ipps_logo_xl

International Parasitic Plant Society

Welcome to the homepage of the International Parasitic Plant Society (IPPS). The IPPS is dedicated to advancing scientific research on parasitic plants. Our goals include increasing the understanding of these amazing plants, providing a platform for exchange among and beyond the scientific community as well as helping to decrease the crop damage inflicted by weedy parasitic plants.

Become a member to get access to hi-res versions of above photos.

Member benefits

Discount

Get a member discount for our biennial congress

Meet

Entry in and access to the member’s directory

Inform & get informed

Post news relating to parasitic plants

Meet our talent

Post vacancies for jobs in parasitic plant research

A picture tells

Non-commercial usage rights of the photo gallery

Most Recent ‘Parasitic Plant’ Publications

in Google Scholar

  1. Involvement of opioidergic and GABAergic systems in the anti-nociceptive activity of the methanolic extract of Cuscuta Epithymum Murr. in mice B Khakpour Taleghani, B Ghaderi, M Rostampour… - 2021 - pubag.nal.usda.gov Sunday 20 June 2021 Cuscuta epithymum Murr.(CE) is a parasitic plant used as a traditional medicine to treat various diseases such as muscle and joint pains and headache different parts of the world, Europe in the north, Asia in the east. In this study, we aimed to investigate …
  2. Inhibition by water soluble fertilizer containing amino acids-jinmiao target on Orobanche cumana Wallr. Living in Helianthus annuus under lab incubation Z Zhang, J Zhang, J Zhao - … Congress of Geneticists and Breeders from …, 2021 - ibn.idsi.md Saturday 19 June 2021 The inhibitory effect of Jinmiao Target, a water-soluble fertilizer containing amino acids, on Orobanche cumana Wallr. parasitism was studied under different application conditions and parasitism stages. The browning rate reached 100% at 15 days …
  3. The virulence of broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) races in sunflower crop in Braila area, in Romania L Rîşnoveanu, M Joiţa-Păcureanu, FG Anton… - … Congress of Geneticists …, 2021 - ibn.idsi.md Saturday 19 June 2021 Rezumat Broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) is an important parasite in sunflower crop in Europe, some Asian countries and Australia (Vranceanu, 2000). The parasite has spread in sunflower crop from south Russia and Ukraine. In Romania this was …
  4. Habitat use and behavioral patterns of Cassin's Kingbird (Tyrannus vociferans) in an urban park of Mexico City NA Camacho-García, P Corcuera… - The Wilson Journal …, 2021 - meridian.allenpress.com Saturday 19 June 2021  … We hypothesize that intraspecific com- petition will be more intense during the mating season and that gleaning and hovering, both maneuvers used to collect fruit, will be more frequent during the mistletoe (Cladocolea lonicer- oides) fruiting period in our study site …
  5. [HTML][HTML] Identifying suitable tester for evaluating Striga resistant lines using DArTseq markers and agronomic traits D Zebire, A Menkir, V Adetimirin, W Mengesha… - PloS one, 2021 - journals.plos.org Saturday 19 June 2021 A desirable tester that elicits greater genetic difference in Striga resistance among test crosses in a breeding program has not been reported. Therefore, this study was conducted to characterize 30 Striga resistant yellow endosperm maize inbred lines and …
  6. The identification of new sunflower varieties resistant to Orobanche cumana in field J Zhao - International Congress of Geneticists and Breeders …, 2021 - ibn.idsi.md Friday 18 June 2021 Orobanche is a kind of parasitic weeds, seriously endangering the development of sunflower industry. In order to effectively identify the resistance of registered sunflower varieties to Orobanche cumana and speed up the popularization and application …
  7. Sunflower genotypes with resistance/tolerance at parasite Orobanche cumana Wallr FG Anton, L Rîşnoveanu - … Congress of Geneticists and Breeders from …, 2021 - ibn.idsi.md Friday 18 June 2021 South-east of Romania is mainly infested with parasite broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr) with races G and H. In every year, we tested new sunflower genotypes in this region, especially in Braila area, to identify resistant\tolerant plants to race G and H of …
  8. The improvement of genetic resistance to Plasmopara halstedii pathogen and Orobanche cumana parasite, in sunflower genotypes, resistant to herbicides M Joiţa-Păcureanu, FG Anton, L Rîşnoveanu… - … Congress of Geneticists …, 2021 - ibn.idsi.md Friday 18 June 2021 There is a high competition between sunflower crop and weeds, for water, nutrients, space and light. This competition is producing losses of 20-70% in sunflower seed yield. The introducing in practice of the genotypes resistant to imidazolinone or sulfonylurea …
  9. [CITATION][C] Life history, diversity, and distribution in parasitic flowering plants L Teixeira-Costa, CC Davis - Plant Physiology, 2021 - academic.oup.com Friday 18 June 2021  … 9 One-sentence summary: A review of parasitic plant diversity and outstanding disjunct 10 distributions according to an updated functional classification based on these plants' life 11 … 2019). The greatest biological diversity of parasitic plants occurs among the angiosperms …
  10. Komplementärmedizin in der Uroonkologie J Hübner, R Mücke, O Micke, C Keinki - Der Urologe, 2021 - Springer Wednesday 16 June 2021  … When assessing the evidence on frequently requested methods, there is no high-quality evidence that homeopathy or anthroposophy leads to an improved prognosis. Mistletoe therapy can be considered to improve the quality of life, although the data quality is …
  11. [HTML][HTML] Effect of mistletoe extract on tumor response in neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer: a cohort study JH Baek, Y Jeon, KW Han… - World Journal of …, 2021 - wjso.biomedcentral.com Wednesday 16 June 2021 Mistletoe extract, used as a complementary chemotherapeutic agent for cancer patients, has anticancer effects against various malignancies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of mistletoe extract (Abnoba Viscum Q®) on tumor responses to …
  12. Variability and genetic diversity of different Chinese broomrape populations C Wang, M Duca - International Congress of Geneticists and Breeders …, 2021 - ibn.idsi.md Wednesday 16 June 2021  … Disponibil în IBN: 15 iunie 2021. Descarcă PDF. Rezumat. Broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) is a parasitic seeds plant of sunflower, it has become one of the most destructive diseases of sunflower, thus limiting the sunflower production worldly …
  13. Multivariate statistical methods in analysis of broomrape genetic diversity M Duca, A Port, R Martea - … Congress of Geneticists and Breeders from …, 2021 - ibn.idsi.md Wednesday 16 June 2021  … The aim of these investigations was to evaluate the efficiency of multivariate statistical algorithms in the analysis of genetic relationships among 39 broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr) populations from three regions (Nord, Centre and South) of Republic of Moldova …
  14. Studies of broomrape populations associated with increased genetic diversity I Bivol, CA Mutu - International Congress of Geneticists and Breeders …, 2021 - ibn.idsi.md Wednesday 16 June 2021  … In conclusion, although the morphological markers were not found better than molecular, after all a combination of both markers would be highly efficient in detecting genetic variability and phylogenetic analysis among different populations of Orobanche cumana. Share …
  15. Cellulosic bionanocomposites based on acrylonitrile butadiene rubber and Cuscuta reflexa: adjusting structure-properties balance for higher performance M Dominic, R Joseph, PMS Begum, AS Kumar… - Cellulose, 2021 - Springer Tuesday 15 June 2021 Abstract Design and manufacture of cellulosic nanocomposites with acceptable performance is in the period of a transition from fantasy to reality. Typically, cellulosic nanofillers reveal poor compatibility with polymer matrices. Thus, adjusting the …

Most Recent 'Parasitic Plant' publications

in Scopus

  1. Highly degenerate plastomes in two hemiparasitic dwarf mistletoes: Arceuthobium chinense and A. pini (Viscaceae) Xiaorong Guo, Guangfei Zhang, Linyuan Fan, Changkun Liu, Yunheng Ji Planta, volume 253 Thursday 24 June 2021 Main conclusion: The leafless and endophytic habitat may significantly relax the selection pressure on photosynthesis, and plastid transcription and translation, causing the loss/pseudogenization of several essential plastid-encoding genes in dwarf mistletoes. Abstract: Dwarf mistletoes (Arceuthobium spp., Viscaceae) are the most destructive plant ... Main conclusion: The leafless and endophytic habitat may significantly relax the selection pressure on photosynthesis, and plastid transcription and translation, causing the loss/pseudogenization of several essential plastid-encoding genes in dwarf mistletoes. Abstract: Dwarf mistletoes (Arceuthobium spp., Viscaceae) are the most destructive plant parasites to numerous conifer species worldwide. In this study, the plastid genomes (plastomes) of Arceuthobium chinense Lecomte and A. pini Hawksworth and Wiens were sequenced and characterized. Although dwarf mistletoes are hemiparasites capable of photosynthesis, their plastomes were highly degenerated, as indicated by the smallest plastome size, the lowest GC content, and relatively very few intact genes among the Santalales hemiparasites. Unexpectedly, several essential housekeeping genes (rpoA, rpoB, rpoC1, and rpoC2) and some core photosynthetic genes (psbZ and petL), as well as the rpl33 gene, that is indispensable for plants under stress conditions, were deleted or pseudogenized in the Arceuthobium plastomes. Our data suggest that the leafless and endophytic habit, which heavily relies on the coniferous hosts for nutrients and carbon requirement, may largely relax the selection pressure on photosynthesis, as well as plastid transcription and translation, thus resulting in the loss/pseudogenization of such essential plastid-encoding genes in dwarf mistletoes. Therefore, the higher level of plastome degradation in Arceuthobium species than other Santalales hemiparasites is likely correlated with the evolution of leafless and endophytic habit. A higher degree of plastome degradation in Arceuthobium. These findings provide new insights into the plastome degeneration associated with parasitism in Santalales and deepen our understanding of the biology of dwarf mistletoes.
  2. Effect of mistletoe extract on tumor response in neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer: a cohort study Jeong Heum Baek, Youngbae Jeon, Kyoung Won Han, Dong Hae Jung, Kyung Ok Kim World Journal of Surgical Oncology, volume 19 Wednesday 23 June 2021 Background: Mistletoe extract, used as a complementary chemotherapeutic agent for cancer patients, has anticancer effects against various malignancies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of mistletoe extract (Abnoba Viscum Q®) on tumor responses to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer. Method... Background: Mistletoe extract, used as a complementary chemotherapeutic agent for cancer patients, has anticancer effects against various malignancies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of mistletoe extract (Abnoba Viscum Q®) on tumor responses to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods: This study included patients with rectal cancer who underwent NCRT between January 2018 and July 2020. In the mistletoe group (MG), the patients were administered Abnoba Viscum Q® subcutaneously during chemoradiotherapy—maintained just before surgery. Patient demographics, clinical outcomes, histopathological outcomes, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay results were compared between the MG and non-mistletoe group (NMG). Two rectal cancer cell lines (SNU-503 and SNU-503R80Gy) were treated with Abnoba Viscum Q® to assess its mechanistic effects in vivo. Results: Overall, the study included 52 patients (MG: n = 15; NMG: n = 37). Baseline demographics between the two groups were similar, except carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels and tumor location from the anal verge. There was no difference in the clinical stage between the two groups. A better tumor response in the MG, relative to the NMG, was observed with respect to tumor regression grade (TRG), T stage, and overall tumor–node–metastasis stage. Tumor response was significantly better in the MG than in the NMG in terms of pathologic complete response rate (53.3% vs. 21.6%, P = 0.044), good TRG response (66.7% vs. 32.4%, P = 0.024), T downstaging (86.7% vs. 43.2%, P = 0.004), and overall downstaging (86.7% vs. 56.8%, P = 0.040). The toxicities during NCRT were minimal in both groups. More apoptotic cells were noted in MG samples than in the NMG samples on TUNEL staining. Cleaved caspase-3 level following treatment with Abnoba Viscum Q® was higher in SNU-503R80Gy cells than in SNU-503 cells. Conclusion: Patients treated with chemoradiation combined with mistletoe extract showed better outcomes than patients not treated with mistletoe extract in terms of tumor responses. This diversity in treatment may improve the efficacy of NCRT, leading to better oncologic outcomes. Prospective and randomized studies with long-term follow-up are warranted to confirm and extend these results.
  3. Tryptophan derivatives regulate the seed germination and radicle growth of a root parasitic plant, Orobanche minor Michio Kuruma, Taiki Suzuki, Yoshiya Seto Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, volume 43 Wednesday 23 June 2021 Root parasitic plant germination is induced by the host-derived chemical, strigolactone (SL). We found that a major microbial culture broth component, tryptone, inhibits the SL-inducible germination of a root parasitic plant, Orobanche minor. L-tryptophan (L-Trp) was isolated as the active compound from tryptone. We further found that L-Trp related... Root parasitic plant germination is induced by the host-derived chemical, strigolactone (SL). We found that a major microbial culture broth component, tryptone, inhibits the SL-inducible germination of a root parasitic plant, Orobanche minor. L-tryptophan (L-Trp) was isolated as the active compound from tryptone. We further found that L-Trp related compounds (1b-11), such as a major plant hormone auxin (8, indole-3-acetic acid; IAA), also inhibit the germination and post-radicle growth of O. minor. We designed a hybrid chemical (13), in which IAA is attached to a part of SL, and found that this synthetic analog induced the germination of O. minor, and also inhibited post-radicle growth. Moreover, contrary to our expectations, we found that N-acetyl Trp (9) showed germination stimulating activity, and introduction of a substitution at C-5 position increased its activity (12a-12f). Our data, in particular, the discovery of a structurally hybrid compound that has two activities that induce spontaneous germination and inhibit subsequent radical growth, would provide new types of germination regulators for root parasitic plants.
  4. Involvement of opioidergic and GABAergic systems in the anti-nociceptive activity of the methanolic extract of Cuscuta Epithymum Murr. in mice Behrooz Khakpour Taleghani, Behnaz Ghaderi, Mohammad Rostampour, Edris Mahdavi Fekjur, Farkhonde Hasannejad, Malek Moien Ansar Journal of Ethnopharmacology, volume 273 Tuesday 22 June 2021 Ethnopharmacological relevance: Cuscuta epithymum Murr. (CE) is a parasitic plant used as a traditional medicine to treat various diseases such as muscle and joint pains and headache different parts of the world, Europe in the north, Asia in the east. Aim of the study: In this study, we aimed to investigate the anti-nociceptive effect of the methan... Ethnopharmacological relevance: Cuscuta epithymum Murr. (CE) is a parasitic plant used as a traditional medicine to treat various diseases such as muscle and joint pains and headache different parts of the world, Europe in the north, Asia in the east. Aim of the study: In this study, we aimed to investigate the anti-nociceptive effect of the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of CE and its probable mechanism(s) in mice. Materials and methods: The anti-nociceptive activity of different doses of CE methanolic extract (2.5, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) was assessed using tail flick, formalin and writhing tests. Morphine (5 mg/kg, s.c.) was used as positive control drug. The possible mechanisms were evaluated by using naloxone (4 mg/kg, i.p.), ondansetron (4 mg/kg, i.p.), picrotoxin (0.6 mg/kg, i.p.) and MK-801 (0.03 mg/kg, i.p.). Results: GC-MS analysis indicated that one of the main components of CE extract was terpenoid compounds. The CE extract (25–100 mg/kg), like morphine, reduced tail flick latency and nociceptive response in both phases of the formalin test. We also observed that the extract significantly decreased the number of abdominal contractions dose-dependently from 5 to 100 mg/kg. The results of tail flick and the first phase of formalin test proved that unlike ondansetron and MK-801, naloxone and picotroxin were able to reverse the anti-nociceptive effect of CE extract. Conclusion: Our observations showed the anti-nociceptive potential of the CE extract, which may be mediated by opioidergic and GABAergic systems.
  5. Differential reproductive responses to contrasting host species and localities in Psittacanthus calyculatus (Loranthaceae) mistletoes C. Lara, L. Xicohténcatl-Lara, J. F. Ornelas Plant Biology, volume 23, pages 603-611 Sunday 20 June 2021 Host trees are immediate environments for multi-host mistletoes, so parasitizing different hosts implies exposure to varying environmental conditions between mistletoe generations. Therefore, to maximize reproductive fitness in heterogeneous environments (host species) mistletoes should adjust its reproductive responses in relation to circumstances... Host trees are immediate environments for multi-host mistletoes, so parasitizing different hosts implies exposure to varying environmental conditions between mistletoe generations. Therefore, to maximize reproductive fitness in heterogeneous environments (host species) mistletoes should adjust its reproductive responses in relation to circumstances. Here, we ask how reproductive traits of Psittacanthus calyculatus mistletoes vary on two host tree species (Crataegus mexicana, Prunus serotina) at three different localities. We followed individual mistletoes on each host species and at three localities through the flowering season to quantify traits related to reproductive effort and success, e.g. total number of buds, flowers and fruits produced. In buds about to open, we measured two anthers and quantified the number of pollen grains and their viability. Individual flowers were marked to obtain flower longevity data and were followed until fruit formation. At which time we measured and weighed the fruits and the seeds. Mistletoes from one locality produced more buds, flowers and fruits, and the flowers lasted longer, had larger anthers and produced more pollen as compared to the other two localities. However, mistletoes on Prunus serotina produced fewer floral buds, but their fruits were heaviest, longest and widest and ripened fastest across localities. The probability of fruit formation, percentage of fruits formed, and pollen viability were similar among the mistletoes, regardless of host species or locality. We propose that the observed differences in reproductive effort and success associated with host species or locality are plastic or adaptive in this mistletoe in response to varying conditions.
  6. Antioxidant and anticoagulant effects of phenylpropanoid glycosides isolated from broomrapes (Orobanche caryophyllacea, Phelipanche arenaria, and P. ramosa) Bartosz Skalski, Sylwia Pawelec, Dariusz Jedrejek, Agata Rolnik, Rostyslav Pietukhov, Renata Piwowarczyk, Anna Stochmal, Beata Olas Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, volume 139 Sunday 20 June 2021 Holoparasitic plants of the Orobanchaceae, including Cistanche, Orobanche, and Phelipanche spp, are known for their richness of phenylpropanoid glycosides (PPGs). Many PPG compounds have been found to possess a wide spectrum of activities, such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and memory-enhancing. To better explore the bioactivity... Holoparasitic plants of the Orobanchaceae, including Cistanche, Orobanche, and Phelipanche spp, are known for their richness of phenylpropanoid glycosides (PPGs). Many PPG compounds have been found to possess a wide spectrum of activities, such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and memory-enhancing. To better explore the bioactivity potential of European broomrapes (O. caryophyllacea – OC, P. arenaria – PA, P. ramosa – PR) and ten single isolated phenylpropanoid constituents, we investigated their antiradical action, protective effect against oxidation in plasma in vitro system, and influence on coagulation parameters. The tested extracts showed a scavenging activity of 50–70% of Trolox's power. The OC extract, rich in acteoside, had over 20% better antiradical potential than PR extract which was the only one containing PPGs lacking a B-ring catechol moiety in the acyl unit. Moreover, it was found that only eight tested PPGs demonstrated antioxidant potential in human plasma treated with H2O2/Fe; however, the three tested PPGs possessed anticoagulant potential in addition to antioxidant properties. It appears that the structure of PPGs, especially the presence of acyl and catechol moieties, is mainly related to their antioxidant properties. The anticoagulant potential of these compounds is also related to their chemical structure. Selected PPGs exhibit the potential for treating cardiovascular diseases associated with oxidative stress.
  7. Designing a model to investigate cropping systems aiming to control both parasitic plants and weeds Olivia Pointurier, Stéphanie Gibot-Leclerc, Delphine Moreau, Carole Reibel, Eric Vieren, Nathalie Colbach European Journal of Agronomy, volume 129 Saturday 19 June 2021 Branched broomrape (Phelipanche ramosa (L.) Pomel) is a parasitic plant, which causes severe yield losses in major crops worldwide. Because of its broad host range, including numerous non-parasitic weed species, the persistence of its seeds in the soil, and the poor efficiency of available management techniques, broomrape management is complex. The... Branched broomrape (Phelipanche ramosa (L.) Pomel) is a parasitic plant, which causes severe yield losses in major crops worldwide. Because of its broad host range, including numerous non-parasitic weed species, the persistence of its seeds in the soil, and the poor efficiency of available management techniques, broomrape management is complex. The objective of the present paper was to develop a broomrape-dynamics model to support the design of management strategies combining multiple techniques aiming at long-term control of broomrape. Towards this goal, we developed a simulation model with formalisms and parameters based on data from our own experiments and the literature. This model called PHERASYS combines 1) a demographic submodel to predict broomrape seed bank dynamics, 2) a trophic-relationships submodel to predict the effect of parasitism on crops and weeds, and 3) a submodel of weed dynamics in agroecosystems to predict the growth of crops and weeds from cropping techniques and pedoclimate. Thanks to an individual representation of each host plant, PHERASYS is able to simulate complex heterogeneous canopies. This model can be used as a tool to test management strategies including crop mixtures and relying on biological regulations by weeds.
  8. How does mistletoe infection affect seasonal physiological responses of hosts with different leaf phenology? Marina Corrêa Scalon, Davi Rodrigo Rossatto, Augusto Cesar Franco Flora: Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants, volume 281 Saturday 19 June 2021 Plants should have the ability to perceive physiological changes within their branches when infected by mistletoes, adjusting the use of resources between infected and uninfected branches which can be crucial for their survival in the long-term. Here we investigated how branches infected by the mistletoe Passovia ovata (Pohl ex DC.) Tiegh. and unin... Plants should have the ability to perceive physiological changes within their branches when infected by mistletoes, adjusting the use of resources between infected and uninfected branches which can be crucial for their survival in the long-term. Here we investigated how branches infected by the mistletoe Passovia ovata (Pohl ex DC.) Tiegh. and uninfected branches within the same individual tree respond to seasonal environmental changes across two hosts of contrasting leaf phenology (the evergreen Miconia albicans (SW.) Triana and the deciduous Byrsonima verbascifolia (L.) DC.). We measured key leaf traits (instantaneous gas exchange rates, diurnal courses of stomatal conductance, leaf water potential, specific leaf area and leaf macronutrient concentrations) during the peak of the wet and dry season in a seasonal savanna of central Brazil. Pre-dawn leaf water potentials were consistently more negative for infected branches of both hosts, suggesting that overnight water refilling of infected branches was more limited. However, infected and uninfected branches exhibited similar leaf water potentials at midday, suggesting that they undergo similar imbalances in water supply and demand during periods of high atmospheric evaporative demand. Infected and non-infected branches of the evergreen mistletoe showed tighter regulation of water loss, whereas infected branches of the deciduous host were less constrained in regulating leaf transpiration. We also found differences for nutrient concentrations: N, P and K were lower, while Ca was higher in leaves of infected branches. Physiological changes induced by mistletoe infection affected host performance, and were reflected in water and nutrient use differences between infected and uninfected branches. Our findings show that infection responses by mistletoes can be detected between branches within individual trees, and that host species with distinct patterns of leaf phenology are capable to adjust, at the individual level, to cope with mistletoe's imposed physiological stress throughout the year.
  9. Effect of gamma irradiation on cytotoxicity, phenolics content and acute toxicity of Cuscuta chinensis L. extract Fatemeh Alijaniha, Fatemeh Emadi, Mohsen Naseri, Mohammad Kamalinejad, Elahe Motevaseli, Malihe soodi, Roya Karimi Radiation Physics and Chemistry, volume 185 Saturday 19 June 2021 Gamma irradiation is used as an efficient method for decontamination of some foodstuffs and herbal medicines. Several studies have shown that low to moderate doses of gamma irradiation do not alter the chemical composition and biological activities of herbal medicine; however, some changes in herbal composition, appearance or properties have been o... Gamma irradiation is used as an efficient method for decontamination of some foodstuffs and herbal medicines. Several studies have shown that low to moderate doses of gamma irradiation do not alter the chemical composition and biological activities of herbal medicine; however, some changes in herbal composition, appearance or properties have been observed in another studies, and this remains controversial. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the biological activity and the content of bioactive compounds of Cuscuta chinensis L. extract. The dose of 5 kGy was studied for decontamination. The results of the in vitro study showed that the cytotoxic effects on A549 and HT-29 cell lines were improved without any alteration of cytotoxicity on normal cell line. Also, acute oral toxicity of the extract did not change according to in vivo study. However, due to the significant reduction of total phenol and flavonoids contents by 12% and 18% respectively, the improvement of cytotoxic properties maybe due to the formation of new active compounds, the identification of which requires further studies.
  10. How to resist parasitic plants: pre- and post-attachment strategies Maxwell R. Fishman, Ken Shirasu Current Opinion in Plant Biology, volume 62 Saturday 19 June 2021 The lifecycle of parasitic plants can be divided into pre-attachment and post-attachment phases that equate to free living and parasitic stages. Similarly, plant resistance to parasitic plants can be defined as pre-attachment and post-attachment resistance. Parasitic plants rely on host cues for successful host invasion. During pre-attachment resis... The lifecycle of parasitic plants can be divided into pre-attachment and post-attachment phases that equate to free living and parasitic stages. Similarly, plant resistance to parasitic plants can be defined as pre-attachment and post-attachment resistance. Parasitic plants rely on host cues for successful host invasion. During pre-attachment resistance, changes in the composition of host signals can disrupt parasitic plant development and ultimately host invasion. Recent studies have only now begun to elucidate the genetic elements in the host that promote pre-attachment resistance. In comparison, new research points to post-attachment resistance using the common molecular mechanisms utilized by the plant immune system during plant-pathogen interactions. In kind, parasitic plants secrete proteinaceous and RNA-based effectors post-attachment to subvert the host immune system.
  11. An integrated approach to uncover quality markers of stir-baking Semen Cuscuta with salt solution preventing recurrent spontaneous abortion based on chemical and metabolomic profiling Xiaoli Wang, Haiyan Gao, Song Tan, Chao Xu, Fengqing Xu, Tongsheng Wang, Jijun Chu, Yanquan Han, Deling Wu, Chuanshan Jin Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, volume 1177 Saturday 19 June 2021 The previous research of clinical big data mining showed that stir-baking Semen Cuscuta with salt solution (YP) ranked the first in the usage rate of treating abortion caused by kidney deficiency. At the same time, pharmacodynamic studies also showed that YP has better effect on improving recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) compared to raw product... The previous research of clinical big data mining showed that stir-baking Semen Cuscuta with salt solution (YP) ranked the first in the usage rate of treating abortion caused by kidney deficiency. At the same time, pharmacodynamic studies also showed that YP has better effect on improving recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) compared to raw products of Semen Cuscuta (SP). However, there were few studies on the biomarkers of YP improving RSA. In this study, the chemical and metabonomic profiling were used to screen the quality markers of YP on improving RSA. Firstly, a metabolomics study was carried out to select representative biomarkers of RSA. The ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS) technique was used to investigate the components of exogenous and endogenous in serum of rats after administrated with YP and SP. As a result, 14 differential compounds were identified between the serum of rats administrated SP and YP. Compared to SP, there was an upward trend in YP of the compounds including kaempferol-3-glucuronide, iso-kaempferol-3-glucuronide, (1S) −11-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid and 3-phenylpropionic acid. Meanwhile, there was a reducing trend in YP of the compounds including kaempferol 3-arabinofuranoside, apigenin-3-O-glucoside, hyperoside, caffeic acid-β-D glucoside, dicaffeoylquinic acid, linoleic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, caffeic acid, palmitic acid and methyl myristate. 12 biomarkers for RSA indication were identified. SP and YP have a certain effect on the endogenous biomarker. The regulation effect of YP was higher than that of SP. The main metabolic pathways included phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis, glycerophospholipid metabolism, fatty acid biosynthesis, sphingolipid metabolism, biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids. This study demonstrated a promising way to elucidate the active chemical and endogenous material basis of TCM.
  12. CRISPR/Cas9 mediated mutagenesis of MORE AXILLARY GROWTH 1 in tomato confers resistance to root parasitic weed Phelipanche aegyptiaca Vinay Kumar Bari, Jackline Abu Nassar, Radi Aly Scientific Reports, volume 11 Friday 18 June 2021 Root parasitic weeds infect numerous economically important crops, affecting total yield quantity and quality. A lack of an efficient control method limits our ability to manage newly developing and more virulent races of root parasitic weeds. To control the parasite induced damage in most host crops, an innovative biotechnological approach is urge... Root parasitic weeds infect numerous economically important crops, affecting total yield quantity and quality. A lack of an efficient control method limits our ability to manage newly developing and more virulent races of root parasitic weeds. To control the parasite induced damage in most host crops, an innovative biotechnological approach is urgently required. Strigolactones (SLs) are plant hormones derived from carotenoids via a pathway involving the Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase (CCD) 7, CCD8 and More Axillary Growth 1 (MAX1) genes. SLs act as branching inhibitory hormones and strictly required for the germination of root parasitic weeds. Here, we demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targted editing of SL biosynthetic gene MAX1, in tomato confers resistance against root parasitic weed Phelipanche aegyptiaca. We designed sgRNA to target the third exon of MAX1 in tomato plants using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. The T0 plants were edited very efficiently at the MAX1 target site without any non-specific off-target effects. Genotype analysis of T1 plants revealed that the introduced mutations were stably passed on to the next generation. Notably, MAX1-Cas9 heterozygous and homozygous T1 plants had similar morphological changes that include excessive growth of axillary bud, reduced plant height and adventitious root formation relative to wild type. Our results demonstrated that, MAX1-Cas9 mutant lines exhibit resistance against root parasitic weed P. aegyptiaca due to reduced SL (orobanchol) level. Moreover, the expression of carotenoid biosynthetic pathway gene PDS1 and total carotenoid level was altered, as compared to wild type plants. Taking into consideration, the impact of root parasitic weeds on the agricultural economy and the obstacle to prevent and eradicate them, the current study provides new aspects into the development of an efficient control method that could be used to avoid germination of root parasitic weeds.
  13. Investigating the acute and sub-acute toxicity of medicinal Cuscuta chinensis Lam plant Aikebaier Maimaiti, Li Jing-Jing, Linsen Shi Journal of Ethnopharmacology, volume 273 Friday 18 June 2021 Ethnopharmacology relevance: Cuscuta chinensis Lam. (Convolvulaceae) had received growing attention as a traditional medicinal herb widely used for treating female impotence, abortion, male reproductive system disease and cardiovascular diseases, respectively. Aim of the study: The present study investigated the acute and sub-acute toxicities of C.... Ethnopharmacology relevance: Cuscuta chinensis Lam. (Convolvulaceae) had received growing attention as a traditional medicinal herb widely used for treating female impotence, abortion, male reproductive system disease and cardiovascular diseases, respectively. Aim of the study: The present study investigated the acute and sub-acute toxicities of C. chinensis water extract (CLW) in the ICR mice model. Materials and methods: Various doses of CLW (1250, 2500, and 5000 mg/kg) were administered consecutively for 14 days to evaluate the acute toxicity level with examine mortality, general behavior, body weight, food and water intake of the mice. At the end of treatmet, macroscopic observation of the skin and major internal organs in the abdominal part and organ coefficients were taken. The same doses were administered daily for 28 days to determine the sub-acute toxicity level with examine mortality, general behavior, body weight, food and water intake of the mice. At the end of treatmet, macroscopical examination of organs, tissues, cavities, organ coefficients, pathology, hematological and biochemical parameters were carried out. Results: The acute toxicity test results revealed an LD 50 of over 5000 mg/kg for CLW. Similarly, no CLW-related mortality and severe toxicities were experienced in the sub-acute study. However, the treatment of CLW had a reducing effect on body weight of both male and female mice, and feed intake in female mice at the all tested doses (1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg). Moreover, significant effects in organ coefficients of brain, liver, lung, testis and thymus became apparent due to CLW mainly at the 2500 and 5000 mg/kg. The hematological analysis result showed a significant decrease in platelets, lymphocytes, and hematocrit. In contrast, a significant increase in the neutrophils was observed in the CLW treated groups (2500 and 5000 mg/kg). Biochemical test results showed a significant increase in aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase levels while decreasing albumin, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels after treatment of CLW mostly at the doses of 2500 and 5000 mg/kg. Mild liver toxicity in both sexes treated with 5000 mg/kg of CLW was recorded in the histopathological analysis. Conclusions: Overall, our results suggested that CLW is safe at its dose lower than 1250 mg/kg, although liver toxicity from daily use may be a matter of concern.
  14. Comparative study on phytochemical profile and antioxidant activity of an epiphyte, viscum album l. (white berry mistletoe), derived from different host trees Mahak Majeed, Tanveer Bilal Pirzadah, Manzoor Ahmad Mir, Khalid Rehman Hakeem, Hesham F. Alharby, Hameed Alsamadany, Atif A. Bamagoos, Reiaz Ul Rehman Plants, volume 10 Friday 18 June 2021 The study aimed at evaluating the antioxidant profile of a medicinal epiphyte Viscum album L. harvested from three tree species, namely, Populus ciliata L, Ulmus villosa L., and Juglans regia L. The crude extracts were obtained with ethanol, methanol, and water and were evaluated for the total phenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), an... The study aimed at evaluating the antioxidant profile of a medicinal epiphyte Viscum album L. harvested from three tree species, namely, Populus ciliata L, Ulmus villosa L., and Juglans regia L. The crude extracts were obtained with ethanol, methanol, and water and were evaluated for the total phenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant activities using total reducing power (TRP), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 1, 1-diphenyl 1-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide radical scavenging (SOR), and hydroxyl radical scavenging (•OH) assays. Our results showed that crude leaf extracts of plants harvested from the host Juglans regia L. exhibited higher yields of phytochemical constituents and noticeable antioxidative properties. The ethanolic leaf samples reported the highest phenols (13.46 ± 0.87 mg/g), flavonoids (2.38 ± 0.04 mg/g), FRAP (500.63 ± 12.58 µM Fe II/g DW), and DPPH (87.26% ± 0.30 mg/mL). Moreover, the highest values for TRP (4.24 ± 0.26 µg/mL), SOR (89.79% ± 0.73 mg/mL), and OH (67.16% ± 1.15 mg/mL) were obtained from aqueous leaf extracts. Further, Pearson correlation was used for quantifying the relationship between TPC, TFC, and antioxidant (FRAP, DPPH, SOR, OH) activities in Viscum album L. compared to their hosts. It was revealed that the epiphyte showed variation with the type of host plant and extracting solvent.
  15. Data on Some Parasitic and Semi-parasitic Plant Species from Serpentines of Kosovo Ismet Ahmeti, Elez Krasniqi, Fadil Millaku, Mitko Kostadinovski, Arben Mehmeti, Marash Rakaj Ecologia Balkanica, volume 13, pages 1-7 Friday 18 June 2021 From the richness of the vascular flora of Kosovo, the flowering plants predominate. Within this group of plants, most of them are typical autotrophic plants. In contrast, a very small group of plants consists of parasitic and semi-parasitic life. Semi-parasitic plants are able to perform the process of photosynthesis throughout their life cycle an... From the richness of the vascular flora of Kosovo, the flowering plants predominate. Within this group of plants, most of them are typical autotrophic plants. In contrast, a very small group of plants consists of parasitic and semi-parasitic life. Semi-parasitic plants are able to perform the process of photosynthesis throughout their life cycle and mainly take up water and mineral salts dissolved by the host plant. In our study, we focus on the presence of certain confirmed parasitic and semi-parasitic plant species in the serpentines of Kosovo, with additional evidence of their occurrence in other parts of the country as well. Here, as a result of intensive twoyear field work, we provide details on the presence of the following four species, two of them semiparasitic: Arceuthobium oxycedri (DC.) M. Bieb. and Loranthus europaeus Jacq., and two parasitic: Lathraea squamaria L. and Orobanche alba Willd. For each species, the host plant(s), status as parasitic or semi-parasitic, and data on distribution in the region studied are given, along with a broad discussion of distribution at the state level.

#parasiticplants on Twitter