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International Parasitic Plant Society

Welcome to the homepage of the International Parasitic Plant Society (IPPS). The IPPS is dedicated to advancing scientific research on parasitic plants. Our goals include increasing the understanding of these amazing plants, providing a platform for exchange among and beyond the scientific community as well as helping to decrease the crop damage inflicted by weedy parasitic plants.

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Most Recent 'Parasitic Plant' Publications

in Google Scholar

  1. [PDF][PDF] Viscum Album-Literature Review ACV Valle, AC de Carvalho, RV Andrade - researchgate.net Sunday 09 May 2021  … 2Catholic University of Brasilia – Brasilia, Brazil *Corresponding author: dranacatarina[at]gmail.com Abstract: Viscum album L., popularly known as "Mistletoe", is considered a semi-parasitic plant that grows on several host trees …
  2. [CITATION][C] Grade II‐anaphylaxis after subcutaneous injection of mistletoe extract F Casetti, D Rafei‐Shamsabadi, S Müller - Contact Dermatitis, 2021 - Wiley Online Library Friday 07 May 2021 Discussion Our case proves that mistletoe extract can cause systemic anaphylactic reactions. Although we could not detect any sensitisation to Viscum album in the performed skin tests, we found a strong concentration-dependent basophil activation in …
  3. [PDF][PDF] E. Av BN the remedies and chans G Cheyne - ncbi.nlm.nih.gov Wednesday 05 May 2021  … Sir Thomas Browne in his Wulgar Errors discusses the virtues of mistletoe in "epileptical intentions." and among the more picturesque remedies may be listed bile of the mon- goose, liver of green frogs, horn of the unicorn, feces of the stork and burnt feathers of peacocks …
  4. Interactive effects of nutrient availability, fluctuating supply, and plant parasitism on the post-invasion success of Bidens pilosa FL Gao, QS He, RQ Xie, JH Hou, CL Shi, JM Li… - Biological Invasions, 2021 - Springer Friday 07 May 2021  … Testing this effect is important because parasitic plants are proposed as a promising agent for biocontrol of alien plant invasions … well as high or low nutrient availability and let them be invaded by an alien annual plant Bidens pilosa or not and parasitized by Cuscuta …
  5. Sunflower Metabolites Involved in Resistance Mechanisms against Broomrape C Rial Cumbrera, RM Varela Montoya… - 2021 - rodin.uca.es Friday 07 May 2021  … must avoid some of the steps in the life cycle of parasitic plants and these are … previously stimulated by GR24 (synthetic SL commonly used as stimulator of parasitic plant germination in … stimulant production have been used to successfully breed sorghum resistance …
  6. [PDF][PDF] Segnalazioni floristiche veronesi S ANDREATTA, F MENINI, M TRENCHI - researchgate.net Wednesday 05 May 2021  … Some findings, like Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdc. and Orobanche picridis FW Schultz, are new to Verona; some others, such as Chenopodium pedunculare Bertol., Linaria simplex (Willd.) Desf … Orobanche picridis FW Schultz (Orobanchaceae) …
  7. [PDF][PDF] Pea Breeding Lines Adapted to Autumn Sowings in Broomrape Prone Mediterranean Environments. Agronomy 2021, 11, 769 D Rubiales, S Osuna-Caballero, MJ González-Bernal… - 2021 - researchgate.net Sunday 02 May 2021  … temperatures. The root parasitic weed broomrape (Orobanche crenata) appears as a major limiting factor under these conditions. To address such specific growing conditions and associated con- straints, targeted breeding is needed …
  8. Association analysis of morpho-phenological traits in oriental tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) with SSR markers under presence and absence of orobanche conditions M Tahmasbali, R Darvishzadeh… - Cellular and Molecular …, 2021 - cell.ijbio.ir Wednesday 05 May 2021 Identification of genetic loci controlling quantitative trait is an important subject in genetics and breeding programs, particularly under stress conditions. Broomrape is a holophrastic weed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) fields with devastating effects on its dry …
  9. Effect of tillage on the growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L) OA Adesina, AA Adesipo, HA Ibrahim… - ATBU Journal of …, 2021 - atbuftejoste.com Wednesday 05 May 2021  … The tillage methods evaluated are (1) ploughed twice (T 1 ), (2) ploughed twice, harrowed once (T 2 ), (3) ploughed twice harrowed once and ridged (T 3 ), and (4) zero tillage (T 4 ). The three maize varieties used are (1) Suwan–ISR–Y (Suwan I Striga Resistance- Yellow …
  10. Traditional Chinese Medicine Drynariae Rhizoma and Cuscuta Chinensis Suppress Osteoarthritis by Quercetin-AKT1 and Luteolin-IL6/VEGFA Direct Binding X Huang, H Chen, Y Wang, X Zhang, K Liu, K Huang… - 2021 - europepmc.org Tuesday 04 May 2021 Background: Drynaria Fortunei and Cuscuta Chinensis are among the most used traditional Chinese medicine herbal prescriptions and have a significant therapeutic effect on osteoarthritis. However, the purpose of this study intends to elaborate the molecular …
  11. Floral development and morphology of the mistletoe Antidaphne viscoidea: a case of extreme flower reduction in the sandalwood family (Santalaceae) F González, V Suaza-Gaviria, N Pabón-Mora - Australian Journal of Botany, 2021 - CSIRO Tuesday 04 May 2021 Flowers in the Antidaphne genus are among the smallest in family Santalaceae. We traced the development and morphology of flowers in A. viscoidea and compared them with those in other members of the family. Both staminate and carpellate …
  12. Pests and diseases on Falcataria moluccana trees in agroforestry systems with pineapple in East Java, Indonesia SRI RAHAYU, A TRIYOGO, SM WIDYASTUTI… - Biodiversitas Journal of …, 2021 - smujo.id Monday 03 May 2021  … However, Sengon was infested by the white grub Lepidiota stigma, gall rust caused by the fungus Uromycladium falcatarium, the stem borer Xystrocera festiva, and mistletoe Scurrula sp … Significant mortality of four- year-old trees was caused by mistletoe infestation only …
  13. Ocena występowania jemioły pospolitej (Viscum album L.) na sośnie zwyczajnej (Pinus sylvestris L.) w Nadleśnictwie Kozienice R Wójcik, M Wikaliński, W Kędziora - Sylwan, 2021 - bw.sggw.edu.pl Friday 30 April 2021  … Nadleśnictwie Kozienice. Autorzy: Roman Wójcik,; Mateusz Wikaliński,; Wojciech Kędziora. Streszczenie. Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) is a semi−parasitic plant and in moderate abundance it does not pose a lethal threat to a tree …
  14. Role of Light and Plant Hormones in Stem Parasitic Plant (Cuscuta and Cassytha) Twining and Haustoria Induction K Furuhashi, K Iwase, T Furuhashi - Photochemistry and Photobiology - Wiley Online Library Monday 03 May 2021 Cuscuta and Cassytha are two distinct stem parasitic plant genera developing haustoria at their stem. The initial step to parasitization is twining onto the host plant. Although twining is the critical first step, less attention has been paid to this aspect in stem …
  15. Chemical, cultural and biological control of Oxalis pes-caprae EA Paspatis - Weed Control on Vine and Soft Fruits, 2021 - books.google.com Sunday 02 May 2021  … Orobanche spp … 6. Biological control of oxalis In recent years a very interesting phenomenon was observed in oxalis infested vineyards, citrus orchards and olive groves of Crete and Northern Peloponnese; the parasitism of oxalis by broamrape (Orobanche sp.) …

Most Recent 'Parasitic Plant' publications

in Scopus

  1. CRISPR/Cas9 mediated mutagenesis of MORE AXILLARY GROWTH 1 in tomato confers resistance to root parasitic weed Phelipanche aegyptiaca Vinay Kumar Bari, Jackline Abu Nassar, Radi Aly Scientific Reports, volume 11 Friday 14 May 2021 Root parasitic weeds infect numerous economically important crops, affecting total yield quantity and quality. A lack of an efficient control method limits our ability to manage newly developing and more virulent races of root parasitic weeds. To control the parasite induced damage in most host crops, an innovative biotechnological approach is urge... Root parasitic weeds infect numerous economically important crops, affecting total yield quantity and quality. A lack of an efficient control method limits our ability to manage newly developing and more virulent races of root parasitic weeds. To control the parasite induced damage in most host crops, an innovative biotechnological approach is urgently required. Strigolactones (SLs) are plant hormones derived from carotenoids via a pathway involving the Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase (CCD) 7, CCD8 and More Axillary Growth 1 (MAX1) genes. SLs act as branching inhibitory hormones and strictly required for the germination of root parasitic weeds. Here, we demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targted editing of SL biosynthetic gene MAX1, in tomato confers resistance against root parasitic weed Phelipanche aegyptiaca. We designed sgRNA to target the third exon of MAX1 in tomato plants using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. The T plants were edited very efficiently at the MAX1 target site without any non-specific off-target effects. Genotype analysis of T plants revealed that the introduced mutations were stably passed on to the next generation. Notably, MAX1-Cas9 heterozygous and homozygous T plants had similar morphological changes that include excessive growth of axillary bud, reduced plant height and adventitious root formation relative to wild type. Our results demonstrated that, MAX1-Cas9 mutant lines exhibit resistance against root parasitic weed P. aegyptiaca due to reduced SL (orobanchol) level. Moreover, the expression of carotenoid biosynthetic pathway gene PDS1 and total carotenoid level was altered, as compared to wild type plants. Taking into consideration, the impact of root parasitic weeds on the agricultural economy and the obstacle to prevent and eradicate them, the current study provides new aspects into the development of an efficient control method that could be used to avoid germination of root parasitic weeds. 0 1 1
  2. The Enigma of Interspecific Plasmodesmata: Insight From Parasitic Plants Karsten Fischer, Lena Anna Maria Lachner, Stian Olsen, Maria Mulisch, Kirsten Krause Frontiers in Plant Science, volume 12 Friday 14 May 2021 Parasitic plants live in intimate physical connection with other plants serving as their hosts. These host plants provide the inorganic and organic compounds that the parasites need for their propagation. The uptake of the macromolecular compounds happens through symplasmic connections in the form of plasmodesmata. In contrast to regular plasmodesm... Parasitic plants live in intimate physical connection with other plants serving as their hosts. These host plants provide the inorganic and organic compounds that the parasites need for their propagation. The uptake of the macromolecular compounds happens through symplasmic connections in the form of plasmodesmata. In contrast to regular plasmodesmata, which connect genetically identical cells of an individual plant, the plasmodesmata that connect the cells of host and parasite join separate individuals belonging to different species and are therefore termed “interspecific”. The existence of such interspecific plasmodesmata was deduced either indirectly using molecular approaches or observed directly by ultrastructural analyses. Most of this evidence concerns shoot parasitic Cuscuta species and root parasitic Orobanchaceae, which can both infect a large range of phylogenetically distant hosts. The existence of an interspecific chimeric symplast is both striking and unique and, with exceptions being observed in closely related grafted plants, exist only in these parasitic relationships. Considering the recent technical advances and upcoming tools for analyzing parasitic plants, interspecific plasmodesmata in parasite/host connections are a promising system for studying secondary plasmodesmata. For open questions like how their formation is induced, how their positioning is controlled and if they are initiated by one or both bordering cells simultaneously, the parasite/host interface with two adjacent distinguishable genetic systems provides valuable advantages. We summarize here what is known about interspecific plasmodesmata between parasitic plants and their hosts and discuss the potential of the intriguing parasite/host system for deepening our insight into plasmodesmatal structure, function, and development.
  3. Data on Some Parasitic and Semi-parasitic Plant Species from Serpentines of Kosovo Ismet Ahmeti, Elez Krasniqi, Fadil Millaku, Mitko Kostadinovski, Arben Mehmeti, Marash Rakaj Ecologia Balkanica, volume 13, pages 1-7 Thursday 13 May 2021 From the richness of the vascular flora of Kosovo, the flowering plants predominate. Within this group of plants, most of them are typical autotrophic plants. In contrast, a very small group of plants consists of parasitic and semi-parasitic life. Semi-parasitic plants are able to perform the process of photosynthesis throughout their life cycle an... From the richness of the vascular flora of Kosovo, the flowering plants predominate. Within this group of plants, most of them are typical autotrophic plants. In contrast, a very small group of plants consists of parasitic and semi-parasitic life. Semi-parasitic plants are able to perform the process of photosynthesis throughout their life cycle and mainly take up water and mineral salts dissolved by the host plant. In our study, we focus on the presence of certain confirmed parasitic and semi-parasitic plant species in the serpentines of Kosovo, with additional evidence of their occurrence in other parts of the country as well. Here, as a result of intensive twoyear field work, we provide details on the presence of the following four species, two of them semiparasitic: Arceuthobium oxycedri (DC.) M. Bieb. and Loranthus europaeus Jacq., and two parasitic: Lathraea squamaria L. and Orobanche alba Willd. For each species, the host plant(s), status as parasitic or semi-parasitic, and data on distribution in the region studied are given, along with a broad discussion of distribution at the state level.
  4. The enemy within: the effects of mistletoe parasitism on infected and uninfected host branches Mateus Cardoso Silva, Aretha Franklin Guimarães, Grazielle Sales Teodoro, Sara Souza Bastos, Evaristo Mauro de Castro, Eduardo van den Berg Plant Ecology, volume 222, pages 639-645 Thursday 13 May 2021 To comprehend how mistletoes affect their host functioning is a key matter in plant ecology. As yet, it is not clear whether the impact of mistletoes is confined to infected branches or the entire host is compromised as well. Here, we compared leaf functional traits between branches infected by mistletoes (infected), uninfected branches yet close t... To comprehend how mistletoes affect their host functioning is a key matter in plant ecology. As yet, it is not clear whether the impact of mistletoes is confined to infected branches or the entire host is compromised as well. Here, we compared leaf functional traits between branches infected by mistletoes (infected), uninfected branches yet close to mistletoe attachment (neighbour), and branches of trees without any mistletoe (control). Our model species pairs were Phoradendron crassifolium infecting Eremanthus erythropappus tree and Psittacanthus robustus infecting Vochysia thyrsoidea tree. The study was carried out in the Brazilian savannah, Cerrado. We found that neighbour branches of E. erythropappus suffered a greater reduction in specific leaf area compared to infected branches. Control branches occupied an intermediary position between infected and neighbour branches. On the other hand, both infected and neighbouring branches of V. thyrsoidea suffered a reduction in carbon assimilation rate compared to control trees. As far as we know, our study is the first to describe the presence of mistletoe affecting the healthy branches neighbouring the mistletoe attachment. This finding sheds light on the need to consider both infected and neighbouring branches when evaluating the effects of parasitism on tropical trees.
  5. To study the mechanism of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. And Lycium barbarum L. in the treatment of asthenospermia based on network pharmacology Jisheng Wang, Binghao Bao, Fanchao Meng, Sheng Deng, Hengheng Dai, Junlong Feng, Haisong Li, Bin Wang Journal of Ethnopharmacology, volume 270 Thursday 13 May 2021 Ethnopharmacological relevance: Cuscuta chinensis Lam. and Lycium barbarum L. (SC-FL) is a commonly used kidney tonic Chinese medicine combination that is widely used in the clinical treatment of oligoasthenospermia.However, its specific mechanism remains unclear and requires in-depth study. Aim of the study: To explore the potential targets of SC-... Ethnopharmacological relevance: Cuscuta chinensis Lam. and Lycium barbarum L. (SC-FL) is a commonly used kidney tonic Chinese medicine combination that is widely used in the clinical treatment of oligoasthenospermia.However, its specific mechanism remains unclear and requires in-depth study. Aim of the study: To explore the potential targets of SC-FL in the treatment of oligoasthenospermia using network pharmacology, and to verify the results with in vivo and in vitro experiments. Materials and methods: A herb-compound-target-disease network and PPI network were constructed with Cytoscape software. The targets of SC-FL for the treatment of male sterility were introduced into a bioinformatics annotation database, and the GO and KEGG databases were used for pathway enrichment analysis. Subsequently, Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. (GTW) polyglycoside was used to induce a spermatogenic dysfunction model in GC-1 spg cells and SD male rats in in vitro and in vivo experiments, respectively. The SC-FL and PI3K pathway inhibitor LY294002 was used to intervene in the spermatogenic dysfunction model to detect the expression of proteins and mRNA related to the PI3K pathway and to detect the indicators related to proliferation and apoptosis. Results: In in vitro experiments, the percentage of spermatogenic cells and the proportion of GC-1 spg cells at G0/G1 and G2/M stages in the model group (GTW group) and the inhibitor group (LY group) were significantly decreased (P < 0.01) compared with the blank control group (NC group). The apoptosis rate of the GTW group was significantly increased (P < 0.01). The ultrastructures of GC-1 spg cells in the GTW group and LY group were obviously destroyed. Compared with the GTW group, the SC-FL group had a significantly reduced apoptosis rate of GC-1 spg cells, reduced percentage of cells in S phase, and a significantly improved mitochondrial membrane potential. SC-FL can repair the ultrastructure of GC-1 spg cells damaged by GTW. The above effects of SC-FL are closely related to up-regulation of GFRa1, RET, PI3K, p-AKT, and Bcl-2 and down-regulation of BAD and BAX proteins and mRNA expression. In vivo, compared with the GTW group, the body mass, testicular mass, and epididymal weight of the GTW + SC-FL group were significantly increased (P < 0.01). Sperm concentrations and the PR + NP of GTW + SC-FL were significantly higher than in the GTW group (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). FSH, LH, and T levels in the GTW + SC-FL and LY + SC-FL groups were significantly higher than those in the GTW and LY group (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). HE staining results showed that the morphology of testicular tissue in the GTW + SC-FL and LY + SC-FL groups was superior to that in the GTW and LY group. The above effects of SC-FL are closely related to the up-regulation of proteins and mRNA expression of PI3K, p-AKT, and Bcl-2. Conclusion: Through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, SC-FL up-regulates GFRa1, RET, PI3K, p-AKT, and Bcl-2, and down-regulates the expression of BAD and BAX proteins and mRNA, thus reducing the percentage of GC-1 spg cells in S-phase, significantly increasing the mitochondrial membrane potential, significantly reducing cell apoptosis, and improving sperm counts and viability.
  6. Involvement of opioidergic and GABAergic systems in the anti-nociceptive activity of the methanolic extract of Cuscuta Epithymum Murr. in mice Behrooz Khakpour Taleghani, Behnaz Ghaderi, Mohammad Rostampour, Edris Mahdavi Fekjur, Farkhonde Hasannejad, Malek Moien Ansar Journal of Ethnopharmacology, volume 273 Wednesday 12 May 2021 Ethnopharmacological relevance: Cuscuta epithymum Murr. (CE) is a parasitic plant used as a traditional medicine to treat various diseases such as muscle and joint pains and headache different parts of the world, Europe in the north, Asia in the east. Aim of the study: In this study, we aimed to investigate the anti-nociceptive effect of the methan... Ethnopharmacological relevance: Cuscuta epithymum Murr. (CE) is a parasitic plant used as a traditional medicine to treat various diseases such as muscle and joint pains and headache different parts of the world, Europe in the north, Asia in the east. Aim of the study: In this study, we aimed to investigate the anti-nociceptive effect of the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of CE and its probable mechanism(s) in mice. Materials and methods: The anti-nociceptive activity of different doses of CE methanolic extract (2.5, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) was assessed using tail flick, formalin and writhing tests. Morphine (5 mg/kg, s.c.) was used as positive control drug. The possible mechanisms were evaluated by using naloxone (4 mg/kg, i.p.), ondansetron (4 mg/kg, i.p.), picrotoxin (0.6 mg/kg, i.p.) and MK-801 (0.03 mg/kg, i.p.). Results: GC-MS analysis indicated that one of the main components of CE extract was terpenoid compounds. The CE extract (25–100 mg/kg), like morphine, reduced tail flick latency and nociceptive response in both phases of the formalin test. We also observed that the extract significantly decreased the number of abdominal contractions dose-dependently from 5 to 100 mg/kg. The results of tail flick and the first phase of formalin test proved that unlike ondansetron and MK-801, naloxone and picotroxin were able to reverse the anti-nociceptive effect of CE extract. Conclusion: Our observations showed the anti-nociceptive potential of the CE extract, which may be mediated by opioidergic and GABAergic systems.
  7. The effects of dietary supplementation of mistletoe (Viscum album) extract on the growth performance, antioxidant, and innate, immune responses of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Morteza Yousefi, Mehdi Naderi Farsani, Hamed Ghafarifarsani, Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar, Hien Van Doan Aquaculture, volume 536 Wednesday 12 May 2021 In the present study, rainbow trout fingerlings, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were fed diets supplemented with 0% (C), 0.5 (T1), 1.5 (T2), 2.5 (T3), and 4% (T4) mistletoe extract (ME), Viscum album over eight weeks. At the end of feeding trial, growth performance, serum antioxidant and innate immune responses, and serum bactericidal activity against Aeromo... In the present study, rainbow trout fingerlings, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were fed diets supplemented with 0% (C), 0.5 (T1), 1.5 (T2), 2.5 (T3), and 4% (T4) mistletoe extract (ME), Viscum album over eight weeks. At the end of feeding trial, growth performance, serum antioxidant and innate immune responses, and serum bactericidal activity against Aeromonas hydrophila were evaluated. According to results, the highest final wight and wight gain (%), and the lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) were observed in T2 and T3 treatments. Regression analysis showed that fish growth parameters were polynomially-related to dietary ME levels. The optimum dietary ME level, based upon the varied growth parameters, was 1.78 to 1.94%. The highest moisture content was observed in the control group followed by the T1 treatment, whereas the highest protein contents were observed in the T2 and T3 treatments. The lipid and ash contents were not affected by ME supplementation. Serum lysozyme, ACH50, total Ig, SOD, and bactericidal activity significantly increased in the ME-fed fish, with the highest values observed within the T3 treatment. The highest CAT and GPx values were recorded in the T2 and T3 treatments. ME treatment significantly decreased serum MDA levels, which was lowest in the T3 treatment. Serum ALT activities were similar in the T2, T3, and T4 treatments, and were significantly lower than those of T1 and control (C) treatments. Serum AST and ALP activities exhibited declines along with an increase in dietary ME levels; in which the lowest activities were occurred in the T4 treatment. In conclusion, dietary ME supplementation proved beneficial to rainbow trout, as it stimulated its growth performance, innate immune and antioxidant systems, and promoted bactericidal activity. Moreover, serum hepatic health indicators suggest that dietary ME may improve the fishes' hepatic health.
  8. Antioxidant and anticoagulant effects of phenylpropanoid glycosides isolated from broomrapes (Orobanche caryophyllacea, Phelipanche arenaria, and P. ramosa) Bartosz Skalski, Sylwia Pawelec, Dariusz Jedrejek, Agata Rolnik, Rostyslav Pietukhov, Renata Piwowarczyk, Anna Stochmal, Beata Olas Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, volume 139 Tuesday 11 May 2021 Holoparasitic plants of the Orobanchaceae, including Cistanche, Orobanche, and Phelipanche spp, are known for their richness of phenylpropanoid glycosides (PPGs). Many PPG compounds have been found to possess a wide spectrum of activities, such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and memory-enhancing. To better explore the bioactivity... Holoparasitic plants of the Orobanchaceae, including Cistanche, Orobanche, and Phelipanche spp, are known for their richness of phenylpropanoid glycosides (PPGs). Many PPG compounds have been found to possess a wide spectrum of activities, such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and memory-enhancing. To better explore the bioactivity potential of European broomrapes (O. caryophyllacea – OC, P. arenaria – PA, P. ramosa – PR) and ten single isolated phenylpropanoid constituents, we investigated their antiradical action, protective effect against oxidation in plasma in vitro system, and influence on coagulation parameters. The tested extracts showed a scavenging activity of 50–70% of Trolox's power. The OC extract, rich in acteoside, had over 20% better antiradical potential than PR extract which was the only one containing PPGs lacking a B-ring catechol moiety in the acyl unit. Moreover, it was found that only eight tested PPGs demonstrated antioxidant potential in human plasma treated with H O /Fe; however, the three tested PPGs possessed anticoagulant potential in addition to antioxidant properties. It appears that the structure of PPGs, especially the presence of acyl and catechol moieties, is mainly related to their antioxidant properties. The anticoagulant potential of these compounds is also related to their chemical structure. Selected PPGs exhibit the potential for treating cardiovascular diseases associated with oxidative stress. 2 2
  9. Population dynamics of mistletoes species on cassia fistula in purwodadi botanic garden, indonesia Solikin Biodiversitas, volume 22, pages 1612-1620 Tuesday 11 May 2021 Solikin. 2021. Population dynamics of mistletoes species on Cassia fistula L. in Purwodadi Botanic Garden, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 22: 1612-1620. Several species of mistletoe are parasitizing and infesting cultivated plants in Purwodadi Botanic Garden, Pasuruan, East Java i.e. Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq., Macrosolen tetragonus (Blume) Miq., S... Solikin. 2021. Population dynamics of mistletoes species on Cassia fistula L. in Purwodadi Botanic Garden, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 22: 1612-1620. Several species of mistletoe are parasitizing and infesting cultivated plants in Purwodadi Botanic Garden, Pasuruan, East Java i.e. Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq., Macrosolen tetragonus (Blume) Miq., Scurrula atropurpurea (Blume) Danser, Viscum articulatum Burm.f., and Viscum ovalifolium Wall. ex DC. The population of the mistletoes is dynamics affected by genetic and environment. The study aimed to investigate the population dynamics of mistletoe species on Cassia fistula L. in Purwodadi Botanic Garden, Indonesia. Data collection was conducted by direct observation in the garden on the mistletoe species, parasite density, and host prevalence in four block locations and 28 trees of C. fistula. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and tested by Least Significantly Difference (LSD) if there was a significant difference in blocks and year. The results showed two species of mistletoe found on C. fistula, i.e. D. pentandra and V. articulatum. Parasitic density was significant different and infested host prevalence also different in blocks and years. The highest parasite density per host plant was reached in block III.D in 2015,i.e. 7.00±2.95 and 2.28±0.85 individuals per plant for D. pentandra and V. articulatum, respectively. The highest infested host prevalence of 100.00 was reached in block III.D in 2015 and XVI.A since 2012.
  10. Two-Tier witchweed (Striga hermonthica) resistance in wild pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) 29Aw Olivier Dayou, Willy Kibet, Patroba Ojola, Prakash Irappa Gangashetty, Susann Wicke, Steven Runo Weed Science, volume 69, pages 300-306 Monday 10 May 2021 The parasitic plant purple witchweed [Striga hermonthica (Delile) Benth.] poses a serious threat to cereal production in sub-Saharan Africa. Under natural infestation, the wild pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] line 29Aw demonstrates resistance against the parasite, but the mechanism of its resistance is unknown. Striga resistance can b... The parasitic plant purple witchweed [Striga hermonthica (Delile) Benth.] poses a serious threat to cereal production in sub-Saharan Africa. Under natural infestation, the wild pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] line 29Aw demonstrates resistance against the parasite, but the mechanism of its resistance is unknown. Striga resistance can be due to: (1) low induction of Striga germination (pre-Attachment resistance) or (2) inhibition of parasite attachment and development (post-Attachment resistance). Germination bioassays and root chamber (rhizotron) resistance-screening assays were used to determine the extent of pre-and post-Attachment Striga resistance in 29Aw compared with the Striga-susceptible 'SOSAT-C88-P10' variety. Regarding pre-Attachment resistance, 29Aw stimulated 10-fold less Striga seed germination at a maximum germination distance of 7.96 ± 2.75 mm from the host root compared with 35.94 ± 2.88 mm in SOSAT-C88-P10. Post-Attachment resistance revealed 10-to 19-fold fewer and 2.5-fold shorter Striga seedlings with 28-fold less biomass growing on 29Aw compared with SOSAT-C88-P10. Microscopic analysis showed that Striga penetration in 29Aw was blocked at the endodermal and cortical levels. Post-Attachment resistance in 29Aw was further supported by fewer (22%) Striga-host vascular connections in 29Aw compared with 79% in SOSAT-C88-P10. Together, these findings demonstrate that 29Aw harbors both pre-and post-Attachment resistance mechanisms against S. hermonthica.
  11. Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Orobanche foetida Populations From Tunisia Using RADseq Amal Boukteb, Shota Sakaguchi, Yasunori Ichihashi, Mohamed Kharrat, Atsushi J. Nagano, Ken Shirasu, Mariem Bouhadida Frontiers in Plant Science, volume 12 Monday 10 May 2021 Orobanche foetida Poiret is a holoparasitic plant that lacks chlorophyll and totally depending on its host for its growth. Orobanche foetida parasitizes host plant roots and extract nutrient and water via a haustorium. Although O. foetida distributes in the Mediterranean region as a wild plant parasite, it parasitizes faba bean causing serious dama... Orobanche foetida Poiret is a holoparasitic plant that lacks chlorophyll and totally depending on its host for its growth. Orobanche foetida parasitizes host plant roots and extract nutrient and water via a haustorium. Although O. foetida distributes in the Mediterranean region as a wild plant parasite, it parasitizes faba bean causing serious damages which may reach 90% yield losses in Tunisia. Analysis of genetic diversity of the parasite is important to better understand its evolution and spread, remained largely unknown. In this work, we present the first study on genetic diversity and population structure using the robust technique Restriction-site-Associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) for Orobanche spp. We collected 244 samples of O. foetida from 18 faba bean fields in the north of Tunisia including 17 populations from the north-west and one population form the north-east. To overcome the difficulty of SNP discovery in O. foetida genome as a non-model and tetraploid plant, we utilized three different informatics pipelines, namely UNEAK, pyRAD and Stacks. This study showed that genetic differentiation occurred in the Tunisian O. foetida emphasizing the isolation by distance effect. However, no strong population clustering was detected in this work basing on the three data sets and clustering methods used. The present study shed the light on the current distribution and the genetic variation situation of the fetid broomrape in Tunisia, highlighting the importance of understanding the evolution of this parasite and its genetic background. This will aid in developing efficient strategies to control this parasite and its expansion in Tunisia and worldwide.
  12. First report of the parasitic invasive weed field dodder (Cuscuta campestris) parasitizing the confamilial invasive weed common morning-glory (Ipomoea purpurea) in Shandong, China Xiao Jian Qu, Shou Jin Fan Plant Disease, volume 105, pages 1230 Monday 10 May 2021 dc:description
  13. Breeding maize (Zea mays) for Striga resistance: Past, current and prospects in sub-saharan africa Abdoul Madjidou Yacoubou, Nouhoun Zoumarou Wallis, Abebe Menkir, Valerien A. Zinsou, Alexis Onzo, Ana Luísa Garcia-Oliveira, Silvestro Meseka, Mengesha Wende, Melaku Gedil, Paterne Agre Plant Breeding, volume 140, pages 195-210 Monday 10 May 2021 Striga hermonthica, causes up to 100% yield loss in maize production in Sub-Saharan Africa. Developing Striga-resistant maize cultivars could be a major component of integrated Striga management strategies. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of maize breeding activities related to Striga resistance and its management. Scientific surveys h... Striga hermonthica, causes up to 100% yield loss in maize production in Sub-Saharan Africa. Developing Striga-resistant maize cultivars could be a major component of integrated Striga management strategies. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of maize breeding activities related to Striga resistance and its management. Scientific surveys have revealed that conventional breeding strategies have been used more than molecular breeding strategies in maize improvement for Striga resistance. Striga resistance genes are still under study in the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA) maize breeding programme. There is also a need to discover QTL and molecular markers associated with such genes to improve Striga resistance in maize. Marker Assistance Breeding is expected to increase maize breeding efficiency with complex traits such as resistance towards Striga because of the complex nature of the host-parasite relationship and its intersection with other environmental factors. Conventional alongside molecular tools and technical controls are promising methods to effectively assess Striga in Sub-Saharan Africa.
  14. Assessment of dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium sichuanense) infection in spruce trees by using hyperspectral data Dianguang Xiong, Huayi Huang, Zezhong Wang, Zhouyuan Li, Chengming Tian Forest Pathology, volume 51 Sunday 09 May 2021 Dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium spp.,Viscaceae) (DM), a hemiparasitic plant, is nutritionally dependent upon its host tree and causes tree mortality in forests worldwide. Dwarf mistletoe infection results in physiological changes in the host, eventually causing the death of the host tree. In this study, we evaluated the changes in leaf reflectance of... Dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium spp.,Viscaceae) (DM), a hemiparasitic plant, is nutritionally dependent upon its host tree and causes tree mortality in forests worldwide. Dwarf mistletoe infection results in physiological changes in the host, eventually causing the death of the host tree. In this study, we evaluated the changes in leaf reflectance of spruce trees, Picea crassifolia, infected by DM (Arceuthobium sichuanense) with ground-based hyperspectral technology. A total of 112 sample sites were selected for analysis in the eastern part of Qinghai Province, China, including healthy spruce tree, light DM-infected spruce tree, moderate DM-infected spruce tree and high DM-infected spruce tree in each site. The results showed that leaf reflectance was significantly different among healthy spruce, DM-infected spruce, DM and dead spruce in the near-infrared regions ranging from ~750 to 900 nm. Dwarf mistletoe infection resulted in the increase of leaf reflectance of host tree, and the intensity of DM infection was positively related to reflectance. However, five selected hyperspectral indices that commonly used to estimate the physiological status of plants (carotenoid reflectance index, photochemical reflectance index, normalized difference vegetation index, structure-insensitive pigment index and water index) were not linearly correlated with the intensity of DM infection. Collectively, the hyperspectral characteristics of spruce infected by DM can be potentially used to detect DM-induced changes on a landscape scale with satellite remote sensing, which can be used as an efficient advanced tool for DM disease monitoring.
  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on cytotoxicity, phenolics content and acute toxicity of Cuscuta chinensis L. extract Fatemeh Alijaniha, Fatemeh Emadi, Mohsen Naseri, Mohammad Kamalinejad, Elahe Motevaseli, Malihe soodi, Roya Karimi Radiation Physics and Chemistry, volume 185 Saturday 08 May 2021 Gamma irradiation is used as an efficient method for decontamination of some foodstuffs and herbal medicines. Several studies have shown that low to moderate doses of gamma irradiation do not alter the chemical composition and biological activities of herbal medicine; however, some changes in herbal composition, appearance or properties have been o... Gamma irradiation is used as an efficient method for decontamination of some foodstuffs and herbal medicines. Several studies have shown that low to moderate doses of gamma irradiation do not alter the chemical composition and biological activities of herbal medicine; however, some changes in herbal composition, appearance or properties have been observed in another studies, and this remains controversial. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the biological activity and the content of bioactive compounds of Cuscuta chinensis L. extract. The dose of 5 kGy was studied for decontamination. The results of the in vitro study showed that the cytotoxic effects on A549 and HT-29 cell lines were improved without any alteration of cytotoxicity on normal cell line. Also, acute oral toxicity of the extract did not change according to in vivo study. However, due to the significant reduction of total phenol and flavonoids contents by 12% and 18% respectively, the improvement of cytotoxic properties maybe due to the formation of new active compounds, the identification of which requires further studies.

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