International Parasitic Plant Society

Welcome to the homepage of the International Parasitic Plant Society (IPPS). The IPPS is dedicated to advancing scientific research on parasitic plants. Our goals include increasing the understanding of these amazing plants, providing a platform for exchange among and beyond the scientific community as well as helping to decrease the crop damage inflicted by weedy parasitic plants.

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Most recent ‘Parasitic Plant’ publications

on the Web

Genome-Wide Association Studies Reveals New Candidate Genes associated with resistance to Striga gesneroides in Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] … AA Koura, AW Kena, B Annor, II Adejumobi… - Ecological Genetics and …, 2024 - Elsevier Saturday 25 May 2024 For managing Striga invasion and Striga resistance breeding through marker-assisted selection by identifying genomic regions and candidate genes associated with domain : www.sciencedirect.com
Aydın İli Pamuk Üretiminde Bitki Koruma Sorunları A Yeşilayer, B Gözener, C Ünal - Turkish Journal of Agriculture …, 2024 - agrifoodscience.com Friday 24 May 2024 The survey with cotton producers was conducted in Koarl district of Aydn in 2023 by meeting with 50 farmers one-on-one. The survey consists of a total of 34 questions, domain : agrifoodscience.com versions : 2
Phylogeny, character evolution and historical biogeography of Scurrulinae (Loranthaceae): new insights into the circumscription of the genus Taxillus CT Le, L Lu, VD Nguyen, Z Chen… - BMC Plant …, 2024 - bmcplantbiol.biomedcentral.com Thursday 23 May 2024 Exploring the relationship between parasitic plants and answering taxonomic questions is still challenging. The subtribe Scurrulinae (Loranthaceae), which has a wide domain : bmcplantbiol.biomedcentral.com
irst case of evolved herbicide resistance in the holoparasite sunflower broomrape, Orobanche cumana Wallr SS Kaundun, A Martín-Sanz, M Rodriguez… - Frontiers in Plant … - frontiersin.org Tuesday 21 May 2024 Two independent sunflower broomrape populations from belong to the invasive broomrape races G and G+, for tracking and managing broomrape resistance to ALS- domain : www.frontiersin.org
Epidemiological characteristics of respiratory infections during the last autumn-winter season of the COVID-19 pandemic according to data from a repurposed … …, TI Rychkova, NB Serebrovskaya, EV Striga… - …, 2024 - journals.eco-vector.com Tuesday 21 May 2024 Background. During the end of the coronavirus pandemic, an increase in the frequency of acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI)-related hospitalizations of children and domain : journals.eco-vector.com
Reconnaissance des mauvaises herbes en culture du maïs au Bénin et méthodes de lutte− Fiche technique R Sikirou, S Nakouzi, J Adanguidi, J Bahama - sidalc.net Sunday 19 May 2024 Le striga lui seul engendre plus de 50% de perte de rendement. La prsente fiche technique renseigne sur les mauvaises herbes rencontres en culture de mas au domain : www.sidalc.net
A potential role of heat‐moisture couplings in the range expansion of Striga asiatica M Bürger, J Chory - Ecology and Evolution, 2024 - Wiley Online Library Friday 17 May 2024 Plant's observations of different Orobanche, Phelipanche, and Striga species. Data of various species of Striga, Orobanche, and Phelipanche, our analysis revealed that domain : onlinelibrary.wiley.com versions : 2
Identification of Resistance Sources Against Orobanche Cernua in Tobacco Germplasm H Hatami Maleki, R Darvishzadeh… - Journal of Crop …, 2024 - Springer Friday 17 May 2024 Plants facing the threat of Broomrape (Orobanche spp.), a per pot, broomrape fresh weight, and broomrape dry weight, Broomrape growth characteristics varied among domain : link.springer.com
Comparative and phylogenetic analyses of Loranthaceae plastomes provide insights into the evolutionary trajectories of plastome degradation in … L Tang, T Wang, L Hou, G Zhang, M Deng, X Guo… - BMC Plant Biology, 2024 - Springer Friday 17 May 2024 Background The lifestyle transition from autotrophy to heterotrophy often leads to extensive degradation of plastomes in parasitic plants, while the evolutionary trajectories domain : link.springer.com versions : 4
A potential role of heat-moisture couplings in the range expansion of Striga asiatica M Bürger, J Chory - Ecology and evolution, 2024 - pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov Thursday 16 May 2024 Parasitic weeds in the genera Orobanche, Phelipanche (broomrapes) and Striga ( preferences in the genera Striga and Orobanche. Asiatic witchweed (Striga asiatica), domain : pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Unraveling the Therapeutic Potential of Miracle Plant 'Aftimoon'in Disease Prevention and Treatment: A Comprehensive Review MM Khan, A Mishra - Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, 2024 - jddtonline.info Thursday 16 May 2024 Aftimoon (Cuscuta reflexa), a member of Convolvulaceae family is a miraculous parasitic plant with a rich history of utilization in traditional medicine. It has been domain : jddtonline.info versions : 2
Isolation of a Marker Olean-12-en-28-butanol Derivative from Viscum continuum E. Mey. Ex Sprague and the Evaluation of Its Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Potentials S Mapfumari, B Matseke, K Bassey - Plants, 2024 - mdpi.com Wednesday 15 May 2024 Viscum continuum E. Mey. Ex Sprague (Mistletoe) is a semi-parasitic plant that grows on the branches of other trees with reported numerous biological activities. This domain : www.mdpi.com
2D and 3D visualization of herbaceous plant–plant contact zones using high‐resolution X‐ray computed tomography (HRXCT) HK Kithinji, O Dayou, L Botton‐Divet… - Plants, People …, 2024 - Wiley Online Library Wednesday 15 May 2024 Societal Impact Statement Parasitic plants that deprive crops of water and nutrients are an increasingly concerning food security issue, affecting the livelihood of millions of domain : nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com
ost selection in Harper's Dodder, a rare parasitic plant. WI Freyberger - 2024 - digitalcommons.kennesaw.edu Tuesday 14 May 2024 Cuscuta harperi (Harpers Dodder) is a rare parasitic vine lacking roots and leaves that is endemic to hot, dry outcrop habitats. Cuscuta species find appropriate host domain : digitalcommons.kennesaw.edu
Comparative and phylogenetic analyses of Loranthaceae plastomes provide insights into the evolutionary trajectories of plastome degradation in hemiparasitic plants L Tang, T Wang, L Hou, G Zhang, M Deng, X Guo… - BMC Plant Biology, 2024 - Springer Monday 13 May 2024 Background The lifestyle transition from autotrophy to heterotrophy often leads to extensive degradation of plastomes in parasitic plants, while the evolutionary trajectories domain : link.springer.com versions : 4

Most recent 'Parasitic Plant' publications

in Scopus

  1. Proteomic characterization and cytotoxic potential of proteins from Cuscuta (Cuscuta epithymum (L.) crude herbal product against MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line Umaima Akhtar, Yamna Khurshid, Bishoy El-Aarag, Basir Syed, Ishtiaq A. Khan, Keykavous Parang, Aftab Ahmed BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies, volume 24 Monday 27 May 2024 Background: The burden of breast cancer, the second leading cause of death worldwide, is increasing at an alarming rate. Cuscuta, used in traditional medicine for different ailments, including cancer, is known for containing phytochemicals that exhibit anticancer activity; however, the bioactivities of proteins from this plant remain unexplored. Th... Background: The burden of breast cancer, the second leading cause of death worldwide, is increasing at an alarming rate. Cuscuta, used in traditional medicine for different ailments, including cancer, is known for containing phytochemicals that exhibit anticancer activity; however, the bioactivities of proteins from this plant remain unexplored. This study aimed to screen the cytotoxic potential of proteins from the crude herbal product of Cuscuta epithymum(L.) (CE) harvested from the host plants Alhagi maurorum and Medicago sativa. Methods: The proteins from CE were extracted using a salting-out method, followed by fractionation with a gel filtration chromatography column. Gel-free shotgun proteomics was subsequently performed for protein characterization. The viability assay using MTT was applied to deduce the cytotoxic potential of proteins against MCF-7 breast cancer cells, with further exploration of the effect of treatment on the expression of the apoptotic mediator BCL2-associated X protein (BAX) and B-cell lymphoma protein 2 (BCL-2) proteins, using western blotting to strengthen the findings from the in vitro viability assay. Results: The crude proteins (CP) of CE were separated into four protein peaks (P1, P2, P3, and P4) by gel filtration chromatography. The evaluation of potency showed a dose-dependent decline in the MCF-7 cell line after CP, P1, P2, and P3 treatment with the respective IC50 values of 33.8, 43.1, 34.5, and 28.6 µg/ml. The percent viability of the cells decreased significantly upon treatment with 50 µg/ml CP, P1, P2, and P3 (P < 0.001). Western-blot analysis revealed upregulation of proapoptotic protein BAX in the cells treated with CP, P3 (P < 0.01), and P2 (P < 0.05); however, the antiapoptotic protein, BCL-2 was downregulated in the cells treated with CP and P3 (P < 0.01), but no significant change was detected in P2 treated cells. The observed cytotoxic effects of proteins in the CP, P1, P2, and P3 from the in vitro viability assay and western blot depicted the bioactivity potential of CE proteins. The database search revealed the identities of functionally important proteins, including nonspecific lipid transfer protein, superoxide dismutase, carboxypeptidase, RNase H domain containing protein, and polyribonucleotide nucleotidyltransferase, which have been previously reported from other plants to exhibit anticancer activity. Conclusion: This study indicated the cytotoxic activity of Cuscuta proteins against breast cancer MCF-7 cells and will be utilized for future investigations on the mechanistic effect of active proteins. The survey of CE proteins provided substantial data to encourage further exploration of biological activities exhibited by proteins in Cuscuta.
  2. Spatial distribution of woody plants in relation to mistletoe-infected Vachellia karroo trees in a semi-arid African savanna Tsitsi Sithandiwe Maponga, Hilton Garikai Taambuka Ndagurwa, Justice Muvengwi, Ed T.F. Witkowski Global Ecology and Conservation, volume 51 Monday 27 May 2024 By increasing resource heterogeneity, mistletoe-infected trees can restructure plant community processes and distribution patterns. No information is available on how mistletoe-infected Vachellia (Acacia) karroo trees within V. karroo dominated stands are spatially distributed, and on how they influence the spatial patterns of their surrounding con... By increasing resource heterogeneity, mistletoe-infected trees can restructure plant community processes and distribution patterns. No information is available on how mistletoe-infected Vachellia (Acacia) karroo trees within V. karroo dominated stands are spatially distributed, and on how they influence the spatial patterns of their surrounding conspecifics and heterospecifics. Each woody plant was stem mapped using a cartesian plane (x, y) within three 50×50 m plots located in V. karroo dominated stands in a semi-arid savanna, South West Zimbabwe. Pair correlations g(r) were used for the univariate analysis and Poisson process null models were applied to quantify and detect overall departure from randomness. For the bivariate analysis, pair correlations g12(r) under the null model of independence were used, whilst the mark correlation function (kmm(r)) was used to analyse the correlation of tree canopy area and mistletoe infection intensity. For each plot, size class distributions, based on tree height and basal stem diameter displayed negative J curves, with steep negative regression slopes across the size classes, clearly indicating a strongly recruiting population of V. karroo. The univariate patterns of all trees (infected and non-infected) were consistent with a random pattern, which is attributed to unsystematic mistletoe seed dispersal by birds. The univariate analysis of all woody plants (adults and juveniles) exhibited aggregation at small spatial scales due to the high abundance of clustered seedlings and saplings. At small spatial scales, understory woody plants (both conspecifics and non-conspecifics) were positively associated with mistletoe-infected trees due to mistletoephily which is the facilitation (or nurse protégé interactions) within the more resource-rich mistletoe-infected tree subcanopies. These results provide strong evidence suggesting that the variations in spatial pattern modification by mistletoe-infected trees could further increase spatial heterogeneity in this semi-arid savanna. As such, by increasing heterogeneity, mistletoe-infected trees can increase the resilience of semi-arid savannas in the face of perturbations and stochastic events.
  3. Cuscuta chinensis Lam. Flavonoids (CCLF) alleviate the symptoms of sepsis-associated encephalopathy via PI3K/Nrf2 pathway Qi Boxiang, Sheng Liping, Qian Tong Behavioural Brain Research, volume 465 Monday 27 May 2024 Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) frequently encounters patients who are in intensive care units and ∼70% of patients with severe systemic infection. However, due to the unclear pathological mechanisms of SAE, the desease-modifying drug is still lack. Here, we aimed to explore whether the flavonoid components extracted from CCL (CCLF) seeds ... Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) frequently encounters patients who are in intensive care units and ∼70% of patients with severe systemic infection. However, due to the unclear pathological mechanisms of SAE, the desease-modifying drug is still lack. Here, we aimed to explore whether the flavonoid components extracted from CCL (CCLF) seeds possess protective effects on SAE animals, and systematically evaluate the transcriptomic alteration (in the hippocampus) after CCLF treatment on SAE animals employing RNA sequencing. We observed that CCLF improved the brain's learning and memory abilities and the structural integrity of BBB using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced SAE animal models, evaluated by behavioral test and tissue examination of animals respectively. RNA sequencing results showed that CCLF treatment reverses SAE-induced transcriptomic alteration in the hippocampus. Moreover, CCLF also dramatically relieved inflammatory (such as TNF-α, IL-2, and IL-6) and oxidative (MDA and SOD activity) stresses, and inhibited SAE-induced neuron apoptosis in brain tissues. More importantly, CCLF restored the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and then induced the Nrf2 nuclear translocation to drive HO-1 expression both in vitro and in vivo. LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3K, obviously blocked CCLF's functions on anti-apoptosis, anti-inflammation, and anti-oxidation in vivo, demonstrating that CCLF achieves its bioactivities in a PI3K/AKT signaling dependent manner. Altogether, CCLF exhibits remarkable neuro-protective function and may be a promising candidate for further clinical trials for SAE treatment.
  4. Insights into mistletoe seed germination: A study of hemiparasitic Psittacanthus Mart. (Santalales: Loranthaceae) mistletoes Juan Francisco Ornelas, Carlos Lara, Saddan Morales-Saldaña, Antonio Acini Vásquez-Aguilar, Diego F. Angulo, Eduardo Ruiz-Sanchez, Francisco Molina-Freaner, Etelvina Gándara, Sonia Galicia, Andrew P. Vovides, Victoria Sosa Flora: Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants, volume 316 Sunday 26 May 2024 Most Psittacanthus (Loranthaceae) mistletoes depend on frugivorous birds for seed dispersal, and the behaviour of seed dispersers strongly influences their spatial distribution. However, the timing of seed germination stages remains poorly studied. In this study, ripe fruits from nine Psittacanthus species, inhabiting contrasting habitats and host ... Most Psittacanthus (Loranthaceae) mistletoes depend on frugivorous birds for seed dispersal, and the behaviour of seed dispersers strongly influences their spatial distribution. However, the timing of seed germination stages remains poorly studied. In this study, ripe fruits from nine Psittacanthus species, inhabiting contrasting habitats and host tree species, were collected for seed germination experiments, in which ripe fruits had their exocarp manually removed, and squashed seeds were placed and glued with their viscin on wooden rectangle sticks and daily monitored for 150 d under common environmental conditions. The germination process from seed attachment involved stages such as drying of the viscin, seed coat breaking, cotyledon expansion, and production of sticky latex-like exudates. Notably, the breakdown of the seed coat and cotyledon number varied among species. Breakdown of the seed coat did not occur in some species at least until the day the experiment ended (P. sonorae and P. auriculatus) and cotyledon number ranged from two to eight, with highest cotyledon count to date recorded for P. schiedeanus. Germination indices differed among species, with P. schiedeanus exhibiting higher values for germination rate and synchrony. A strong phylogenetic signal was found in fruit length, fruit width and cotyledon number. After accounting for phylogeny, cotyledon number was negatively associated with mean germination time and germination uncertainty, and positively associated with mean germination rate and germination speed coefficient. The other germination indices were not significantly associated with fruit or seed morphological traits or altitude. Interspecific variation in cotyledon number, seed coat characteristics, and in the timing and duration of seed germination stages highlights distinct processes, likely influenced by environmental differences. These findings highlight species-specific germination processes, the impact of cotyledon number on germination speed, and the potential evolutionary significance of specific morphological traits among Psittacanthus species.
  5. Seed pretreatment with brassinosteroids stimulates sunflower immunity against parasitic weed (Orobanche cumana) infection Na Zhang, Skhawat Ali, Qian Huang, Chong Yang, Basharat Ali, Weiqi Chen, Kangni Zhang, Sharafat Ali, Zaid Ulhassan, Weijun Zhou Physiologia Plantarum, volume 176 Sunday 26 May 2024 Broomrape (Orobanche cumana) negatively affects sunflower, causing severe yield losses, and thus, there is a need to control O. cumana infestation. Brassinosteroids (BRs) play key roles in plant growth and provide resilience to weed infection. This study aims to evaluate the mechanisms by which BRs ameliorate O. cumana infection in sunflower (Helia... Broomrape (Orobanche cumana) negatively affects sunflower, causing severe yield losses, and thus, there is a need to control O. cumana infestation. Brassinosteroids (BRs) play key roles in plant growth and provide resilience to weed infection. This study aims to evaluate the mechanisms by which BRs ameliorate O. cumana infection in sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Seeds were pretreated with BRs (1, 10, and 100 nM) and O. cumana inoculation for 4 weeks under soil conditions. O. cumana infection significantly reduced plant growth traits, photosynthesis, endogenous BRs and regulated the plant defence (POX, GST), BRs signalling (BAK1, BSK1 to BSK4) and synthesis (BRI1, BR6OX2) genes. O. cumana also elevated the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydroxyl radical (OH−), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide (O2•–) in leaves/roots by 77/112, 63/103, 56/97 and 54/89%, as well as caused ultrastructural cellular damages in both leaves and roots. In response, plants activated a few enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and reduced glutathione but were unable to stimulate the activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) enzymes. The addition of BRs (especially at 10 nM) notably recovered the ultrastructural cellular damages, lowered the production of oxidative stress, activated the key enzymatic antioxidants and induced the phenolic and lignin contents. The downregulation in the particular genes by BRs is attributed to the increased resilience of sunflower via a susceptible reaction. In a nutshell, BRs notably enhanced the sunflower resistance to O. cumana infection by escalating the plant immunity responses, inducing systemic acquired resistance, reducing oxidative or cellular damages, and modulating the expression of BR synthesis or signalling genes.
  6. Comparison of Antioxidant, Antiradical and Antibacterial Activities of Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) Fruits and Leaves Growing on Different Host Tree Genus Beyza Çiftci, Kevser Karaman, Mahmut Kaplan Waste and Biomass Valorization, volume 15, pages 2819-2832 Sunday 26 May 2024 Abstract: Mistletoe is a hemi-parasitic shrub and grows on different host trees and used as a remedy for some disease therapies. In this study, mistletoe fruits and leaves growing on different host tree genera were compared in terms bioactivity and antibacterial efficiency. For this purpose, mistletoe samples were collected from seven different tre... Abstract: Mistletoe is a hemi-parasitic shrub and grows on different host trees and used as a remedy for some disease therapies. In this study, mistletoe fruits and leaves growing on different host tree genera were compared in terms bioactivity and antibacterial efficiency. For this purpose, mistletoe samples were collected from seven different tree genera (black locust, wild pear, pine, hawthorn, willow, apricot and almond) and removed their fruits and leaves. At the beginning, the most suitable solvent for the extraction was determined using optimization procedure of simplex lattice mixture design. The most effective solvent showing the highest total phenolic content (TPC) and antiradical activity (ARA) was determined as ethanol:water (92.5:7.5) for the fruit and ethanol:water (30:70) for the leaf extraction. TPC values of the leaf and fruit samples ranged between 7 and 21.2 and 3.2–6.9 mg GAE/g, respectively. The results showed significant differences based on the tree genus and the highest antioxidant and antiradical activities were monitored for the black locust tree while the lowest values were in willow tree. For antibacterial activity, the highest inhibition zone was obtained from wild pear leaf extract for Salmonella Typhimurium. Mistletoe leave extracts showed a remarkable superiority bioactive performance than those of the mistletoe fruits for all tree genus. Graphical Abstract: Experimental design showing the workflow for the bioactive performance of mistletoe fruit and leaf collected from different tree genus. (Figure presented.).
  7. Genetic potential and inheritance pattern of agronomic traits in faba bean under free and infested Orobanche soil conditions Alaa A. Soliman, Mohamed A. Ibrahim, Manar I. Mousa, Elsayed Mansour, Yuhua He, Haitian Yu BMC Plant Biology, volume 24 Saturday 25 May 2024 Background: Orobanche is an obligate parasite on faba bean in the Mediterranean region, causes considerable yield losses. Breeding tolerant faba bean genotypes to Orobanche is pivotal to sustain production and ensuring global food security, particularly considering the challenges posed by population growth. In the present study, seven faba bean lin... Background: Orobanche is an obligate parasite on faba bean in the Mediterranean region, causes considerable yield losses. Breeding tolerant faba bean genotypes to Orobanche is pivotal to sustain production and ensuring global food security, particularly considering the challenges posed by population growth. In the present study, seven faba bean lines and four testers were used in a line×tester mating design during 2020–2021 and 2021–2022 growing seasons. The eleven parents and their 28 F1 crosses were evaluated under Orobanche free and naturally infested soils. Results: The results demonstrated considerable variations among the evaluated genotypes, wide diversity among the parental materials, and heterotic effects for all studied agronomic traits under Orobanche-free and infested soils. Orbanche infestation displayed a significant adverse impact on all the studied agronomic traits. The genotypes Line1, Line2, Line3, and Line5 displayed superior performance under Orobanche-infested conditions and recorded the highest values of all studied agronomic traits. Additionally, Line1, Line2, Line3, Line5, and Line7 exhibited desirable significant GCA for most evaluated traits under the two infestation conditions. The obtained crosses displayed significant negative or positive heterosis for studied agronomic characters such as plant height, number of branches per plant, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant, and seed weight per plant were observed. Furthermore, specific cross combinations such as Line2×Sakha3, Line3×Nubaria5, Line7 × Nubaria5, Line6×Nubaria1, Line5×Sakha3, Line1×Sakha3, and Line1 × Nubaria5 exhibited superior performance in seed yield and contributing traits under Orobanche-infested conditions. Moreover, these specific crosses showed superior efficacy in reducing dry weight of Orobanche spikes. The results obtained from GGE biplot analysis closely aligned with those from the line×tester procedure, affirming the significance of GGE biplot as a valuable statistical tool for assessing genotype combining ability in line× tester data. Both additive and non-additive gene actions were reported to be predominantly involved in the inheritance of the studied agronomic traits in faba bean. Conclusions: The detected genetic diversity within the evaluated faba bean genotypes and their developed crosses exhibits substantial potential for improving faba bean productivity under Orobanche-infested conditions. The parental genotypes, Line1, Line2, Line3, Line5, and Line7, were identified as effective and promising combiners. Moreover, the developed crosses Line2×Sakha3, Line3×Nubaria5, Line7×Nubaria5, Line6×Nubaria1, Line5×Sakha3, Line1×Sakha3, and Line1×Nubaria5 could be considered valuable candidates for developing high-yielding and tolerant faba bean genotypes to Orobanche.
  8. Testcross performance of Striga-resistant maize inbred lines and testers with varying levels of Striga reaction Degife Zebire, Abebe Menkir, Victor Adetimirin, Wende Mengesha, Meseka Silvestro, Melaku Gedil CABI Agriculture and Bioscience, volume 5 Saturday 25 May 2024 Background: Using a desirable tester is considered one method used to maximise genetic differences among test crosses derived from new inbred lines and improves the overall performance of maize. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the potency of the tester with varying levels of resistance to Striga hermonthica in determining the testcross performan... Background: Using a desirable tester is considered one method used to maximise genetic differences among test crosses derived from new inbred lines and improves the overall performance of maize. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the potency of the tester with varying levels of resistance to Striga hermonthica in determining the testcross performance of the hybrids for Striga resistance and yield-related traits. Method: The experiment was conducted with these test crosses and two standard checks (susceptible and tolerant) for different Striga resistance and agronomic traits during the 2018 cropping season in Abuja and Mokwa, Nigeria. The experiment was laid out in a 23 × 4 alpha-lattice design with two replications in each location. Field evaluation data was collected from Striga resistance and yield-related traits to estimate the performance of test crosses. Analysis of variance was conducted to determine the variance of the testcross performance. Results: There were significant differences among test crosses for days to silking, days to pollen shedding, ear at harvest, ear aspect, ear per plant, grain yield, Striga damage rating at 8 and 10 weeks after planting (WAP), and Striga count at 8 and 10 WAP. Variations among test crosses were always higher than the corresponding variations due to the interaction between test crosses and the environment for all traits. Conclusion: The inbred lines with low yield reduction crossed with different testers under Striga infested were recorded. These inbreds should be used to develop high-yielding hybrids and synthetics with elevated levels of Striga resistance to improve the maize breeding program.
  9. A randomized placebo-controlled double-blinded study comparing oral and subcutaneous administration of mistletoe extract for the treatment of equine sarcoid disease Anke Beermann, Ophélie Clottu, Marcus Reif, Ulrike Biegel, Lucia Unger, Christoph Koch Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, volume 38, pages 1815-1824 Saturday 25 May 2024 Background: Equine sarcoids (ES) are the most common cutaneous tumors in equids. Systemic treatment options are sparse. Subcutaneous (SC) injections of Viscum album extract (VAE) demonstrate efficacy as a systemic treatment directed against ES. Objectives/Aim: To critically assess the therapeutic efficacy of orally administered VAE. Animals: Forty-... Background: Equine sarcoids (ES) are the most common cutaneous tumors in equids. Systemic treatment options are sparse. Subcutaneous (SC) injections of Viscum album extract (VAE) demonstrate efficacy as a systemic treatment directed against ES. Objectives/Aim: To critically assess the therapeutic efficacy of orally administered VAE. Animals: Forty-five ES-affected, privately owned, 3–12 year-old horses. Methods: A 3-armed randomized placebo-controlled, double-blinded study was conducted in a double-dummy design. Horses were subjected to oral administration and SC injections of either VAE or placebo (VAE oral/placebo SC, VAE SC/placebo oral, placebo oral/placebo SC) over a 7-month treatment period. Primary endpoint was the change of baseline of a composite index of ES number and ES area after 14 months. Second endpoint was the clinical response. Results: No statistically significant difference in the composite endpoint between the 3 study arms was found. The primary endpoint showed 4 (27%) horses in the VAE oral group with complete ES regression, 3 (21%) in the VAE SC injection group, and 2 (13%) in the placebo group. The clinical response revealed complete or partial regression in 6 horses of the oral VAE group (40%), 4 of the SC injection group (29%), and 4 of the placebo group (25%). Direct comparison of oral VAE and placebo showed an odds ratio, stratified for prognosis of 2.16 (95%-CI: 0.45–10.42) and a P-value of 0.336. Conclusion and Clinical Importance: Oral administration of VAE is well tolerated. No statistically significant difference in the effectiveness of systemic VAE versus placebo against ES was found.
  10. A potential role of heat-moisture couplings in the range expansion of Striga asiatica Marco Bürger, Joanne Chory Ecology and Evolution, volume 14 Friday 24 May 2024 Parasitic weeds in the genera Orobanche, Phelipanche (broomrapes) and Striga (witchweeds) have a devastating impact on food security across much of Africa, Asia and the Mediterranean Basin. Yet, how climatic factors might affect the range expansion of these weeds in the context of global environmental change remains unexplored. We examined satellit... Parasitic weeds in the genera Orobanche, Phelipanche (broomrapes) and Striga (witchweeds) have a devastating impact on food security across much of Africa, Asia and the Mediterranean Basin. Yet, how climatic factors might affect the range expansion of these weeds in the context of global environmental change remains unexplored. We examined satellite-based environmental variables such as surface temperature, root zone soil moisture, and elevation, in relation to parasitic weed distribution and environmental conditions over time, in combination with observational data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). Our analysis reveals contrasting environmental and altitude preferences in the genera Striga and Orobanche. Asiatic witchweed (Striga asiatica), which infests corn, rice, sorghum, and sugar cane crops, appears to be expanding its range in high elevation habitats. It also shows a significant association with heat-moisture coupling events, the frequency of which is rising in such environments. These results point to geographical shifts in distribution and abundance in parasitic weeds due to climate change.
  11. Systematic assessment of the influence of quality of studies on mistletoe in cancer care on the results of a meta-analysis on overall survival Jorina Hofinger, Lukas Kaesmann, Jens Buentzel, Martin Scharpenberg, Jutta Huebner Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology, volume 150, pages 219 Friday 24 May 2024 PURPOSE: Mistletoe treatment in cancer patients is controversial, and a Cochrane review concluded that due to heterogeneity, performing a meta-analysis was not suitable. However, several systematic reviews included meta-analyses in favor of mistletoe. The aim of this work was to assess the influence of the methodological quality of controlled studi... PURPOSE: Mistletoe treatment in cancer patients is controversial, and a Cochrane review concluded that due to heterogeneity, performing a meta-analysis was not suitable. However, several systematic reviews included meta-analyses in favor of mistletoe. The aim of this work was to assess the influence of the methodological quality of controlled studies on the results of a meta-analysis regarding overall survival. METHODS: Between April and August 2022, Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PsycINFO, CINAHL and Web of Science were systematically searched. In addition, reference lists of previously published meta-analyses were checked for relevant publications. A random effects meta-analysis with clustering was performed. The risk of bias within the studies was assessed using ROB 2.0 and ROBINS-I. RESULTS: The search identified 4685 hits, and 28 publications reporting on 28 298 patients were included in the quantitative analysis. Overall, the analysis led to a significant result in favor of mistletoe therapy (overall HR = 0.61 with 95% CI [0.53;0.7]). According to our subgroup analysis of randomized studies, studies of higher quality (lower risk of bias) did not lead to a significant result in favor of mistletoe therapy (HR = 0.78; CI = [0.30; 2.00]). CONCLUSIONS: In the case of mistletoe therapy, the results of the meta-analysis strongly depended on the methodological quality of the included studies. Calculating meta-analyses that include low-quality studies may lead to severe misinterpretation of the data.
  12. The soil microbiome modulates the sorghum root metabolome and cellular traits with a concomitant reduction of Striga infection Dorota Kawa, Benjamin Thiombiano, Mahdere Z. Shimels, Tamera Taylor, Aimee Walmsley, Hannah E. Vahldick, Dominika Rybka, Marcio F.A. Leite, Zayan Musa, Alexander Bucksch, Francisco Dini-Andreote, Mario Schilder, Alexander J. Chen, Jiregna Daksa, Desalegn W. Etalo, Taye Tessema, Eiko E. Kuramae, Jos M. Raaijmakers, Harro Bouwmeester, Siobhan M. Brady Cell Reports, volume 43 Thursday 23 May 2024 Sorghum bicolor is among the most important cereals globally and a staple crop for smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. Approximately 20% of sorghum yield is lost annually in Africa due to infestation with the root parasitic weed Striga hermonthica. Existing Striga management strategies are not singularly effective and integrated approaches a... Sorghum bicolor is among the most important cereals globally and a staple crop for smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. Approximately 20% of sorghum yield is lost annually in Africa due to infestation with the root parasitic weed Striga hermonthica. Existing Striga management strategies are not singularly effective and integrated approaches are needed. Here, we demonstrate the functional potential of the soil microbiome to suppress Striga infection in sorghum. We associate this suppression with microbiome-mediated induction of root endodermal suberization and aerenchyma formation and with depletion of haustorium-inducing factors, compounds required for the initial stages of Striga infection. We further identify specific bacterial taxa that trigger the observed Striga-suppressive traits. Collectively, our study describes the importance of the soil microbiome in the early stages of root infection by Striga and pinpoints mechanisms of Striga suppression. These findings open avenues to broaden the effectiveness of integrated Striga management practices.
  13. Wine- and stir-frying processing of Cuscutae Semen enhance its ability to alleviate oxidative stress and apoptosis via the Keap 1-Nrf2/HO-1 and PI3K/AKT pathways in H<inf>2</inf>O<inf>2</inf>-challenged KGN human granulosa cell line Yusha Liang, Yun Shi, Rong Guo, Changli Xu, Mian Fu, Jinyang Shen, Xun Gao, Weidong Li, Kunming Qin BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies, volume 24 Wednesday 22 May 2024 Background: Cuscutae Semen (CS) has been prescribed in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for millennia as an aging inhibitor, an anti-inflammatory agent, a pain reliever, and an aphrodisiac. Its three main forms include crude Cuscutae Semen (CCS), wine-processed CS (WCS), and stir-frying-processed CS (SFCS). Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) i... Background: Cuscutae Semen (CS) has been prescribed in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for millennia as an aging inhibitor, an anti-inflammatory agent, a pain reliever, and an aphrodisiac. Its three main forms include crude Cuscutae Semen (CCS), wine-processed CS (WCS), and stir-frying-processed CS (SFCS). Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a globally occurring medical condition. The present work sought a highly efficacious multi-target therapeutic approach against POI with minimal side effects. Finally, it analyzed the relative differences among CCS, WCS and SFCS in terms of their therapeutic efficacy and modes of action against H2O2-challenged KGN human granulosa cell line. Methods: In this study, ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-Q-ExactiveTM Orbitrap-mass spectrometry (MS), oxidative stress indices, reactive oxygen species (ROS), Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), real-time PCR, Western blotting, and molecular docking were used to investigate the protective effect of CCS, WCS and SFCS on KGN cells oxidative stress and apoptosis mechanisms. Results: The results confirmed that pretreatment with CCS, WCS and SFCS reduced H2O2-induced oxidative damage, accompanied by declining ROS levels and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation in the KGN cells. CCS, WCS and SFCS upregulated the expression of antioxidative levels (GSH, GSH/GSSG ratio, SOD, T-AOC),mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the relative mRNA(Nrf2, Keap1, NQO-1, HO-1, SOD-1, CAT). They inhibited apoptosis by upregulating Bcl-2, downregulating Bax, cleaved caspase-9, and cleaved caspase-3, and lowering the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. They also exerted antioxidant efficacy by partially activating the PI3K/Akt and Keap1-Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathways. Conclusions: The results of the present work demonstrated the inhibitory efficacy of CCS, WCS and SFCS against H2O2-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in KGN cells and showed that the associated mechanisms included Keap1-Nrf2/HO-1 activation, P-PI3K upregulation, and P-Akt-mediated PI3K-Akt pathway induction.
  14. Research in revealing the effects on Cuscuta chinensis to diarrhea type irritable bowel syndrome based on network pharmacology and molecular docking potential mechanism Shili Yang, Huaiquan Liu, Kewei Li, Bo Chen, Yi Tang, Jie Li, Dan Wang, Xinyan Zhang Medicine, volume 103, pages e38113 Wednesday 22 May 2024 To explore the potential mechanism in Cuscuta sinensis on diarrhea-type irritable bowel syndrome using network pharmacology and molecular docking techniques. First, the active components and related targets of Cuscuta were found setting oral utilization >30% and drug-like properties greater than or equal to 0.18 as filter information from TCMSP dat... To explore the potential mechanism in Cuscuta sinensis on diarrhea-type irritable bowel syndrome using network pharmacology and molecular docking techniques. First, the active components and related targets of Cuscuta were found setting oral utilization >30% and drug-like properties greater than or equal to 0.18 as filter information from TCMSP database. The targets of diarrheal irritable bowel syndrome were compiled by searching DrugBank, GeneCards, OMIM, PharmGkb, and TTD databases. The intersections of drugs and targets related to the disease were taken for gene ontology enrichment and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes enrichment analyses, to elucidate the potential molecular mechanisms and pathway information of Cuscuta sinensis for the treatment of diarrheal irritable bowel syndrome. The protein-protein interaction network was constructed by using the STRING database and visualized with Cytoscape_v3.10.0 software to find the protein-protein interaction network core At last, molecular docking was performed to validate the combination of active compounds with the core target. The target information of Cuscuta and diarrhea-type irritable bowel syndrome was compiled, which can be resulted in 11 active compounds such as quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, β-sitosterol, and another 17 core targets such as TP53, IL6, AKT1, IL1B, TNF, EGFR, etc, whose Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes was enriched in the pathways of lipids and atherosclerosis, chemical carcinogenesis-receptor activation, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, and fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis, etc. Docking demonstrated that the core targets and the active compounds were able to be better combined. Cuscuta chinensis may exert preventive effects on diarrhea-type irritable bowel syndrome by reducing intestinal inflammation, protecting intestinal mucosa, and playing an important role in antioxidant response through multi-targets and multi-pathways.
  15. Cuscuta chinensis flavonoids alleviate ovarian damage in offspring female mice induced by BPA exposure during pregnancy by regulating the central carbon metabolism pathway Qianhui Zhao, Ying Liu, Yanan Chuo, Xiao Wang, Yulan Jiao, Wanyu Shi, Yongzhan Bao Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, volume 275 Tuesday 14 May 2024 Pregnancy is a sensitive window period for bisphenol A (BPA) exposure. BPA can pass through the placenta and cause reproductive damage in offspring female mice. Even BPA that is not metabolized during lactation can be passed through milk. Cuscuta chinensis flavonoids (CCFs) can alleviate reproductive damage caused by BPA, but the mechanism of actio... Pregnancy is a sensitive window period for bisphenol A (BPA) exposure. BPA can pass through the placenta and cause reproductive damage in offspring female mice. Even BPA that is not metabolized during lactation can be passed through milk. Cuscuta chinensis flavonoids (CCFs) can alleviate reproductive damage caused by BPA, but the mechanism of action is unclear. To investigate the potential mitigating impact of CCFs on ovarian damage resulting from BPA exposure during pregnancy, we administered BPA and CCFs to pregnant mice during the gestational period spanning from 0.5 to 17.5 days. Aseptic collection of serum and ovaries from female mice was conducted on postnatal day 21 (PND21). Serum hormone levels and tissue receptor levels were quantified utilizing ELISA and PCR, while ovaries underwent sequencing and analysis through transcriptomics and metabolomics techniques. Additionally, the assessment of ovarian oxidative stress levels was carried out as part of the comprehensive analysis. The results showed that CCFs administration mitigated the adverse effects induced by BPA exposure on ovarian index, hormone levels, receptor expression, and mRNA expression levels in female offspring mice. The joint analysis of transcriptome and metabolome revealed 48 enriched pathways in positive ion mode and 44 enriched pathways in negative ion mode. Among them, the central carbon metabolism pathway is significantly regulated by BPA and CCFs. The screened sequencing results were verified through qPCR and biochemical kits. In this study, CCFs may participate in the central carbon metabolism pathway by reducing the expression of Kit proto-oncogene (Kit), hexokinase 1 gene (Hk1) and pyruvate kinase M (Pkm) mRNA and increasing the expression of h-ras proto-oncogene (Hras), sirtuin 3 (Sirt3), sirtuin 6 (Sirt6) and TP53 induced glycolysis regulatory phosphatase gene (Tigar) mRNA, thereby resisting the effects of BPA on the body. At the same time, the metabolic levels of D-Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and L-Asparagine tend to be stable. Moreover, CCFs demonstrated a capacity to diminish the BPA-induced escalation in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Simultaneously, it exhibited the ability to elevate levels of glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT), thereby effectively preventing peroxidation. In summary, CCFs alleviate BPA-induced ovarian damage in offspring female mice by regulating the central carbon metabolism pathway. This study will improve the information on BPA reproductive damage antagonist drugs and provide a theoretical basis for protecting animal reproductive health.

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