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International Parasitic Plant Society

Welcome to the homepage of the International Parasitic Plant Society (IPPS). The IPPS is dedicated to advancing scientific research on parasitic plants. Our goals include increasing the understanding of these amazing plants, providing a platform for exchange among and beyond the scientific community as well as helping to decrease the crop damage inflicted by weedy parasitic plants.

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1-Dec-21 Kateřina Knotková (Masaryk University, Czech Republic) – Interactions between parasitic plants and invasive hosts: the experimental evidence
  Emily Bellis (Arkansas State University) – Evolution of parasitic plant-host interactions from gene to continent scales
   
   

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Most Recent ‘Parasitic Plant’ publications

in Google Scholar

  1. Strigolaktonlar; Bitkisel Hormonlar Sınıfının Yeni Üyesi S ARIKAN, Ş Karaman - Avrupa Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi - dergipark.org.tr Sunday 05 December 2021 … SLs exuded by roots play an important role in the branching of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus supported, shoot and root development, and germination of parasitic plants such as Striga (witch grass), Orobanche (monster grass). In particular in the lack of phosphate…
  2. [HTML][HTML] Disentangling parasitic vines in the tropics: taxonomic notes for an accurate identification of Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae) and Cassytha (Lauraceae) SS Silva, R Simão-Bianchini, ARG Simões, M Costea - Rodriguésia, 2021 - SciELO Brasil Saturday 04 December 2021 Parasitic plants are often associated with agricultural, forestry and grassland economic losses, but they are also keystone species in their natural ecosystems. Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae) and Cassytha (Lauraceae) are parasitic plants which have evolved …
  3. [HTML][HTML] Synopsis of Dendrophthora and Phoradendron (Santalaceae) in Brazil GA Dettke, CS Caires - Rodriguésia, 2021 - SciELO Brasil Saturday 04 December 2021 … Systematic Botany 25: 349-370., 2017), Kuijt (2013)Kuijt J (2013) A brief taxonomic history of neotropical mistletoe genera, with a key to the genera. Blumea 58: 263-266. did not consider a nomenclatural modification necessary at that moment, due to limited …
  4. Towards Understanding the Biological Background of Strigolactone Diversity J Braguy - 2021 - repository.kaust.edu.sa Saturday 04 December 2021 … However, released SLs are also seed germination signals for the root parasitic plants Orobanchacea family and pave their way to the host plants’ roots. “New comers” in the field of plant hormones, their large structural variety intrigues and led to ask why plants …
  5. Blyton and Gender A Maunder - Enid Blyton, 2021 - Springer Saturday 04 December 2021 … He, in turn, has fond memories of the eight months spent at Mistletoe Farm: ‘“I think perhaps it was good for us, Mother,” he said. “It made me tough, you know – and I think I was a bit milk-and-watery before”’ (SCA, 51). Under Rose’s influence he reverts, becoming ‘…
  6. Characterization of Strigolactone Antagonists as Inhibitor of Striga hermonthica Seed Germination and the Discovery of a Nitric Oxide Responsive Protein in … RAY Zarban - 2021 - repository.kaust.edu.sa Friday 03 December 2021 Plants have evolved different communication mechanisms that convey information encoded in chemical signals, both internally and to surrounding organisms. Two such signals are strigolactones (SLs) and nitric oxide (NO). SLs are plant hormones that …
  7. Susceptibility of Brazilian varieties of maize and upland rice to Striga (Striga asiatica). CHB MIRANDA, SP FAVARO - Embrapa Agroenergia …, 2021 - infoteca.cnptia.embrapa.br Friday 03 December 2021 Conteúdo: This communication registers authors' impressions on the parasitism of Striga (Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze) in Brazilian varieties of maize and dryland rice that were introduced in Mozambique. It was a rare opportunity to learn about this plant …
  8. IMPACT OF THE INVASIVE CUSCUTA CAMPESTRIS ON VEGETATIVE COVER AND PLANT BIODIVERSITY IN HOMA-BAY COUNTY O Akoth, O Owuor, D Nyamai - International Journal of Agriculture, 2021 - iprjb.org Thursday 02 December 2021 Purpose: This research paper focused on the impact of Cuscuta campestris on vegetative cover and plant biodiversity in Homa-Bay County. The specific objective was to investigate the impact on plant growth and development with indicator as photosynthetic …
  9. Involvement of α-galactosidase OmAGAL2 in planteose hydrolysis during seed germination of Orobanche minor A Okazawa, A Baba, H Okano, T Tokunaga… - Journal of … - academic.oup.com Thursday 02 December 2021 Root parasitic weeds of the Orobanchaceae, such as witchweeds (Striga spp.) and broomrapes (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.), cause serious losses in agriculture worldwide, and efforts have been made to control these parasitic weeds. Understanding the …
  10. [PDF][PDF]  Corrigenda: A parasitic insect on a parasitic plant: a new species of the genus Formicoccus Takahashi (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha, Pseudococcidae) from … H Tanaka, K Suetsugu, S Kamitani - ZooKeys, 2021 - zookeys.pensoft.net Wednesday 01 December 2021 Dr. Sunil Joshi (Division of Insect Systematics, National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources, Bangalore Karnataka, India) kindly pointed out that the genus name used in Tanaka et al.(2021) was misspelt, and the paper also did not include Formicococcus …
  11. Comparative proteomics analysis provides new insights into the haustorium development of Taxillus chinensis (DC.) Danser L Pan, L Wan, L Song, L He, N Jiang, H Long, J Huo… - 2021 - europepmc.org Wednesday 01 December 2021 … Loranthus ( Taxillus chinensis ) is an important medicinal and parasitic plant that attacks other plants for living. To reveal the mechanisms of haustorium development, we employed an iTRAQ proteomics-based approach to identify differentially abundant proteins (…
  12. Screening and Identification of Strains With High Lignocellulose-degrading Enzyme Production From Endophytic Fungi of Taxillus Chinensis LS Song, LP Pan, NJ Jiang, FU JF, LW Wan, SW Wei - 2021 - europepmc.org Wednesday 01 December 2021 … Successful parasitism of parasitic plants is to fuse their tissues and connect their vasculature to the host vasculature building a physiological bridge, which can efficiently withdraw water, sugars and nutrients from their host plants. It is reported that endophytic fungi …
  13. Heat Waves and Broomrape Are the Major Constraints for Lentil Cultivation in Southern Spain D Rubiales Olmedo, A Moral, F Flores Gil - 2021 - rabida.uhu.es Wednesday 01 December 2021 … Spain, lentil cultivation is concentrated in central plains (Castilla-la-Mancha and Castilla-León), being low in Southern regions like Andalusia and Extremadura, characterized by higher temperatures and high incidence of the parasitic weed broomrape (Orobanche …
  14. [PDF][PDF] Parasitic Flowering Plants on Postal Stamps: Vehicles for Learning DL Nickrent, A Vartak - currentscience.ac.in Saturday 27 November 2021 … These stamps convey messages about the history and importance of parasitic plants such as witchweed (Striga), sandalwood, and mistletoes. Some of these parasitic plants are beautiful wildflowers such as Castilleja, Euphrasia, and Pedicularis whereas many …
  15. On the Use of the Showy Mistletoe Helixanthera cylindrica (Santalales: Loranthaceae) as a Nectar Source for Butterflies in the Malay Peninsula, South-East Asia YK Tea, NL Liew, JW Soong, HS Barlow - The Journal of the Lepidopterists' …, 2021 - BioOne Monday 29 November 2021 There is little published information on the interactions of pollinating insects and the flowers of showy mistletoes. The Santalales is an important angiosperm order comprising over 2,200 species in 160 genera, many of which are parasitic (Nickrent et al …

Most Recent 'Parasitic Plant' publications

in Scopus

  1. Effect of mistletoe extract on tumor response in neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer: a cohort study Jeong Heum Baek, Youngbae Jeon, Kyoung Won Han, Dong Hae Jung, Kyung Ok Kim World Journal of Surgical Oncology, volume 19 Tuesday 07 December 2021 Background: Mistletoe extract, used as a complementary chemotherapeutic agent for cancer patients, has anticancer effects against various malignancies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of mistletoe extract (Abnoba Viscum Q®) on tumor responses to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer. Method... Background: Mistletoe extract, used as a complementary chemotherapeutic agent for cancer patients, has anticancer effects against various malignancies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of mistletoe extract (Abnoba Viscum Q®) on tumor responses to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods: This study included patients with rectal cancer who underwent NCRT between January 2018 and July 2020. In the mistletoe group (MG), the patients were administered Abnoba Viscum Q® subcutaneously during chemoradiotherapy—maintained just before surgery. Patient demographics, clinical outcomes, histopathological outcomes, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay results were compared between the MG and non-mistletoe group (NMG). Two rectal cancer cell lines (SNU-503 and SNU-503R80Gy) were treated with Abnoba Viscum Q® to assess its mechanistic effects in vivo. Results: Overall, the study included 52 patients (MG: n = 15; NMG: n = 37). Baseline demographics between the two groups were similar, except carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels and tumor location from the anal verge. There was no difference in the clinical stage between the two groups. A better tumor response in the MG, relative to the NMG, was observed with respect to tumor regression grade (TRG), T stage, and overall tumor–node–metastasis stage. Tumor response was significantly better in the MG than in the NMG in terms of pathologic complete response rate (53.3% vs. 21.6%, P = 0.044), good TRG response (66.7% vs. 32.4%, P = 0.024), T downstaging (86.7% vs. 43.2%, P = 0.004), and overall downstaging (86.7% vs. 56.8%, P = 0.040). The toxicities during NCRT were minimal in both groups. More apoptotic cells were noted in MG samples than in the NMG samples on TUNEL staining. Cleaved caspase-3 level following treatment with Abnoba Viscum Q® was higher in SNU-503R80Gy cells than in SNU-503 cells. Conclusion: Patients treated with chemoradiation combined with mistletoe extract showed better outcomes than patients not treated with mistletoe extract in terms of tumor responses. This diversity in treatment may improve the efficacy of NCRT, leading to better oncologic outcomes. Prospective and randomized studies with long-term follow-up are warranted to confirm and extend these results.
  2. CRISPR/Cas9 mediated mutagenesis of MORE AXILLARY GROWTH 1 in tomato confers resistance to root parasitic weed Phelipanche aegyptiaca Vinay Kumar Bari, Jackline Abu Nassar, Radi Aly Scientific Reports, volume 11 Tuesday 07 December 2021 Root parasitic weeds infect numerous economically important crops, affecting total yield quantity and quality. A lack of an efficient control method limits our ability to manage newly developing and more virulent races of root parasitic weeds. To control the parasite induced damage in most host crops, an innovative biotechnological approach is urge... Root parasitic weeds infect numerous economically important crops, affecting total yield quantity and quality. A lack of an efficient control method limits our ability to manage newly developing and more virulent races of root parasitic weeds. To control the parasite induced damage in most host crops, an innovative biotechnological approach is urgently required. Strigolactones (SLs) are plant hormones derived from carotenoids via a pathway involving the Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase (CCD) 7, CCD8 and More Axillary Growth 1 (MAX1) genes. SLs act as branching inhibitory hormones and strictly required for the germination of root parasitic weeds. Here, we demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targted editing of SL biosynthetic gene MAX1, in tomato confers resistance against root parasitic weed Phelipanche aegyptiaca. We designed sgRNA to target the third exon of MAX1 in tomato plants using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. The T0 plants were edited very efficiently at the MAX1 target site without any non-specific off-target effects. Genotype analysis of T1 plants revealed that the introduced mutations were stably passed on to the next generation. Notably, MAX1-Cas9 heterozygous and homozygous T1 plants had similar morphological changes that include excessive growth of axillary bud, reduced plant height and adventitious root formation relative to wild type. Our results demonstrated that, MAX1-Cas9 mutant lines exhibit resistance against root parasitic weed P. aegyptiaca due to reduced SL (orobanchol) level. Moreover, the expression of carotenoid biosynthetic pathway gene PDS1 and total carotenoid level was altered, as compared to wild type plants. Taking into consideration, the impact of root parasitic weeds on the agricultural economy and the obstacle to prevent and eradicate them, the current study provides new aspects into the development of an efficient control method that could be used to avoid germination of root parasitic weeds.
  3. Mitochondrial genomes of two parasitic Cuscuta species lack clear evidence of horizontal gene transfer and retain unusually fragmented ccmF<inf>C</inf> genes Benjamin M. Anderson, Kirsten Krause, Gitte Petersen BMC Genomics, volume 22 Monday 06 December 2021 Background: The intimate association between parasitic plants and their hosts favours the exchange of genetic material, potentially leading to horizontal gene transfer (HGT) between plants. With the recent publication of several parasitic plant nuclear genomes, there has been considerable focus on such non-sexual exchange of genes. To enhance the p... Background: The intimate association between parasitic plants and their hosts favours the exchange of genetic material, potentially leading to horizontal gene transfer (HGT) between plants. With the recent publication of several parasitic plant nuclear genomes, there has been considerable focus on such non-sexual exchange of genes. To enhance the picture on HGT events in a widely distributed parasitic genus, Cuscuta (dodders), we assembled and analyzed the organellar genomes of two recently sequenced species, C. australis and C. campestris, making this the first account of complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) for this genus. Results: The mitogenomes are 265,696 and 275,898 bp in length and contain a typical set of mitochondrial genes, with 10 missing or pseudogenized genes often lost from angiosperm mitogenomes. Each mitogenome also possesses a structurally unusual ccmFC gene, which exhibits splitting of one exon and a shift to trans-splicing of its intron. Based on phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genes from across angiosperms and similarity-based searches, there is little to no indication of HGT into the Cuscuta mitogenomes. A few candidate regions for plastome-to-mitogenome transfer were identified, with one suggestive of possible HGT. Conclusions: The lack of HGT is surprising given examples from the nuclear genomes, and may be due in part to the relatively small size of the Cuscuta mitogenomes, limiting the capacity to integrate foreign sequences.
  4. Functional and species composition of understory plants varies with mistletoe-infection on Vachellia karroo trees in a semi-arid African savanna Tsitsi Sithandiwe Maponga, Hilton Garikai Taambuka Ndagurwa, Ed T.F. Witkowski Global Ecology and Conservation, volume 32 Monday 06 December 2021 In savanna ecosystems, tree canopy patches differ in plant species composition compared to adjacent intercanopy spaces due to different levels of resource availabilities. Mistletoes further augment nutrients underneath tree canopies whilst reducing their hosts’ competitive edge, thus providing more resources and creating patches that support high... In savanna ecosystems, tree canopy patches differ in plant species composition compared to adjacent intercanopy spaces due to different levels of resource availabilities. Mistletoes further augment nutrients underneath tree canopies whilst reducing their hosts’ competitive edge, thus providing more resources and creating patches that support higher understory species richness. However, little is known on how understory species and functional trait assemblages, in both canopy and intercanopy spaces, are affected by varying overstory mistletoe infection intensities. This study investigated how functional and species diversity/composition varied within and between canopy patches and intercanopy spaces of high- and low mistletoe-infected Vachellia karroo trees. The affinity of individual species to the different canopy patches and intercanopy spaces was also assessed. Microhabitats had significantly different species compositions. A higher proportion of species (34%) showed a strong positive affinity towards canopy patches whilst intercanopy spaces were strongly associated with only 9% of recorded species, indicating greater dominance of some species there. Generally, subcanopy patches had significantly higher species richness and diversity, and functional diversity, compared to adjacent intercanopy spaces. These variables increased with increasing mistletoe infection, thus grass, forb and tree species diversity were 17–43% higher, and functional diversity indices were 0.5–28% greater in high- compared to low mistletoe-infection canopy patches. Furthermore, species richness and diversity of C3, C4, annual and perennial plants were 1.27–3.13-fold higher within canopy patches compared to intercanopy spaces and 1.28–1.74-fold greater within high- compared to low mistletoe-infection microhabitats. Consequently, high mistletoe-infection canopy patches had between 1.08 and 3.76-fold greater species richness and diversity of C3, C4, annual and perennial plants compared to the other three microhabitats. Our findings suggest that by enhancing spatial heterogeneity, variations in mistletoe infection facilitate biodiversity and to a lesser extent vegetation structural diversity in these semi-arid savannas.
  5. Striga gesnerioides (Willd.) Vatke infestation and distribution as affected by soil properties and varieties at the plot and landscape scales in cowpea-based cropping systems Abou Soufianou Sadda, Oumarou Malam Issa, Nouhou Salifou Jangorzo, Abdoul Aziz Saïdou, Hassane Bil Assanou Issoufou, Abdoulaye Diouf Weed Research, volume 61, pages 519-531 Sunday 05 December 2021 Striga is among the most noxious parasitic plant genera causing yield losses to staple crops in the semiarid and subhumid areas of Africa and Asia. Understanding the factors that affect the current distribution of Striga infestation is critical for developing integrated control strategies. This study attempts to elucidate the soil properties that a... Striga is among the most noxious parasitic plant genera causing yield losses to staple crops in the semiarid and subhumid areas of Africa and Asia. Understanding the factors that affect the current distribution of Striga infestation is critical for developing integrated control strategies. This study attempts to elucidate the soil properties that are related to and that affect the plot-level infestation and land-scape level distribution of Striga gesnerioides (Willd.) Vatke in Niger. At the plot scale, 27 cowpea varieties were sown in randomised blocks of 30 plots in 14 fields, and their soils were sampled and analysed. S. gesnerioides infestations were recorded in the fields over 2 years. These records were obtained with georeferenced data, and soil properties were extracted from global databases. At the plot scale, the variance in S. gesnerioides infestations were affected by available phosphorus (29.17%), organic carbon (16.61%), pH (15.15%), nitrogen (13.13%), and sand contents (10.12%) and varied among the cowpea varieties. This led to the identification of cowpea varieties with consistent high levels of resistance (varieties: CS030 and CS095). At the landscape scale, soil moisture is the key factor explaining 48.6% of S. gesnerioides distribution, followed by silt content (28.1%), sand content (13.7%), and bulk density (6.2%). These results showed a clear dichotomy in the interactions between the occurrence of S. gesnerioides and soil properties from the plot to landscape scales. These results are valuable for understanding the ecology of S. gesnerioides and can support the development of integrated control strategies.
  6. Phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Cuscuta reflexa stem and its fractions Nitin Sharma, Vikas Kumar, Nidhi Gupta Vegetos, volume 34, pages 876-881 Sunday 05 December 2021 The present study was aimed to study the effect of fractionation of crude methanolic extract of Cuscuta reflexa stem on phytocompounds, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. Bioassay guided method was used to prepare fractions of methanolic extract of C. reflexa stem. Spectrophotometric methods were used for quantification of total phenols and fl... The present study was aimed to study the effect of fractionation of crude methanolic extract of Cuscuta reflexa stem on phytocompounds, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. Bioassay guided method was used to prepare fractions of methanolic extract of C. reflexa stem. Spectrophotometric methods were used for quantification of total phenols and flavonoids; whereas antibacterial activity was analysed by using agar well diffusion and broth dilution method. DPPH radical scavenging method was used for determination of in vitro antioxidant activity. Among all the fractions, ethyl acetate fraction showed enriched total phenolic content (46.272 ± 2.77 mg/g GAE) and total flavonoid content (32.970 ± 2.37 mg/g RE). Ethyl acetate fraction showed more inhibition to growth of Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhi) as shown by zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration. Chloroform fraction did not show any inhibition against tested bacteria. Ethyl acetate fraction (15.70 ± 1.82 µg/ml) showed highest radical scavenging by DPPH method. Order of antioxidant activity in terms of IC50 was ethyl acetate fraction (15.70 ± 1.82 µg/ml) > crude methanolic extract (36.365 ± 1.234 µg/ml) > aqueous fraction (49.94 ± 2.30 µg/ml) > n-hexane fraction (51.384 ± 0.84 µg/ml) > chloroform fraction (55.082 ± 2.402 µg/ml). The results from the current study revealed the importance of C. reflexa as a source of bioactive molecules for antibacterial and antioxidant activity.
  7. Sources of tolerance to low soil nitrogen in some Striga resistant and quality protein maize (Zea mays L.) varieties Qudrah Olaitan Oloyede-Kamiyo, Amudalat Bolanle Olaniyan, Jafar Ayinde Abdul-Waheed, Benson Akinloye Akinseye Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology, volume 24, pages 513-520 Tuesday 30 November 2021 Low soil nitrogen (N) is one of the major abiotic stresses reducing maize yield in Africa. Twenty-five maize varieties which included quality protein maize (QPM), drought and Striga tolerant maize, and two low soil nitrogen (LN) tolerant maize as checks, were evaluated in two locations between 2017 and 2018 to identify varieties with tolerance to L... Low soil nitrogen (N) is one of the major abiotic stresses reducing maize yield in Africa. Twenty-five maize varieties which included quality protein maize (QPM), drought and Striga tolerant maize, and two low soil nitrogen (LN) tolerant maize as checks, were evaluated in two locations between 2017 and 2018 to identify varieties with tolerance to LN. The field was mopped of nitrogen by planting maize twice without fertilizer and the soil was analyzed before the trial. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete design in three replications. Urea fertilizer was applied in a split dose at 2 and 4 weeks after planting at rate of 30kgN/ha for low nitrogen (LN) and 90kgN/ha for high nitrogen (HN) plot. Data were collected on days to flowering, anthesis-silking interval, leaf death, grain yield, and other agronomic parameters. Data were subjected to analysis using SAS. Rank summation index (RSI) and cluster analysis were used to select the best varieties under LN. Apart from the two checks, varieties DT STR -Y2 SYN and TZE COMP3 DT had good yield of 1.99 tons/ha and 1.39tons/ha, respectively, under LN, with yield gap of 0 and 44%, respectively. The top ranked varieties under LN using RSI either appear singly or in a group under cluster analysis. They included drought and Striga tolerant varieties along with the two LN checks, implying that Striga tolerant maize also possesses the ability to tolerate LN. The varieties could, therefore, be involved in a breeding program for improvement for low soil nitrogen.
  8. Characterization of a chickpea mutant resistant to phelipanche aegyptiaca pers. And orobanche crenata forsk Shmuel Galili, Joseph Hershenhorn, Evgeny Smirnov, Koichi Yoneyama, Xiaonan Xie, Orit Amir-Segev, Aharon Bellalou, Evgenia Dor Plants, volume 10 Monday 29 November 2021 Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is a major pulse crop in Israel grown on about 3000 ha spread, from the Upper Galilee in the north to the North-Negev desert in the south. In the last few years, there has been a gradual increase in broomrape infestation in chickpea fields in all regions of Israel. Resistant chickpea cultivars would be simple and effec... Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is a major pulse crop in Israel grown on about 3000 ha spread, from the Upper Galilee in the north to the North-Negev desert in the south. In the last few years, there has been a gradual increase in broomrape infestation in chickpea fields in all regions of Israel. Resistant chickpea cultivars would be simple and effective solution to control broomrape. Thus, to develop resistant cultivars we screened an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutant population of F01 variety (Kabuli type) for broomrape resistance. One of the mutant lines (CCD7M14) was found to be highly resistant to both Phelipanche aegyptiaca and Orobanche crenata. The resistance mechanism is based on the inability of the mutant to produce strigolactones (SLs)—stimulants of broomrape seed germination. LC/MS/MS analysis revealed the SLs orobanchol, orobanchyl acetate, and didehydroorobanchol in root exudates of the wild type, but no SLs could be detected in the root exudates of CCD7M14. Sequence analyses revealed a point mutation (G-to-A transition at nucleotide position 210) in the Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase 7 (CCD7) gene that is responsible for the production of key enzymes in the biosynthesis of SLs. This nonsense mutation resulted in a CCD7 stop codon at position 70 of the protein. The influences of the CCD7M14 mutation on chickpea phenotype and chlorophyll, carotenoid, and anthocyanin content were characterized.
  9. Integrated small RNA, mRNA, and degradome sequencing reveals the important role of miRNAs in the interactions between parasitic plant Cuscuta australis and its host Trifolium repens Li Zhou, Qiu Wei Lu, Bei Fen Yang, Lyuben Zagorchev, Jun Min Li Scientia Horticulturae, volume 289 Monday 29 November 2021 Cuscuta australis R.Br. is a stem parasite that obtains water and nutrients from host plants, with which it also exchanges proteins and mRNAs with host plants. Recently, a study found that novel miRNAs accumulated during C. campestris Yunk. parasitism of Arabidopsis thaliana L. However, the fate of miRNAs transferred from parasite to host plants as... Cuscuta australis R.Br. is a stem parasite that obtains water and nutrients from host plants, with which it also exchanges proteins and mRNAs with host plants. Recently, a study found that novel miRNAs accumulated during C. campestris Yunk. parasitism of Arabidopsis thaliana L. However, the fate of miRNAs transferred from parasite to host plants as well as their targets has remained unexamined. To understand the miRNA–mRNA interaction network of host Trifolium repens L. in response to C. australis parasitism, integrated mRNA, small RNA, and degradome sequencing data were analyzed. In total, 60,824 unigenes were identified by RNA-seq, of which 1,601 were differentially expressed genes (DEGs). A total of 71 known miRNAs belonging to 38 miRNA families and 65 novel miRNAs were identified from small RNA sequencing data and 8,012 target genes were predicted. Of these target genes, 129 miRNA–mRNA pairs were identified via degradome analyzes. There were also eight differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs). DEG and DEM correlation analyzes revealed 23 pairs of differentially expressed miRNA–mRNA pairs responsive to C. australis parasitism. The most enriched pathways were plant hormone signal transduction, ribosome and plant–pathogen interaction pathways. The miRNA–mRNA pairs in host T. repens, including trr-miR393a–RPS6, trr-miR398b–TGA, trr-miR395a/g–bHLH112, trr-miR395g–GH3, and trr-miRn41–WRKY/MYB, likely play important roles in interactions between host T. repens and parasitic C. australis. These results provide valuable information on the mechanisms of parasite–host plant interactions.
  10. QTL dissection and mining of candidate genes for Ascochyta fabae and Orobanche crenata resistance in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) Natalia Gutierrez, Ana M. Torres BMC Plant Biology, volume 21 Sunday 28 November 2021 Background: Ascochyta blight caused by Ascochyta fabae Speg. and broomrape (Orobanche crenata) are among the economically most significant pathogens of faba bean. Several QTLs conferring resistance against the two pathogens have been identified and validated in different genetic backgrounds. The aim of this study was to saturate the most stable QTL... Background: Ascochyta blight caused by Ascochyta fabae Speg. and broomrape (Orobanche crenata) are among the economically most significant pathogens of faba bean. Several QTLs conferring resistance against the two pathogens have been identified and validated in different genetic backgrounds. The aim of this study was to saturate the most stable QTLs for ascochyta and broomrape resistance in two Recombinant Inbred Line (RIL) populations, 29H x Vf136 and Vf6 x Vf136, to identify candidate genes conferring resistance against these two pathogens. Results: We exploited the synteny between faba bean and the model species Medicago truncatula by selecting a set of 219 genes encoding putative WRKY transcription factors and defense related proteins falling within the target QTL intervals, for genotyping and marker saturation in the two RIL populations. Seventy and 50 of the candidate genes could be mapped in 29H x Vf136 and Vf6 x Vf136, respectively. Besides the strong reduction of the QTL intervals, the mapping process allowed replacing previous dominant and pedigree-specific RAPD flanking markers with robust and transferrable SNP markers, revealing promising candidates for resistance against the two pathogens. Conclusions: Although further efforts in association mapping and expression studies will be required to corroborate the candidate genes for resistance, the fine-mapping approach proposed here increases the genetic resolution of relevant QTL regions and paves the way for an efficient deployment of useful alleles for faba bean ascochyta and broomrape resistance through marker-assisted breeding.
  11. Detection of mistletoe infected trees using UAV high spatial resolution images Mojdeh Miraki, Hormoz Sohrabi, Parviz Fatehi, Mathias Kneubuehler Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, volume 128, pages 1679-1689 Friday 26 November 2021 Remote detection of aerial parasitic plants in forests is imperative in precision forestry, as it can help to manage tree stands and to monitor forest ecosystem health. The plain forests located in Noor and Hyrcanian forests (Iran), characterized by mixed broadleaved forests, host large populations of mistletoe (Viscum album). In this study, aiming... Remote detection of aerial parasitic plants in forests is imperative in precision forestry, as it can help to manage tree stands and to monitor forest ecosystem health. The plain forests located in Noor and Hyrcanian forests (Iran), characterized by mixed broadleaved forests, host large populations of mistletoe (Viscum album). In this study, aiming to delineate trees infected by mistletoe, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with an RGB camera was used to acquire series of images in winter (February of 2020) and summer (September of 2020). The canopy height model (CHM) was generated from UAV images then Gaussian filter was applied to the CHM. Two sites were selected and the individual tree crowns in these sites were delineated manually and automatically (using a region growing algorithm based on the filtered canopy height model). A range of UAV-based RGB vegetation indices (VIs) was generated. Individual trees were classified into two classes (i.e., infected and non-infected) using a random forest classification algorithm, and based on six image processing scenarios (i.e., three scenarios where tree crowns were delineated manually, followed by identification of infected trees in leaf-off, leaf-on, and combined leaf-off and leaf-on seasons, and three scenarios with the same identification procedure applied to automatically delineated tree crowns using a regional growing algorithm). Optimal classification results using manual and automatic crown delineation were obtained by leaf-off and combined leaf-off + leaf-on season data with the overall accuracy of 87% and 76% for site 1, respectively. Also, the overall accuracy of 80% and 69% was obtained from combined leaf-off + leaf-on season data for site 2. The study demonstrates the potential of using UAV-based RGB data for studying mistletoe infection and distribution in a complex forest ecosystem.
  12. Image analysis for the automatic phenotyping of Orobanche cumana tubercles on sunflower roots A. Le Ru, G. Ibarcq, M. C. Boniface, A. Baussart, S. Muños, M. Chabaud Plant Methods, volume 17 Thursday 25 November 2021 Background: The parasitic plant Orobanche cumana is one of the most important threats to sunflower crops in Europe. Resistant sunflower varieties have been developed, but new O. cumana races have evolved and have overcome introgressed resistance genes, leading to the recurrent need for new resistance methods. Screening for resistance requires the p... Background: The parasitic plant Orobanche cumana is one of the most important threats to sunflower crops in Europe. Resistant sunflower varieties have been developed, but new O. cumana races have evolved and have overcome introgressed resistance genes, leading to the recurrent need for new resistance methods. Screening for resistance requires the phenotyping of thousands of sunflower plants to various O. cumana races. Most phenotyping experiments have been performed in fields at the later stage of the interaction, requiring time and space. A rapid phenotyping screening method under controlled conditions would need less space and would allow screening for resistance of many sunflower genotypes. Our study proposes a phenotyping tool for the sunflower/O. cumana interaction under controlled conditions through image analysis for broomrape tubercle analysis at early stages of the interaction. Results: We optimized the phenotyping of sunflower/O. cumana interactions by using rhizotrons (transparent Plexiglas boxes) in a growth chamber to control culture conditions and Orobanche inoculum. We used a Raspberry Pi computer with a picamera for acquiring images of inoculated sunflower roots 3 weeks post inoculation. We set up a macro using ImageJ free software for the automatic counting of the number of tubercles. This phenotyping tool was named RhizOSun. We evaluated five sunflower genotypes inoculated with two O. cumana races and showed that automatic counting of the number of tubercles using RhizOSun was highly correlated with manual time-consuming counting and could be efficiently used for screening sunflower genotypes at the tubercle stage. Conclusion: This method is rapid, accurate and low-cost. It allows rapid imaging of numerous rhizotrons over time, and it enables image tracking of all the data with time kinetics. This paves the way toward automatization of phenotyping in rhizotrons that could be used for other root phenotyping, such as symbiotic nodules on legumes.
  13. Untargeted metabolomics approach to discriminate mistletoe commercial products Cécile Vanhaverbeke, David Touboul, Nicolas Elie, Martine Prévost, Cécile Meunier, Sylvie Michelland, Valérie Cunin, Ling Ma, David Vermijlen, Cédric Delporte, Stéphanie Pochet, Audrey Le Gouellec, Michel Sève, Pierre Van Antwerpen, Florence Souard Scientific Reports, volume 11 Wednesday 24 November 2021 Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) is used in German-speaking European countries in the field of integrative oncology linking conventional and complementary medicine therapies to improve quality of life. Various companies sell extracts, fermented or not, for injection by subcutaneous or intra-tumoral route with a regulatory status of anthroposophic medici... Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) is used in German-speaking European countries in the field of integrative oncology linking conventional and complementary medicine therapies to improve quality of life. Various companies sell extracts, fermented or not, for injection by subcutaneous or intra-tumoral route with a regulatory status of anthroposophic medicinal products (European Medicinal Agency (EMA) assessment status). These companies as well as anthroposophical physicians argue that complex matrices composed of many molecules in mixture are necessary for activity and that the host tree of the mistletoe parasitic plant is the main determining factor for this matrix composition. The critical point is that parenteral devices of European mistletoe extracts do not have a standard chemical composition regulated by EMA quality guidelines, because they are not drugs, regulatory speaking. However, the mechanism of mistletoe’s anticancer activity and its effectiveness in treating and supporting cancer patients are not fully understood. Because of this lack of transparency and knowledge regarding the matrix chemical composition, we undertook an untargeted metabolomics study of several mistletoe extracts to explore and compare their fingerprints by LC-(HR)MS(/MS) and 1H-NMR. Unexpectedly, we showed that the composition was primarily driven by the manufacturer/preparation method rather than the different host trees. This differential composition may cause differences in immunostimulating and anti-cancer activities of the different commercially available mistletoe extracts as illustrated by structure–activity relationships based on LC–MS/MS and 1H-NMR identifications completed by docking experiments. In conclusion, in order to move towards an evidence-based medicine use of mistletoe, it is a priority to bring rigor and quality, chemically speaking.
  14. CCL01, a novel formulation composed of: Cuscuta seeds and Lactobacillus paracasei NK112, enhances memory function via nerve growth factor-mediated neurogenesis In Gyoung Ju, Seong Min Hong, Soo Won Yun, Eugene Huh, Dong Hyun Kim, Sun Yeou Kim, Myung Sook Oh Food and Function, volume 12, pages 10690-10699 Tuesday 23 November 2021 Memory decline occurs due to various factors, including stress, depression, and aging, and lowers the quality of life. Several nutritional supplements and probiotics have been used to enhance memory function, and efforts have been made to develop mixed supplements with maximized efficacy. In this study, we aimed to examine whether a novel formulati... Memory decline occurs due to various factors, including stress, depression, and aging, and lowers the quality of life. Several nutritional supplements and probiotics have been used to enhance memory function, and efforts have been made to develop mixed supplements with maximized efficacy. In this study, we aimed to examine whether a novel formulation composed of Cuscuta seeds and Lactobacillus paracasei NK112, CCL01, enhances memory function and induces neurogenesis via nerve growth factor (NGF) induction. Firstly, we orally administered CCL01 to normal mice and assessed their memory function 4 weeks after the first administration by performing a step-through passive avoidance test. We found that CCL01 at 100 mg kg-1 treatment enhanced the fear-based memory function. By analyzing the expression of Ki-67 and doublecortin, which are the markers of proliferating cells and immature neurons, respectively, we observed that CCL01 induced neuronal proliferation and differentiation in the hippocampus of the mice. Additionally, we found that the expression of synaptic markers increased in the hippocampus of CCL01-treated mice. We measured the NGF expression in the supernatant of C6 cells after CCL01 treatment and found that CCL01 increased NGF release. Furthermore, treatment of CCL01-conditioned glial media on N2a cells increased neuronal differentiation via the TrkA/ERK/CREB signaling pathway and neurotrophic factor expression. Moreover, when CCL01 was administered and scopolamine was injected, CCL01 ameliorated memory decline. These results suggest that CCL01 is an effective enhancer of memory function and can be applied to various age groups requiring memory improvement.
  15. Antitumor and hepatoprotective effect of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. in a murine model of colon cancer Shobhit Mishra, Fahad Saad Alhodieb, Md Abul Barkat, Mohd Zaheen Hassan, Harshita Abul Barkat, Raisuddin Ali, Perwaiz Alam, Ozair Alam Journal of Ethnopharmacology, volume 282 Monday 22 November 2021 Ethnopharmacological relevance: Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (C. reflexa) is a well-known traditional herbal plant, with numerous inherent therapeutic potentials including anticancer, antitumor, antibacterial, analgesic, anthelmintic, laxative and others. Moreover, the anticancer and antitumor potentials of this herb are ongoing with several trails, thus ... Ethnopharmacological relevance: Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (C. reflexa) is a well-known traditional herbal plant, with numerous inherent therapeutic potentials including anticancer, antitumor, antibacterial, analgesic, anthelmintic, laxative and others. Moreover, the anticancer and antitumor potentials of this herb are ongoing with several trails, thus an attempt was made to assess the anticancer and hepatoprotective potentials of traditional C. reflexa herbs. Method: The dried ethanolic extract of C. reflexa was tested for acute oral toxicity in the treated animals subsequently their behavioral, neurological, and autonomic profiles changes were observed. The preliminary anti-cancer effects of extracts against 1, 2- Dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) induced animals were assessed through barium enema X-ray, colonoscopy, and Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) studies. The blood samples of the animals (treated and untreated) were collected and their in-vitro histological parameters were evaluated by the experienced technician. Results: It was observed that C. reflexa significantly reduced Disease activity indexing (DAI) level and ACF counting, as well as demonstrated similar activity as of the standard drug 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). Histopathological results revealed that the apoptotic bodies decreased in the DMH-induced group (group II) during cancer progression while in 5-FU treated (group III) and C. reflexa treated (group IV and V) animals the apoptotic bodies were increased. Inversely, the mitotic bodies increased in group II animals and reduced in group III, IV, and V animals. In the colonic section, DMH-induced cancer assay exhibited significant effects on the levels of hemoglobin, Packed cell volume (PCV), Red blood cell (RBC) counts, Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and Mean cell hemoglobin (MCH), and was found to be less in group II animals whereas administration of C. reflexa efficiently recovered back the loss probably by healing the colon damage/depletion of cancer progression. Moreover, compared to the group II animals, the neutrophil count was within the normal range in C. reflexa administered group. Conclusions: In the present study, the major hematological parameters significantly increased within DMH treated animals and exhibited extensive damage in the hepatic regions. Moreover, the histopathological findings demonstrated that the C. reflexa extracts potentially reduced the cell proliferation, with no toxicity. The C. reflexa extracts exhibited impending anti-cancer activity as well as protected the hepatic cells and thus could be potentially used in the management of colon or colorectal cancer and hepatic impairments.

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