro-ecologies TS Mallu, S Mutinda, SM Githiri… - Pest management … - pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov Saturday 13 February 2021 Background Pre-attachment resistance to the parasitic plants Striga hermonthica and S. asiatica occurs in sorghum mutants designated low germination stimulant 1 (lgs1). However, only a few of these mutants have been identified and their …
  13. Combining host plant defence with targeted nutrition: key to durable control of hemi-parasitic Striga in cereals in sub-Saharan Africa? IM Mwangangi, L Büchi, SM Haefele… - The New … - pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov Saturday 13 February 2021 Host plant defence mechanisms (resistance and tolerance) and plant nutrition are two of the most widely proposed components for the control of hemi-parasitic weeds of the Striga genus in tropical cereal production systems. Neither of the two components alone …
  14. Resistance Against Orobanche crenata in Bitter Vetch (Vicia ervilia) Germplasm Based on Reduced Induction of Orobanche Germination CI González-Verdejo, M Fernández-Aparicio… - Plants, 2021 - mdpi.com Saturday 13 February 2021 Bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia (L.) Willd.) is a legume well adapted to cultivation in marginal areas, being an important source of protein for animal feed in low input cropping systems. Surprisingly, it is an underutilized crop as it could be a good alternative to increase …
  15. [PDF][PDF] H. TRAORÉ, DE. HEss", G. HOFFMANN, GA SON and G. SALLÉ% JINB FASO - ajol.info Saturday 13 February 2021  … N2, Case courrier 150, 75252 Paris cedex (5, France (Received 16 January, 200I; accepted 25 April, 2001) ABSTRACT The parasitic weed Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth … Le sarclage supplémentaire aprovoquéune plus forte émergence du striga par rapport au témoin …

Most Recent 'Parasitic Plant' publications

in Scopus

  1. To study the mechanism of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. And Lycium barbarum L. in the treatment of asthenospermia based on network pharmacology Jisheng Wang, Binghao Bao, Fanchao Meng, Sheng Deng, Hengheng Dai, Junlong Feng, Haisong Li, Bin Wang Journal of Ethnopharmacology, volume 270 Saturday 24 April 2021 © 2021 Elsevier B.V. Ethnopharmacological relevance: Cuscuta chinensis Lam. and Lycium barbarum L. (SC-FL) is a commonly used kidney tonic Chinese medicine combination that is widely used in the clinical treatment of oligoasthenospermia.However, its specific mechanism remains unclear and requires in-depth study. Aim of the study: To explore the po... © 2021 Elsevier B.V. Ethnopharmacological relevance: Cuscuta chinensis Lam. and Lycium barbarum L. (SC-FL) is a commonly used kidney tonic Chinese medicine combination that is widely used in the clinical treatment of oligoasthenospermia.However, its specific mechanism remains unclear and requires in-depth study. Aim of the study: To explore the potential targets of SC-FL in the treatment of oligoasthenospermia using network pharmacology, and to verify the results with in vivo and in vitro experiments. Materials and methods: A herb-compound-target-disease network and PPI network were constructed with Cytoscape software. The targets of SC-FL for the treatment of male sterility were introduced into a bioinformatics annotation database, and the GO and KEGG databases were used for pathway enrichment analysis. Subsequently, Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. (GTW) polyglycoside was used to induce a spermatogenic dysfunction model in GC-1 spg cells and SD male rats in in vitro and in vivo experiments, respectively. The SC-FL and PI3K pathway inhibitor LY294002 was used to intervene in the spermatogenic dysfunction model to detect the expression of proteins and mRNA related to the PI3K pathway and to detect the indicators related to proliferation and apoptosis. Results: In in vitro experiments, the percentage of spermatogenic cells and the proportion of GC-1 spg cells at G0/G1 and G2/M stages in the model group (GTW group) and the inhibitor group (LY group) were significantly decreased (P < 0.01) compared with the blank control group (NC group). The apoptosis rate of the GTW group was significantly increased (P < 0.01). The ultrastructures of GC-1 spg cells in the GTW group and LY group were obviously destroyed. Compared with the GTW group, the SC-FL group had a significantly reduced apoptosis rate of GC-1 spg cells, reduced percentage of cells in S phase, and a significantly improved mitochondrial membrane potential. SC-FL can repair the ultrastructure of GC-1 spg cells damaged by GTW. The above effects of SC-FL are closely related to up-regulation of GFRa1, RET, PI3K, p-AKT, and Bcl-2 and down-regulation of BAD and BAX proteins and mRNA expression. In vivo, compared with the GTW group, the body mass, testicular mass, and epididymal weight of the GTW + SC-FL group were significantly increased (P < 0.01). Sperm concentrations and the PR + NP of GTW + SC-FL were significantly higher than in the GTW group (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). FSH, LH, and T levels in the GTW + SC-FL and LY + SC-FL groups were significantly higher than those in the GTW and LY group (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). HE staining results showed that the morphology of testicular tissue in the GTW + SC-FL and LY + SC-FL groups was superior to that in the GTW and LY group. The above effects of SC-FL are closely related to the up-regulation of proteins and mRNA expression of PI3K, p-AKT, and Bcl-2. Conclusion: Through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, SC-FL up-regulates GFRa1, RET, PI3K, p-AKT, and Bcl-2, and down-regulates the expression of BAD and BAX proteins and mRNA, thus reducing the percentage of GC-1 spg cells in S-phase, significantly increasing the mitochondrial membrane potential, significantly reducing cell apoptosis, and improving sperm counts and viability.
  2. The effects of dietary supplementation of mistletoe (Viscum album) extract on the growth performance, antioxidant, and innate, immune responses of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Morteza Yousefi, Mehdi Naderi Farsani, Hamed Ghafarifarsani, Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar, Hien Van Doan Aquaculture, volume 536 Thursday 15 April 2021 © 2021 Elsevier B.V. In the present study, rainbow trout fingerlings, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were fed diets supplemented with 0% (C), 0.5 (T1), 1.5 (T2), 2.5 (T3), and 4% (T4) mistletoe extract (ME), Viscum album over eight weeks. At the end of feeding trial, growth performance, serum antioxidant and innate immune responses, and serum bactericidal a... © 2021 Elsevier B.V. In the present study, rainbow trout fingerlings, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were fed diets supplemented with 0% (C), 0.5 (T1), 1.5 (T2), 2.5 (T3), and 4% (T4) mistletoe extract (ME), Viscum album over eight weeks. At the end of feeding trial, growth performance, serum antioxidant and innate immune responses, and serum bactericidal activity against Aeromonas hydrophila were evaluated. According to results, the highest final wight and wight gain (%), and the lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) were observed in T2 and T3 treatments. Regression analysis showed that fish growth parameters were polynomially-related to dietary ME levels. The optimum dietary ME level, based upon the varied growth parameters, was 1.78 to 1.94%. The highest moisture content was observed in the control group followed by the T1 treatment, whereas the highest protein contents were observed in the T2 and T3 treatments. The lipid and ash contents were not affected by ME supplementation. Serum lysozyme, ACH50, total Ig, SOD, and bactericidal activity significantly increased in the ME-fed fish, with the highest values observed within the T3 treatment. The highest CAT and GPx values were recorded in the T2 and T3 treatments. ME treatment significantly decreased serum MDA levels, which was lowest in the T3 treatment. Serum ALT activities were similar in the T2, T3, and T4 treatments, and were significantly lower than those of T1 and control (C) treatments. Serum AST and ALP activities exhibited declines along with an increase in dietary ME levels; in which the lowest activities were occurred in the T4 treatment. In conclusion, dietary ME supplementation proved beneficial to rainbow trout, as it stimulated its growth performance, innate immune and antioxidant systems, and promoted bactericidal activity. Moreover, serum hepatic health indicators suggest that dietary ME may improve the fishes' hepatic health.
  3. A two-step approach for detecting Striga in a complex agroecological system using Sentinel-2 data Bester Tawona Mudereri, Elfatih Mohamed Abdel-Rahman, Timothy Dube, Saliou Niassy, Zeyaur Khan, Henri E.Z. Tonnang, Tobias Landmann Science of the Total Environment, volume 762 Thursday 25 March 2021 © 2020 Elsevier B.V. Information on weed occurrence within croplands is vital but is often unavailable to support weeding practices and improve cropland productivity assessments. To date, few studies have been conducted to estimate and map weed abundances within agroecological systems from spaceborne images over wide-area landscapes, particularly ... © 2020 Elsevier B.V. Information on weed occurrence within croplands is vital but is often unavailable to support weeding practices and improve cropland productivity assessments. To date, few studies have been conducted to estimate and map weed abundances within agroecological systems from spaceborne images over wide-area landscapes, particularly for the genus Striga. Therefore, this study attempts to increase the detection capacity of Striga at subpixel size using spaceborne high-resolution imagery. In this study, a two-step classification approach was used to detect Striga (Striga hermonthica) weed occurrence within croplands in Rongo, Kenya. Firstly, multidate and multiyear Sentinel-2 (S2) data (2017 to 2018) were utilized to map cropland and non-cropland areas using the random forest algorithm within the Google Earth Engine. The non-cropland class was thereafter masked out from a single date S2 image of the 13th of December 2017. The remaining cropland area was then used in a subpixel multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA) to detect Striga occurrence and infestation using endmembers (EMs) obtained from the in-situ hyperspectral data. The gathered in-situ hyperspectral data were resampled to the spectral waveband configurations of S2 and three representative EMs were inferred, namely: (1) Striga, (2) crop and other weeds, and (3) soil. Overall classification accuracies of 88% and 78% for the pixel-based cropland mapping and subpixel Striga detection were achieved, respectively. Furthermore, an F-score (0.84) and a root mean square error (0.0075) showed that the MESMA subpixel algorithm provides plausible results for predicting the relative abundance of Striga within each S2 pixel at a landscape scale. The capability of MESMA together with a cropland classification hierarchical approach was thus proven to be suited for Striga detection in a heterogenous agroecological system. These results can be used to guide in the adaptation, mitigation, and remediation of already infested areas, thereby avoiding further Striga infestation of new croplands.
  4. Research on serum metabolomics of ovariectomized rats and intervention effect of Cuscuta chinensis on metabolic pattern Xiangming Sun, Hui Song, Jing Wen, Yang Hu, Mengmeng Zhang, Wenlan Li, Zhenduo Ding Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, volume 195 Saturday 20 February 2021 © 2020 Elsevier B.V. As a traditional Chinese medicine of invigorating the kidney, Cuscuta chinensis (CC) can be applied in improving the deficiency of kidney qi in menopausal women and regulating the level of estrogen. Previously, it was found that the ethanol extract of CC had an estrogen-like effect. In this study, the metabolic profile and met... © 2020 Elsevier B.V. As a traditional Chinese medicine of invigorating the kidney, Cuscuta chinensis (CC) can be applied in improving the deficiency of kidney qi in menopausal women and regulating the level of estrogen. Previously, it was found that the ethanol extract of CC had an estrogen-like effect. In this study, the metabolic profile and metabolic pathways of rats in sham, ovariectomized model and CC groups were analyzed using UPLC-TOFMS-based metabolomics and the pattern recognition technology. The serum endogenouse metabolites could be well differentiated in different group, indicating significant differences of metabolic profiles. CC had an reverse adjustment effect on 14 differential metabolites of ovariectomized rats, including sinapyl alcohol, deoxycholic acid, prostaglandin B2, prostaglandin I2, dihydrosphingosine, choline, pentadecanoic acid, arachidonic acid, 1-stearoyl-Sn-Glycerol-3-Phosphocholine, palmitoleic acid, palmitic acid, vaccenic acid, oleic acid and stearic acid. Furthermore, these differential metabolites were categorized into several major pathways, such as biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, lycerophospholipid metabolism and arachidonic acid metabolism. Therefore, it could be concluded that the estrogen-like effect of CC was related to the lipid metabolism to some extent. The research results provide useful help for the in-depth research and development of CC.
  5. Freezing tolerance of seeds can explain differences in the distribution of two widespread mistletoe subspecies in Europe Olli Pekka Tikkanen, Jouni Kilpeläinen, Ana Mellado, Aino Hämäläinen, José A. Hódar, Bogdan Jaroszewicz, Minna Luoto, Tapani Repo, Andreas Rigling, Ao Wang, Mai He Li, Tarja Lehto Forest Ecology and Management, volume 482 Monday 15 February 2021 © 2020 Elsevier B.V. The ability of plants to tolerate freezing limits their geographical distribution. Therefore, winter warming may shift a species’ occurrence northwards and/or to higher altitudes. In Europe, the hemiparasitic vascular plant Viscum album (mistletoe) has two common and widespread subspecies: V. a. ssp. album and V. a. ssp. aus... © 2020 Elsevier B.V. The ability of plants to tolerate freezing limits their geographical distribution. Therefore, winter warming may shift a species’ occurrence northwards and/or to higher altitudes. In Europe, the hemiparasitic vascular plant Viscum album (mistletoe) has two common and widespread subspecies: V. a. ssp. album and V. a. ssp. austriacum. The former has a more northern geographic distribution than the latter. Therefore we hypothesised that seeds of V. a. ssp. album are more tolerant to freezing than those of V. a. ssp. austriacum. From these two mistletoe subspecies V. a. ssp. austriacum is, in some managed forest areas, considered a novel threat to tree growth and forest health. Berries of V. a. ssp. album were collected from Sweden, Poland and Switzerland and berries of V. a. ssp. austriacum were collected from Poland, Switzerland and Spain. After storage at −3 °C, seeds were extracted from the pulp of berries and exposed to eight different temperatures between −8 °C and −30 °C, with the storage temperature serving as the control. After freezing treatments, germination of seeds was monitored. In addition, differential thermal analysis was used to measure freeze tolerance of seeds. The seeds of V. a. ssp. album tolerated lower temperatures than seeds of V. a. ssp. austriacum. The temperature at which 50% of seeds lost their ability to germinate (LT50) was −15 °C in V. a. ssp. austriacum and between −15 °C and −19 °C in V. a. ssp. album. The results of differential thermal analysis to determine the freezing point of seeds supported these findings. The freezing tolerance of mistletoe seeds was relatively well coupled with the winter climate at the edge of their current geographic distribution. Based on our results, the warming of winters may eliminate the abiotic barrier that has thus far limited mistletoes’ expansion, opening a window of opportunity for these parasites to increase their abundance and shift their distribution range towards higher latitudes and altitudes. Although mistletoes play important ecological roles in forest ecosystems, their recent increase has raised concern among forest managers, because they may cause a substantial reduction in tree growth in single species dominated stands. Increasing tree species diversity might be an effective method for limiting future mass infestations in homogeneous managed forests.
  6. Efficient carbon recycling and modulation of antioxidants involved in elongation of the parasitic plant dodder (Cuscuta spp.) in vitro Yuexia Zhang, Yushi Zhang, Jiapeng Xing, Yajun Li, Yan Yang, Yubin Wang, Linjian Jiang, Mingcai Zhang, Zhaohu Li Plant Science, volume 303 Monday 01 February 2021 © 2020 Elsevier B.V. Dodder is a holoparasitic flowering plant that re-establishes parasitism with the host when broken off from the host. However, how in vitro dodder shoots recycle stored nutrients to maintain growth for reparasitizing hosts is not well characterized. Here, the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of carbohydrates a... © 2020 Elsevier B.V. Dodder is a holoparasitic flowering plant that re-establishes parasitism with the host when broken off from the host. However, how in vitro dodder shoots recycle stored nutrients to maintain growth for reparasitizing hosts is not well characterized. Here, the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of carbohydrates and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were analysed to explore the mechanism of recycling stored nutrients in dodder shoots in vitro. Our results showed that in vitro dodder shoots grew actively for more than 10 d, while dry mass decreased continuously. During this process, the transcript levels and activities of amylases gradually increased until 2 d and then declined in basal stems, which induced starch degradation at the tissue, cellular and subcellular levels. Additionally, the distribution characteristics of H2O2 and the activities and transcript levels of antioxidant enzymes indicated that shoot tips exhibited more robust ROS-scavenging capacity, and basal stems maintained higher ROS accumulation. Comparative proteomics analysis revealed that starch in basal stems acted as an energy source, and the glycolysis, TCA cycle and pentose phosphate pathway represented the energy supply for shoot tip elongation with time. These results indicated that efficient nutrient recycling and ROS modulation facilitated the parasitism of dodder grown in vitro by promoting shoot elongation growth to reach the host.
  7. Impact of parasitic lifestyle and different types of centromere organization on chromosome and genome evolution in the plant genus Cuscuta Pavel Neumann, Ludmila Oliveira, Jana Čížková, Tae Soo Jang, Sonja Klemme, Petr Novák, Katarzyna Stelmach, Andrea Koblížková, Jaroslav Doležel, Jiří Macas New Phytologist, volume 229, pages 2365-2377 Monday 01 February 2021 © 2020 The Authors New Phytologist © 2020 New Phytologist Foundation The parasitic genus Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae) is exceptional among plants with respect to centromere organization, including both monocentric and holocentric chromosomes, and substantial variation in genome size and chromosome number. We investigated 12 species representing the d... © 2020 The Authors New Phytologist © 2020 New Phytologist Foundation The parasitic genus Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae) is exceptional among plants with respect to centromere organization, including both monocentric and holocentric chromosomes, and substantial variation in genome size and chromosome number. We investigated 12 species representing the diversity of the genus in a phylogenetic context to reveal the molecular and evolutionary processes leading to diversification of their genomes. We measured genome sizes and investigated karyotypes and centromere organization using molecular cytogenetic techniques. We also performed low-pass whole genome sequencing and comparative analysis of repetitive DNA composition. A remarkable 102-fold variation in genome sizes (342–34 734 Mbp/1C) was detected for monocentric Cuscuta species, while genomes of holocentric species were of moderate sizes (533–1545 Mbp/1C). The genome size variation was primarily driven by the differential accumulation of LTR-retrotransposons and satellite DNA. The transition to holocentric chromosomes in the subgenus Cuscuta was associated with loss of histone H2A phosphorylation and elimination of centromeric retrotransposons. In addition, basic chromosome number of holocentric species (x = 7) was smaller than in monocentrics (x = 15 or 16). We demonstrated that the transition to holocentricity in Cuscuta was accompanied by significant changes in epigenetic marks, chromosome number and the repetitive DNA sequence composition.
  8. Health promoting Potential of Selaginella and Mistletoe Decoction: Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities Handayani Sri, Muzdalifah Dian, Udin Linar Zalinar, Artanti Nina Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment, volume 25, pages 180-185 Monday 01 February 2021 © 2021 World Research Association. All rights reserved. The aim of this study was to observe the effect of combination of selaginella and mistletoe aqueous extract on DPPH free radical scavenging activity and in vitro cytotoxic activity on MCF-7 cells. Total phenolic and flavonoid content of extracts were measured by Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminium... © 2021 World Research Association. All rights reserved. The aim of this study was to observe the effect of combination of selaginella and mistletoe aqueous extract on DPPH free radical scavenging activity and in vitro cytotoxic activity on MCF-7 cells. Total phenolic and flavonoid content of extracts were measured by Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminium chloride colorimetric assay respectively. The DPPH scavenging assay was used to measure antioxidant activity. Then, MTT assay was used for in vitro cytotoxic activity. Results showed that antioxidant activity of mistletoe aqueous extract was higher than selaginella aqueous extract. Antioxidant activity of selaginella aqueous extracts was increased by addition of mistletoe aqueous extracts compared to its single treatment. The total phenolic and flavonoid content of mistletoe aqueous extract were higher than selaginella aqueous extract. The results of cytotoxic activity showed that selaginella and mistletoe aqueous extracts inhibited MCF-7 cells growth and its combination showed synergistic effect (CI<1). The combination of selaginella and mistletoe aqueous extracts exhibited synergistic effect on both antioxidant and cytotoxic activity and potential to be developed for health supplement.
  9. Modeling smallholder agricultural systems to manage Striga in the semi-arid tropics Timothy R. Silberg, Karen Renner, Laura Schmitt Olabisi, Robert B. Richardson, Vimbayi Grace Patrova Chimonyo, Mauricio Uriona-Maldonado, Bruno B. Basso, Cyprian Mwale Agricultural Systems, volume 187 Monday 01 February 2021 © 2020 Elsevier Ltd Across southern Africa (SA), significant maize yield losses are attributed to invasive and parasitic weeds. Abundance of Striga (Striga asiatica) has become more frequent in smallholder farms (<2 ha) in the past decade. Various Striga control practices (SCPs) have been disseminated across SA, yet often, without decision support... © 2020 Elsevier Ltd Across southern Africa (SA), significant maize yield losses are attributed to invasive and parasitic weeds. Abundance of Striga (Striga asiatica) has become more frequent in smallholder farms (<2 ha) in the past decade. Various Striga control practices (SCPs) have been disseminated across SA, yet often, without decision support tools to inform extension officers and researchers which ones are most appropriate for smallholder contexts. System dynamics modeling (SDM) provides an opportunity to evaluate the efficacy of SCPs across multiple seasons in different agroecosystems and their associated environments. We developed a SDM to evaluate the long-term efficacy of four SCPs popularly used in maize-based cropping systems. Observations from studies outlining local soil seedbanks, emergence and flowering rates in farmer fields were used to calibrate the SDM. Model simulations indicate that while a combination of SCPs are necessary to manage the weed, future research should focus on developing smallholder-adapted SCPs that address the attachment stage of the weed's lifecycle (e.g., timely manure application) rather than its germination, emergence or flowering stages. Given the devastating effects S. asiatica has had on food security in Malawi and across SA, it is imperative to develop decision support tools like systems models to evaluate SCPs for smallholders. Models that do not capture the underlying mechanisms driving S. asiatica infestations may provide extension officers with potentially misleading information, and subsequently, the delivery of ineffective SCPs.
  10. Resistance against orobanche crenata in bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) germplasm based on reduced induction of orobanche germination Clara Isabel González-Verdejo, Mónica Fernández-Aparicio, Eva María Córdoba, Juan Antonio López-Ráez, Salvador Nadal Plants, volume 10, pages 1-13 Monday 01 February 2021 © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia (L.) Willd.) is a legume well adapted to cultivation in marginal areas, being an important source of protein for animal feed in low input cropping systems. Sur-prisingly, it is an underutilized crop as it could be a good alternative to increase the sustainability... © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia (L.) Willd.) is a legume well adapted to cultivation in marginal areas, being an important source of protein for animal feed in low input cropping systems. Sur-prisingly, it is an underutilized crop as it could be a good alternative to increase the sustainability of extensive rainfed cropping systems. In Mediterranean rainfed cropping systems, the productivity of bitter vetch is severely reduced by the parasitic weed species Orobanche crenata (Forsk). To date, few resistant bitter vetch genotypes have been identified. O. crenata infection process initiates with the recognition of germination factors exuded by roots of susceptible hosts. In this work, the interaction of a collection of bitter vetch accessions and O. crenata has been analyzed in order to discover accessions with low germination induction activity. Through a combination of field and rhizotron experiments, two bitter vetch accessions were selected showing low germination-induction activity, which resulted in less infection. In addition, in vitro germination assays revealed that the low germination activity was due to low exudation of germination factors and not due to the exudation of germination inhibitors. The selected low germination-inducers genotypes could be the basis for a new breeding program generating locally adapted alternatives with resistance to O. crenata.
  11. Influence of eastern spruce dwarf mistletoe on stand structure and composition in northern Minnesota R. Skay, M. A. Windmuller-Campione, M. B. Russell, L. F. Reuling Forest Ecology and Management, volume 481 Monday 01 February 2021 © 2020 Elsevier B.V. Black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.) is one of the most common tree species in the boreal forest. However, there is limited information on one of the major disturbance agents, eastern spruce dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium pusillum Peck; EDM) a native, parasitic plant that influences stand development ... © 2020 Elsevier B.V. Black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.) is one of the most common tree species in the boreal forest. However, there is limited information on one of the major disturbance agents, eastern spruce dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium pusillum Peck; EDM) a native, parasitic plant that influences stand development especially at the southwestern range limit of black spruce in Minnesota. The goal of our study was to quantify overstory and understory (sapling and seedling) structure and composition in productive black spruce stands across three EDM severity categories: uninfected (0% EDM), low (<50% of stand infected with EDM), and high (>50% of stand infected with EDM) across northern Minnesota during the summer of 2017. The presence of EDM infection in stands shifted species composition and structure compared to uninfected stands. Uninfected stands were dominated by black spruce in both overstory and understory and on average had a uni-modal diameter distribution. Both low and high EDM severity stands had significantly greater overstory species richness, Shannon's diversity index, and Shannon's Evenness compared to uninfected stands. However, stands with high EDM infections had the most black spruce infected with EDM in both the overstory and sapling layer, which will likely kill the infected trees within seventeen years and may result in a shifting in forest composition or a transition to non-forested conditions. The presence and severity of EDM influences stand structure and composition and subsequently stand development. Depending on the goals and objectives and ultimate desired future conditions both at the stand and the broader landscape level, natural resource managers may choose more or less intensive management of EDM.
  12. Mistletoes Facilitate a Desert Herbivore by Improving the Quality of Shade Nicholas Chu, Will Cornwell, Mike Letnic Ecosystems Friday 01 January 2021 © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC part of Springer Nature. In arid environments, shade provided by vegetation forms the crux of many facilitation pathways by providing other organisms with relief from high levels of solar radiation and extreme temperatures. Shade is an important determinant that... © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC part of Springer Nature. In arid environments, shade provided by vegetation forms the crux of many facilitation pathways by providing other organisms with relief from high levels of solar radiation and extreme temperatures. Shade is an important determinant that structures arid ecosystem processes and functioning. While shade is considered an essential refuge for many organisms in arid environments, few studies have assessed how parasitic plants such as aerial mistletoes can influence the quality of shade provided by its host, and how this can subsequently influence species interactions. Here, we investigate how mistletoe influences the microclimate and daytime use of sub-canopy habitat by a large herbivore that seeks out shady micro-habitats to avoid daytime heat in Australia’s Strzelecki Desert. We experimentally removed the pale-leaved mistletoe (Amyema maidenii) from mulga trees (Acacia aneura) and monitored sub-canopy ambient temperatures and the daytime use of sub-canopy habitat by red kangaroos (Osphranter rufus). Results showed that average hourly temperature during the daytime and daily maximum temperature were cooler and that kangaroos were approximately three times more likely to shelter beneath trees where mistletoe was present (control) compared to where mistletoes had been removed (treatment). By showing that mistletoe can improve the quality of shade provided by their host trees, our study offers a novel insight into how mistletoes can facilitate the surrounding biota through modifying the abiotic environment beyond its physical structure. More broadly, the results of our study emphasise the prevalence of positive interactions within ecological communities and how they can occur in unexpected ways and indirectly between organisms that never come into direct contact.
  13. Assessment of dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium sichuanense) infection in spruce trees by using hyperspectral data Dianguang Xiong, Huayi Huang, Zezhong Wang, Zhouyuan Li, Chengming Tian Forest Pathology Friday 01 January 2021 © 2021 Wiley-VCH GmbH Dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium spp.,Viscaceae) (DM), a hemiparasitic plant, is nutritionally dependent upon its host tree and causes tree mortality in forests worldwide. Dwarf mistletoe infection results in physiological changes in the host, eventually causing the death of the host tree. In this study, we evaluated the changes... © 2021 Wiley-VCH GmbH Dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium spp.,Viscaceae) (DM), a hemiparasitic plant, is nutritionally dependent upon its host tree and causes tree mortality in forests worldwide. Dwarf mistletoe infection results in physiological changes in the host, eventually causing the death of the host tree. In this study, we evaluated the changes in leaf reflectance of spruce trees, Picea crassifolia, infected by DM (Arceuthobium sichuanense) with ground-based hyperspectral technology. A total of 112 sample sites were selected for analysis in the eastern part of Qinghai Province, China, including healthy spruce tree, light DM-infected spruce tree, moderate DM-infected spruce tree and high DM-infected spruce tree in each site. The results showed that leaf reflectance was significantly different among healthy spruce, DM-infected spruce, DM and dead spruce in the near-infrared regions ranging from ~750 to 900 nm. Dwarf mistletoe infection resulted in the increase of leaf reflectance of host tree, and the intensity of DM infection was positively related to reflectance. However, five selected hyperspectral indices that commonly used to estimate the physiological status of plants (carotenoid reflectance index, photochemical reflectance index, normalized difference vegetation index, structure-insensitive pigment index and water index) were not linearly correlated with the intensity of DM infection. Collectively, the hyperspectral characteristics of spruce infected by DM can be potentially used to detect DM-induced changes on a landscape scale with satellite remote sensing, which can be used as an efficient advanced tool for DM disease monitoring.
  14. Intraspecific Differentiation in White Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) Using the Analysis of Intron Length Polymorphism of β-Tubulin Genes and the SSR Analysis Yu O. Bilonozhko, A. M. Rabokon, A. S. Postovoitova, L. O. Kalafat, S. M. Pryvalikhin, A. Ye Demkovych, Ya B. Blume, Ya V. Pirko Cytology and Genetics, volume 55 Friday 01 January 2021 © 2021, Allerton Press, Inc. Abstract: Based on the analysis of intron I length polymorphism of the β-tubulin genes (TBP analysis), differences between two mistletoe subspecies (Viscum album ssp. austriacum (Wiesb.) and V. album ssp. album L.) have been shown. The possibility of using the Tubulin-Based Polymorphism (TBP) analysis for the sexual d... © 2021, Allerton Press, Inc. Abstract: Based on the analysis of intron I length polymorphism of the β-tubulin genes (TBP analysis), differences between two mistletoe subspecies (Viscum album ssp. austriacum (Wiesb.) and V. album ssp. album L.) have been shown. The possibility of using the Tubulin-Based Polymorphism (TBP) analysis for the sexual differentiation in mistletoe plants has also been demonstrated. We were successful in identifying particular white mistletoe genotypes using the simple sequence repeats (SSR) method. Application efficiency was comparatively assessed in both types of DNA markers, and the TBP analysis was shown to be more usable for differentiating between white mistletoe subspecies, whereas the SSR analysis is more suitable for studying genotypic variability within a particular subspecies.
  15. Cytinus under the microscope: Disclosing the secrets of a parasitic plant Enrico Sanjust, Andrea C. Rinaldi Plants, volume 10, pages 1-15 Friday 01 January 2021 © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Well over 1% of all flowering plants are parasites, obtaining all or part of the nutrients they need from other plants. Among this extremely heterogeneous assemblage, the Cytinaceae form a small group of holoparasites, with Cytinus as the main representative genus. Despite the small number ... © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Well over 1% of all flowering plants are parasites, obtaining all or part of the nutrients they need from other plants. Among this extremely heterogeneous assemblage, the Cytinaceae form a small group of holoparasites, with Cytinus as the main representative genus. Despite the small number of known species and the fact that it doesn’t attack crops or plants of economic importance, Cytinus is paradigmatic among parasitic plants. Recent research has indeed disclosed many aspects of host–parasite interactions and reproductive biology, the latter displaying a vast array of adaptive traits to lure a range of animal pollinators. Furthermore, analysis of biological activities of extracts of the most common species of Cytinus has provided evidence that this plant could be a valuable source of compounds with high potential in key applicative areas, namely food production (nutraceuticals) and the development of antimicrobial therapeutics. This article offers a complete overview of our current knowledge of Cytinus.

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