ipps_logo_xl

International Parasitic Plant Society

Welcome to the homepage of the International Parasitic Plant Society (IPPS). The IPPS is dedicated to advancing scientific research on parasitic plants. Our goals include increasing the understanding of these amazing plants, providing a platform for exchange among and beyond the scientific community as well as helping to decrease the crop damage inflicted by weedy parasitic plants.

WCPP16 - 16th World Congress On Parasitic Plants in Nairobi

This year’s World Congress on Parasitic Plants takes place in Nairobi, Kenya from July 3-8, 2022. Registration for attendance in presence or virtually and abstract submission is now open on the WCPP16 conference website: https://parasiticplants.com

IPPS seminar series

The IPPS organises an online monthly-seminar series (login required) accessible to members and their students. Want to become an IPPS member? See Membership info 

6-April-2022 Benjamin Thiombiano (University of Amsterdam) – tba
 
Satoshi Ogawa (RIKEN, Japan) – tba
   
4-May-2022

Michael Axtell (PennState University, USA) – Molecular evolution and transcriptional control of trans-species microRNA from Cuscuta campestris

  Claire Baker & Dave Sands (The Toothpick project)- Control of Striga weed with a virulence enhanced bioherbicide

Become a member to get access to hi-res versions of above photos.

Member benefits

Discount

Get a member discount for our biennial congress

Meet

Entry in and access to the member’s directory

Inform & get informed

Have access to IPPS seminars; post news on parasitic plants

Meet our talent

Post vacancies for jobs in parasitic plant research

A picture tells

Non-commercial usage rights of the photo gallery

Most Recent ‘Parasitic Plant’ publications

in Google Scholar

  1. Molecular Aspects of Host–Pathogen Interaction KVK Saran - Plant-Microbe Interactions: Harnessing Next …, 2022 - books.google.com Sunday 15 May 2022 Plants are one of the primary sources of food and shelter for humans, animals, birds, and a wide range of microbes, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, insects, and even …
  2. Hyperoside: A review on its sources, biological activities, and molecular mechanisms Q Wang, HC Wei, SJ Zhou, Y Li, TT Zheng… - Phytotherapy … - Wiley Online Library Saturday 14 May 2022 Hyperoside is a natural flavonol glycoside in various plants, such as Crataegus pinnatifida Bge, Forsythia suspensa, and Cuscuta chinensis Lam. Medical research has …
  3. Articulatin B chain induced dendritic cells maturation and driven type IT helper cells and cytotoxic T cells activation TL Lu, YP Sher, HC Chen, WC Cheng, LH Hsu, CC Lee - Life Sciences, 2022 - Elsevier Friday 13 May 2022 Aims Articulatin (AT), purified from the Chinese mistletoe (Viscum articulatum), belongs to the family of type II ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) that contain two subunits…
  4. [PDF][PDF] Striga Biology and Its Management in Maize: A N Belay - hillpublisher.com Friday 13 May 2022 … Control of striga is difficult due to the ability of the parasite to produce large number … knowledge on Striga biology, life cycle and management options in maize. Striga life …
  5. [HTML][HTML] Effects of endophytic fungi on parasitic process of Taxillus chinensis L Song, L Pan, N Jiang, J Fu, L Wan, S Wei - Scientific Reports, 2022 - nature.com Thursday 12 May 2022 … chinensis, but it can also provide new research ideas for the parasitic mechanisms of other parasitic plants, such as Cuscuta chinensis, Striga asiatica, Cistanche …
  6. Nature Studies, and: The Lost Track of Time E Shockley - Kenyon Review, 2022 - muse.jhu.edu Thursday 12 May 2022 … next, a still berryless sprigof mistletoe, plucked from the jolly parasitic kiss it had given a babyjeffrey pine’s twiggy trunk. &. &. …
  7. Striga Biology and Its Management in Maize: A Review N Belay - 2022 - hillpublisher.com Wednesday 11 May 2022 … Control of striga is difficult due to the ability of the parasite to produce large number … knowledge on Striga biology, life cycle and management options in maize. Striga life …
  8. Exploring triosephosphate isomerase diversity in photosynthetic organisms G Jones - 2022 - openaccess.wgtn.ac.nz Sunday 08 May 2022 … PCC6803, the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the red alga Porphyra umbilicalis, and the non-photosynthetic parasitic plant Cuscuta australis. The TPIs from these …
  9. НАХОДКИ ИНВАЗИОННЫХ ВИДОВ РАСТЕНИЙ НА СЕВЕРО-ЗАПАДЕ ОРЕНБУРГСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ И ЮГЕ РЕСПУБЛИКИ ТАТАРСТАН ЯМ Голованов, ЛМ Абрамова - … Никитского ботанического сада, 2022 - boolt.elpub.ru Thursday 12 May 2022 Инвазионные виды являются наиболее агрессивной группой адвентивных видов растений, занесенных из других физико-географических областей, а зачастую и …
  10. Molecular mechanism of the parasitic interaction between Orobanche cumana wallr. and sunflowers Y Zhang, J Su, X Yun, W Wu, S Wei… - Journal of Plant …, 2022 - Taylor & Francis Wednesday 11 May 2022 Orobanche cumana Wallr. is the most serious parasitic weed that threatens sunflower production in China, it infects sunflower roots and causes severe yield and economic …
  11. ОРОШАЕМОЕ ЗЕМЛЕДЕЛИЕ ОП КОМАРОВА, КЮ КОЗЕНКО… - ОРОШАЕМОЕ … - elibrary.ru Wednesday 04 May 2022 … и грибов из рода Fusarium против опасного карантинного вида заразихи (Orobanche spp.) [15]. Особенно важ- ным при применении биологических средств …
  12. Comparison of volatile components and principal component analysis of Cuscuta chinensis and its processed pro-ducts T LIU, H JIANG, Y TIAN, J LIU - China Pharmacy, 2022 - pesquisa.bvsalud.org Saturday 07 May 2022 OBJECTIVE To compar e the volatile components of Cuscuta chinensis and its processed products, and to conduct principal component analysis (PCA). METHODS The …
  13. Viscum album L. homeopathic mother tinctures: Metabolome and antitumor activity MN de Oliveira Melo, AP Oliveira, R Garrett… - … Journal of High …, 2022 - highdilution.org Friday 06 May 2022 Background: Viscum album L. is a semi-parasitic plant with antitumor activity attributed to the aqueous extracts. However, European V. album ethanolic extracts (VAE) …
  14. Inventory of parasitic plants (mistletoes) host range in forest and plantation community of Humid Forest Research Station Umuahia, Nigeria SA Odeyemi, AO Koyejo, AN Ejizu… - Journal of Research in …, 2022 - ajol.info Friday 06 May 2022 … , 14 families were infected with parasitic plants. The remaining 7 families were found … to 25 tree species were infected with parasitic plants. The total number of individual …
  15. [HTML][HTML] Molecular perspectives on the ecologically inconsistent effectiveness of the mycoherbicide Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. strigae against Striga hermonthica WO Anteyi - 2022 - opus.uni-hohenheim.de Thursday 05 May 2022 Cereals are a major staple that is crucial for food security in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Sadly, the obligate hemiparasitic witchweed, Striga spp., especially Striga …

Most Recent 'Parasitic Plant' publications

in Scopus

  1. Unprecedented organelle genomic variations in morning glories reveal independent evolutionary scenarios of parasitic plants and the diversification of plant mitochondrial complexes Yanxiang Lin, Pan Li, Yuchan Zhang, Delara Akhter, Ronghui Pan, Zhixi Fu, Mingqing Huang, Xiaobo Li, Yanlei Feng BMC Biology, volume 20 Monday 23 May 2022 Background: The morning glories (Convolvulaceae) are distributed worldwide and produce economically important crops, medicinal herbs, and ornamentals. Members of this family are diverse in morphological characteristics and trophic modes, including the leafless parasitic Cuscuta (dodders). Organelle genomes were generally used for studying plant phy... Background: The morning glories (Convolvulaceae) are distributed worldwide and produce economically important crops, medicinal herbs, and ornamentals. Members of this family are diverse in morphological characteristics and trophic modes, including the leafless parasitic Cuscuta (dodders). Organelle genomes were generally used for studying plant phylogeny and genomic variations. Notably, plastomes in parasitic plants always show non-canonical features, such as reduced size and accelerated rates. However, few organelle genomes of this group have been sequenced, hindering our understanding of their evolution, and dodder mitogenome in particular. Results: We assembled 22 new mitogenomes and 12 new plastomes in Convolvulaceae. Alongside previously known ones, we totally analyzed organelle genomes of 23 species in the family. Our sampling includes 16 leafy autotrophic species and 7 leafless parasitic dodders, covering 8 of the 12 tribes. Both the plastid and mitochondrial genomes of these plants have encountered variations that were rarely observed in other angiosperms. All of the plastomes possessed atypical IR boundaries. Besides the gene and IR losses in dodders, some leafy species also showed gene and intron losses, duplications, structural variations, and insertions of foreign DNAs. The phylogeny reconstructed by plastid protein coding sequences confirmed the previous relationship of the tribes. However, the monophyly of ‘Merremieae’ and the sister group of Cuscuta remained uncertain. The mitogenome was significantly inflated in Cuscuta japonica, which has exceeded over 800 kb and integrated massive DNAs from other species. In other dodders, mitogenomes were maintained in small size, revealing divergent evolutionary strategies. Mutations unique to plants were detected in the mitochondrial gene ccmFc, which has broken into three fragments through gene fission and splicing shift. The unusual changes likely initially happened to the common ancestor of the family and were caused by a foreign insertion from rosids followed by double-strand breaks and imprecise DNA repairs. The coding regions of ccmFc expanded at both sides after the fission, which may have altered the protein structure. Conclusions: Our family-scale analyses uncovered unusual scenarios for both organelle genomes in Convolvulaceae, especially in parasitic plants. The data provided valuable genetic resources for studying the evolution of Convolvulaceae and plant parasitism.
  2. Hyperspectral imaging facilitates early detection of Orobanche cumana below-ground parasitism on sunflower under field conditions Guy Atsmon, Omer Nehurai, Fadi Kizel, Hanan Eizenberg, Ran Nisim Lati Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, volume 196 Monday 23 May 2022 Sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana) is a root parasitic weed that severely limits sunflower yield in large areas of Europe and Asia. Early detection of the parasite can facilitate site-specific control of this weed. However, most of its life-cycle takes place in the soil sub-surface and by the time that O. cumana shoots emerge, the damage to the... Sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana) is a root parasitic weed that severely limits sunflower yield in large areas of Europe and Asia. Early detection of the parasite can facilitate site-specific control of this weed. However, most of its life-cycle takes place in the soil sub-surface and by the time that O. cumana shoots emerge, the damage to the crop is irreversible. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the potential use of hyperspectral imaging for the early detection of parasitism by monitoring changes in spectra obtained from the host plants. A field experiment was conducted on infested and non-infested sunflower plants, imaged by a ground-based hyperspectral camera at two early parasitism stages that are relevant for herbicide application. A logistic regression model was used to classify infected and non-infected plants, 31 and 38 days after sunflower planting, with 76 and 89% accuracy, respectively. A partial dataset, containing only 10 spectral bands of the hyperspectral dataset, gave 69 and 82% accuracy, indicating the potential of multi-spectral sensors for the detection task. Sampling pixels from specific sunflower leaf segments improved the classification compared to non-specific sampling. This study thus contributes to establishing a basis for future development of site-specific weed management of O. cumana and of other broomrape species.
  3. A pilot study of the mistletoe and breast cancer (MAB) trial: a protocol for a randomised double-blind controlled trial Susan Bryant, Lorna Duncan, Gene Feder, Alyson L. Huntley Pilot and Feasibility Studies, volume 8 Sunday 22 May 2022 Background: A Cochrane review of mistletoe therapy concludes that there is some evidence that mistletoe extracts may offer benefits on measures of quality of life during chemotherapy for breast cancer, but these results need replication. Our aim is to add to this evidence base by initially testing the feasibility of a UK pilot placebo-controlled,... Background: A Cochrane review of mistletoe therapy concludes that there is some evidence that mistletoe extracts may offer benefits on measures of quality of life during chemotherapy for breast cancer, but these results need replication. Our aim is to add to this evidence base by initially testing the feasibility of a UK pilot placebo-controlled, double-blind randomised controlled trial of mistletoe therapy in patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy. Methods/design: A mixed phase pilot placebo-controlled, double-blind randomised controlled trial of mistletoe therapy in patients with breast cancer (EudraCT number: 2018-000279-34). There will be three arms (groups) in the trial: Iscador M, Iscador P, with physiological saline as the placebo. The aim is to recruit 45 adult patients with a new diagnosis of early or locally advanced breast cancer, up to 12 weeks following definitive breast surgery whose standard treatment plan includes chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy. They will be taught to administer the mistletoe and breast cancer (MAB) therapies subcutaneously. MAB therapy will continue throughout their standard chemotherapy and radiotherapy and 1 month beyond. The main outcome of the MAB study is the feasibility of conducting such a trial within the NHS in order to inform a future fully powered investigative trial. Feasibility will be measured through recruitment, retention and patient experience using clinical research forms, patient diaries, cancer-related questionnaires and qualitative interviews conducted with both patients and oncology staff. Discussion: This trial is the first of its kind in the UK. Currently, mistletoe therapy is mostly available through private practice in the UK. Completion of this feasibility study will support applications for further funding for a fully powered randomised controlled trial which will measure effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this herbal therapy.
  4. The Evolution of Cytogenetic Traits in Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae), the Genus With the Most Diverse Chromosomes in Angiosperms Amalia Ibiapino, Miguel A. García, Bruno Amorim, Mariana Baez, Mihai Costea, Saša Stefanović, Andrea Pedrosa-Harand Frontiers in Plant Science, volume 13 Sunday 22 May 2022 Karyotypes are characterized by traits such as chromosome number, which can change through whole-genome duplication and dysploidy. In the parasitic plant genus Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae), chromosome numbers vary more than 18-fold. In addition, species of this group show the highest diversity in terms of genome size among angiosperms, as well as a wid... Karyotypes are characterized by traits such as chromosome number, which can change through whole-genome duplication and dysploidy. In the parasitic plant genus Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae), chromosome numbers vary more than 18-fold. In addition, species of this group show the highest diversity in terms of genome size among angiosperms, as well as a wide variation in the number and distribution of 5S and 35S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sites. To understand its karyotypic evolution, ancestral character state reconstructions were performed for chromosome number, genome size, and position of 5S and 35S rDNA sites. Previous cytogenetic data were reviewed and complemented with original chromosome counts, genome size estimates, and rDNA distribution assessed via fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), for two, seven, and 10 species, respectively. Starting from an ancestral chromosome number of x = 15, duplications were inferred as the prevalent evolutionary process. However, in holocentric clade (subgenus Cuscuta), dysploidy was identified as the main evolutionary mechanism, typical of holocentric karyotypes. The ancestral genome size of Cuscuta was inferred as approximately 1C = 12 Gbp, with an average genome size of 1C = 2.8 Gbp. This indicates an expansion of the genome size relative to other Convolvulaceae, which may be linked to the parasitic lifestyle of Cuscuta. Finally, the position of rDNA sites varied mostly in species with multiple sites in the same karyotype. This feature may be related to the amplification of rDNA sites in association to other repeats present in the heterochromatin. The data suggest that different mechanisms acted in different subgenera, generating the exceptional diversity of karyotypes in Cuscuta.
  5. A neotropical mistletoe influences herbivory of its host plant by driving changes in the associated insect community Matheus M. Belchior, Flávio Camarota, Pablo A.P. Antiqueira, Frederico S. Neves Science of Nature, volume 109 Saturday 21 May 2022 Parasitic plants are important sources of stress and can strongly impact their host plants through direct and indirect associations with other herbivores and their associated organisms. In the tropics, mistletoes are frequent parasitic plants, influencing different trophic levels involved with the host plant. Here, we investigated the direct and in... Parasitic plants are important sources of stress and can strongly impact their host plants through direct and indirect associations with other herbivores and their associated organisms. In the tropics, mistletoes are frequent parasitic plants, influencing different trophic levels involved with the host plant. Here, we investigated the direct and indirect influences of multiple partners involved in interactions between the mistletoe Psittachantus robustus and its host tree, Vochysia thyrsoidea. More specifically, we assessed if the presence of the mistletoe modified herbivory levels of its host by altering the diversity of associated insects. We found that insect feeding guild modulated mistletoe influence on insect community, and there were fewer species and individuals of leaf-chewing insects in parasitized than non-parasitized trees. Despite this decrease in leaf-chewing insects, there were increased levels of herbivory in parasitized plants. Mistletoes’ presence did not influence the hemipteran sap-sucking insects, but this herbivore guild directly responded to the abundance of their associated ants. Overall, our study found empirical support for the crucial role of mistletoes on their host-associated organisms, ultimately shaping the herbivory levels of their tree hosts. By exposing the distinct effects of the different partners involved, our results shed light on the intricated interactions mediated by parasitic plants, opening the path for new investigations.
  6. Protective and Osteogenic Effects of Crude Water Extract from Cuscuta japonica Choisy at Gene Expression Level in Human Gingival Cells Fahsai Kantawong, Suraiya Sadeeyamoo, Peeraya Wongsit, Montree Tungjai, Phenphichar Wanachantararak, Suruk Udomsom, Jianghua Yang, Ataya Sathirachinda Chiang Mai University Journal of Natural Sciences, volume 21 Saturday 21 May 2022 This study focused on observing change of gene expression after longterm treatment with high dose of crude water extract from seeds of Cuscuta japonica Choisy (Japanese dodder). The aim of this study was to study the protective and osteogenic effects of dodder seed extract at gene expression level in human gingival cells. In this research, dodder s... This study focused on observing change of gene expression after longterm treatment with high dose of crude water extract from seeds of Cuscuta japonica Choisy (Japanese dodder). The aim of this study was to study the protective and osteogenic effects of dodder seed extract at gene expression level in human gingival cells. In this research, dodder seeds were blended and boiled in water before freeze-drying to preserve as dried powder. Total phenolic content and antioxidant assay were performed. MTT assay was performed with human gingival cells. The concentrations of 100, 250 and 500 µg / mL had no effect on cell viability when cultivated for 48 hours. The extract at the concentration of 250 µg / mL was chosen to treat human gingival cells for many time points to observe the expressions of osteogenic, inflammatory, antioxidant and cancer gene markers by real-time PCR. The results showed that dodder seed water extract could increase the expressions of osteogenic markers; OPN, OCN and Col-I genes. Moreover, dodder seed water extract induced mineralization of human gingival cells cultured in 3D structure. Change of BCL2, CAS3 and LC3 expression indicated involvement in apoptotic process of dodder seed water extract. Significant changes in gene expression of antioxidant markers (GST1, SOD1 and TXNRD1), inflammatory marker (Cox-2) and epithelial cell marker (α-SMA) without change of important cancer genes were observed. These evidences suggested that seeds of Cuscuta japonica Choisy could benefit the application in regenerative medic ine and alternative medic ine.
  7. Macrosolen zamboangensis (Loranthaceae), a new mistletoe species from Zamboanga Peninsula, Philippines Kean Roe F. Mazo, Daniel L. Nickrent, Pieter B. Pelser Webbia, volume 77, pages 127-134 Friday 20 May 2022 Macrosolen zamboangensis, a new mistletoe species from the Zamboanga peninsula of the island of Mindanao (Philippines), is described. The new species is a member of the widespread M. melintangensis species complex, but differs from the previously described species in this complex in having a conspicuously papillose corolla head. It is also the only... Macrosolen zamboangensis, a new mistletoe species from the Zamboanga peninsula of the island of Mindanao (Philippines), is described. The new species is a member of the widespread M. melintangensis species complex, but differs from the previously described species in this complex in having a conspicuously papillose corolla head. It is also the only species in this complex that displays a combination of papillose pedicels, calycula and fruits, at least 3–4 inflorescence axes grouped at a node, and relatively small flowers that are clustered at the apex of a raceme (a subumbel) instead of being more evenly distributed along the inflorescence axis. The conservation status of this new species is considered Vulnerable (V).
  8. Good News for Cabbageheads: Controlling Phelipanche aegyptiaca Infestation under Hydroponic and Field Conditions Amit Wallach, Guy Achdari, Hanan Eizenberg Plants, volume 11 Thursday 19 May 2022 Phelipanche aegyptiaca (Orobanchaceae) is a parasitic weed that causes severe yield losses in field crops around the world. After establishing vascular connections to the host plant roots, P. aegyptiaca becomes a major sink that draws nutrients, minerals, and water from the host, resulting in extensive crop damage. One of the most effective ways to... Phelipanche aegyptiaca (Orobanchaceae) is a parasitic weed that causes severe yield losses in field crops around the world. After establishing vascular connections to the host plant roots, P. aegyptiaca becomes a major sink that draws nutrients, minerals, and water from the host, resulting in extensive crop damage. One of the most effective ways to manage P. aegyptiaca infestations is through the use of herbicides. Our main objective was to optimize the dose and application protocol of herbicides that effectively control P. aegyptiaca but do not damage the cabbage crop. The interactions between the cabbage roots and the parasite were first examined in a hydroponic system to investigate the effect of herbicides on initial parasitism stages, e.g., germination, attachment, and tubercles production. Thereafter, the efficacy of glyphosate and ethametsulfuron-methyl in controlling P. aegyptiaca was examined in five cabbage fields naturally infested with P. aegyptiaca. The herbicides glyphosate and ethametsulfuron-methyl were applied on cabbage foliage and in the soil so-lution, both before and after the parasite had attached to the host roots. A hormesis effect was ob-served when glyphosate was applied at a dose of 36 g ae ha−1 in a non-infested P. aegyptiaca field. Three sequential herbicide applications (21, 35, and 49 days after planting) effectively controlled P. aegyptiaca without damaging the cabbages at a dose of 72 g ae ha−1 for glyphosate and at all the examined doses for ethametsulfuron-methyl. Parasite control with ethametsulfuron-methyl was also effective when overhead irrigation was applied after the herbicide application.
  9. Optimization and Characterization of Cuscuta reflexa Extract Loaded Phytosomes by the Box-Behnken Design to Improve the Oral Bioavailability Saad M. Alshahrani Journal of oleo science, volume 71, pages 671-683 Thursday 19 May 2022 The purpose of this study is to determine whether the complexing hydroalcoholic extract of Cuscuta reflexa (HECR) with phosphatidyl choline increases its bioavailability. As a result, a novel phytosomal delivery system for the HECR-soya lecithin complex was developed (HECR-phytosome). The HECR-phytosome complex was synthesized and characterized as ... The purpose of this study is to determine whether the complexing hydroalcoholic extract of Cuscuta reflexa (HECR) with phosphatidyl choline increases its bioavailability. As a result, a novel phytosomal delivery system for the HECR-soya lecithin complex was developed (HECR-phytosome). The HECR-phytosome complex was synthesized and characterized as phytovesicles. The formulation was prepared using a variable concentration of soya lecithin (1:1-1:3 percent w/v), a temperature range of (45-65°C), and sonication time (4-8 min). Optimization of HECR-loaded phytosomal formulations was performed using Design Expert software. A three-factor, three-level Box-Behnken design was used to optimize this HECR delivery system, as dependent variables, vesicular size and entrapment efficiency were evaluated using a Box Behnken factorial design. Further characterization of the optimized formulation included vesicle size, PDI, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, FTIR, DSC, TEM, and in vitro release. Vesicle sizes ranged from 173.5±6.17 nm to 215.9±6.53 nm, and response rates for entrapment efficiency ranged from 52.9±1.65 to 77.2±1.1%. The uniform structure and spherical shape were demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy. Among the drug release kinetic models, the formulation followed the Higuchi model (R2 = 0.9978), releasing 96.3±3.7% of the polyphenol and flavonoids phytoconstituents from HECR-loaded phytosomes in 12 hours, compared to 49.3±2.5% in the plain extract. In addition, the optimized formulation passes the stability test. Therefore, the results demonstrated that phytosomal nanocarriers have the potential to increase the bioavailability of Cuscuta reflexa extract.
  10. Herbicidal secondary metabolites from Bacillus velezensis JTB8-2 against Orobanche aegyptiaca Wei He, Yan Li, Wenfang Luo, Junhui Zhou, Sifeng Zhao, Jianjun Xu AMB Express, volume 12 Wednesday 18 May 2022 Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca) is a parasitic plants that cause significant losses to important crops. The effective methods for controlling this weed are rare. Biological control could be one of the possible strategies to tackle these weeds efficiently. In this work, a bacteria strain Bacillus velezensis JTB8–2 was proven to possesse ... Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca) is a parasitic plants that cause significant losses to important crops. The effective methods for controlling this weed are rare. Biological control could be one of the possible strategies to tackle these weeds efficiently. In this work, a bacteria strain Bacillus velezensis JTB8–2 was proven to possesse biological control functions against broomrapes in both pot and field experiments. Four secondary metabolites (1–4) were isolated from the B. velezensis JTB8–2 crude extracts, and all of them could inhibit the germination of O. aegyptiaca seeds at concentrations from 0.5 mM to 4 mM. Their structures were further elucidated by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Mass Spectrometry (MS) analysis. Among the isolated compounds, 1 and 2 exhibited the strongest herbicidal activity with 100% inhibition rate against the germination of O. aegyptiaca seeds at 4 mM, and thus had great potential in the development of new herbicidal products to control O. aegyptiaca in the future.
  11. Investigation of the mechanisms and experimental verification of Cuscuta-Salvia in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) via network pharmacology Ying ying Zhang, Jian xiong Ma, Yu tian Zhu, Yi xuan Wang, Wang qiang Chen, Xin Sun, Wei Zhang, Chen ye Wang, Cai fei Ding Journal of Ovarian Research, volume 15 Wednesday 18 May 2022 Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disease associated with reproduction. The Cuscuta-Salvia formula has been widely used to treat for PCOS in clinic. However, its chemical and pharmacological properties remain unclear. We identified the active components and related targets of Cuscuta-Salvia using UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS and TCMSP database... Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disease associated with reproduction. The Cuscuta-Salvia formula has been widely used to treat for PCOS in clinic. However, its chemical and pharmacological properties remain unclear. We identified the active components and related targets of Cuscuta-Salvia using UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS and TCMSP database. Disease targets were obtained from the DisGeNET and GeneCards databases. Subsequently, common targets between Cuscuta-Salvia and PCOS were identified using a Venn diagram. PPI network was established. Core genes were selected using a Cytoscape software plugin. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses were performed for common targets using the “pathview” package in R. Several core targets were verified using molecular and Immunological methods. By combining UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS with a network pharmacology study, 14 active components and a total of 80 common targets were obtained. Ten core genes were regulated by Cuscuta-Salvia in PCOS, including IL6, AKT1, VEGFA, TP53, TNF, MAPK1, JUN, EGF, CASP3, and EGFR. GO results showed that cellular response to drugs, response to oxygen levels, response lipopolysaccharides, and response to molecule of bacterial origin in BP category; membrane, transcription regulator complex, nuclear chromatin, postsynaptic membrane, and vesicle lumen in CC category; DNA-binding transcription factor binding, RNA polymerase II-specific DNA-binding transcription factor binding, DNA-binding transcription activator activity, RNA polymerase II-specific, DNA-binding transcription activator activity, and cytokine receptor binding in MF terms. The KEGG enrichment pathway was mainly involved in the PI3K − Akt, MAPK, TNF, IL-17 signalling pathways, and in cellular senescence. Furthermore, the results of the experimental study showed that Cuscuta-Salvia ameliorated the pathological changes in the ovaries, liver and adipose tissue. And it improved the expressions of the genes or proteins. Our results demonstrate that Cuscuta-Salvia may provide a novel pharmacological basis in an experimental model of PCOS by regulating gene expression. This study provides a basis for future research and clinical applications.
  12. Involvement of α-galactosidase OmAGAL2 in planteose hydrolysis during seed germination of Orobanche minor Atsushi Okazawa, Atsuya Baba, Hikaru Okano, Tomoya Tokunaga, Tsubasa Nakaue, Takumi Ogawa, Shuichi Shimma, Yukihiro Sugimoto, Daisaku Ohta Journal of Experimental Botany, volume 73, pages 1992-2004 Wednesday 18 May 2022 Root parasitic weeds of the Orobanchaceae, such as witchweeds (Striga spp.) and broomrapes (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.), cause serious losses in agriculture worldwide, and efforts have been made to control these parasitic weeds. Understanding the characteristic physiological processes in the life cycle of root parasitic weeds is particularly im... Root parasitic weeds of the Orobanchaceae, such as witchweeds (Striga spp.) and broomrapes (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.), cause serious losses in agriculture worldwide, and efforts have been made to control these parasitic weeds. Understanding the characteristic physiological processes in the life cycle of root parasitic weeds is particularly important to identify specific targets for growth modulators. In our previous study, planteose metabolism was revealed to be activated soon after the perception of strigolactones in germinating seeds of O. minor. Nojirimycin inhibited planteose metabolism and impeded seed germination of O. minor, indicating a possible target for root parasitic weed control. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of planteose in dry seeds of O. minor by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging. Planteose was detected in tissues surrounding - but not within - the embryo, supporting its suggested role as a storage carbohydrate. Biochemical assays and molecular characterization of an α-galactosidase family member, OmAGAL2, indicated that the enzyme is involved in planteose hydrolysis in the apoplast around the embryo after the perception of strigolactones, to provide the embryo with essential hexoses for germination. These results indicate that OmAGAL2 is a potential molecular target for root parasitic weed control.
  13. Biology and resource acquisition of mistletoes, and the defense responses of host plants Meseret Muche, A. Muthama Muasya, Berhanu Abraha Tsegay Ecological Processes, volume 11 Tuesday 17 May 2022 Background: Mistletoes are the most successful group of obligatory hemi-parasitic flowering plants that attach to the host via haustorium for obtaining water and minerals. This review aims to assess the current knowledge on mistletoes host plant recognition, haustorium formation, water/minerals acquisition, and host plants’ defense signaling and ... Background: Mistletoes are the most successful group of obligatory hemi-parasitic flowering plants that attach to the host via haustorium for obtaining water and minerals. This review aims to assess the current knowledge on mistletoes host plant recognition, haustorium formation, water/minerals acquisition, and host plants’ defense signaling and responses against mistletoe attack. Results: Some mistletoes are host-specific while others are generalists occurring on a wide range of vascular plants. The host nitrogen (N) content, parasite–host chemical interactions, compatibility, and dispersal agents are the main determinant factors for host specificity. Mistletoes take up substantial amounts of water and minerals passively via apoplastic routes, and most are xylem feeders, but could shift to phloem-feeding during the physiological stress of the host plants. Current evidence highlighted that cell wall loosening and modification are critical during the development of the haustorium in the host tissue. This is made possible by the application of physical pressures by the developing haustorium and cell wall degradation using enzymes (xyloglucan endotransglycosylases, glucanase, expansins, etc.) produced by the mistletoe. Host plants defend against mistletoe infection mechanically by producing spines, lignin, suberin, etc., which discourages dispersers, and chemically defend by killing the infector or inhibiting the establishment of the haustorium using their secondary metabolites such as terpenes, phenolics, and N-containing compounds. Although the host plants' response to mistletoe attack resembles the response to other biotic stresses, unlike short-term stressors, the effect of mistletoe attack is long-term and depends on the parasite load. Infection by mistletoe leads to water and nutrient stress of the host plant and deteriorates its healthy establishment and survival. Conclusion: Mistletoes are heterogeneous group in the order Santalales which have versatile mechanisms for pollination, seed dispersal and nutrient acquisition from host plants. Infection by mistletoes triggers host plant responses, varying from mechanical to chemical mechanisms which are analogous to herbivory defences, and negatively impacts host plant growth and reproduction.
  14. Heinz-resistant tomato cultivars exhibit a lignin-based resistance to field dodder (Cuscuta campestris) parasitism Min Yao Jhu, Moran Farhi, Li Wang, Richard N. Philbrook, Michael S. Belcher, Hokuto Nakayama, Kristina S. Zumstein, Sarah D. Rowland, Mily Ron, Patrick M. Shih, Neelima R. Sinha Plant Physiology, volume 189, pages 129-151 Tuesday 17 May 2022 Cuscuta species (dodders) are agriculturally destructive, parasitic angiosperms. These parasitic plants use haustoria as physiological bridges to extract nutrients and water from hosts. Cuscuta campestris has a broad host range and wide geographical distribution. While some wild tomato relatives are resistant, cultivated tomatoes are generally susc... Cuscuta species (dodders) are agriculturally destructive, parasitic angiosperms. These parasitic plants use haustoria as physiological bridges to extract nutrients and water from hosts. Cuscuta campestris has a broad host range and wide geographical distribution. While some wild tomato relatives are resistant, cultivated tomatoes are generally susceptible to C. campestris infestations. However, some specific Heinz tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) hybrid cultivars exhibit resistance to dodders in the field, but their defense mechanism was previously unknown. Here, we discovered that the stem cortex in these resistant lines responds with local lignification upon C. campestris attachment, preventing parasite entry into the host. Lignin Induction Factor 1 (LIF1, an AP2-like transcription factor), SlMYB55, and Cuscuta R-gene for Lignin-based Resistance 1, a CC-NBS-LRR (CuRLR1) are identified as factors that confer host resistance by regulating lignification. SlWRKY16 is upregulated upon C. campestris infestation and potentially negatively regulates LIF1 function. Intriguingly, CuRLR1 may play a role in signaling or function as an intracellular receptor for receiving Cuscuta signals or effectors, thereby regulating lignification-based resistance. In summary, these four regulators control the lignin-based resistance response in specific Heinz tomato cultivars, preventing C. campestris from parasitizing resistant tomatoes. This discovery provides a foundation for investigating multilayer resistance against Cuscuta species and has potential for application in other essential crops attacked by parasitic plants.
  15. Activation Mechanism of Strigolactone Receptors and Its Impact on Ligand Selectivity between Host and Parasitic Plants Jiming Chen, David C. Nelson, Diwakar Shukla Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, volume 62, pages 1712-1722 Tuesday 17 May 2022 Parasitic weeds such as Striga have led to significant losses in agricultural productivity worldwide. These weeds use the plant hormone strigolactone as a germination stimulant. Strigolactone signaling involves substrate hydrolysis followed by a conformational change of the receptor to a "closed" or "active" state that associates with a signaling p... Parasitic weeds such as Striga have led to significant losses in agricultural productivity worldwide. These weeds use the plant hormone strigolactone as a germination stimulant. Strigolactone signaling involves substrate hydrolysis followed by a conformational change of the receptor to a "closed" or "active" state that associates with a signaling partner, MAX2/D3. Crystal structures of active and inactive AtD14 receptors have helped elucidate the structural changes involved in activation. However, the mechanism by which the receptor activates remains unknown. The ligand dependence of AtD14 activation has been disputed by mutagenesis studies showing that enzymatically inactive receptors are able to associate with MAX2 proteins. Furthermore, activation differences between strigolactone receptor in Striga, ShHTL7, and AtD14 could contribute to the high sensitivity to strigolactones exhibited by parasitic plants. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate that both AtD14 and ShHTL7 could adopt an active conformation in the absence of ligand. However, ShHTL7 exhibits a higher population in the inactive apo state as compared to the AtD14 receptor. We demonstrate that this difference in inactive state population is caused by sequence differences between their D-loops and interactions with the catalytic histidine that prevent full binding pocket closure in ShHTL7. These results indicate that ligand hydrolysis would enhance the active state population by destabilizing the inactive state in ShHTL7 as compared to AtD14. We also show that the mechanism of activation is more concerted in AtD14 than in ShHTL7 and that the main barrier to activation in ShHTL7 is closing of the binding pocket.

Parasitic Plants on Twitter

Use hashtag #parasiticplants to get your own tweets listed in this overview.