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International Parasitic Plant Society

Welcome to the homepage of the International Parasitic Plant Society (IPPS). The IPPS is dedicated to advancing scientific research on parasitic plants. Our goals include increasing the understanding of these amazing plants, providing a platform for exchange among and beyond the scientific community as well as helping to decrease the crop damage inflicted by weedy parasitic plants.

WCPP16 - 16th World Congress On Parasitic Plants in Nairobi

This year’s World Congress on Parasitic Plants takes place in Nairobi, Kenya from July 3-8, 2022. Registration for attendance in presence or virtually and abstract submission is now open on the WCPP16 conference website: www.parasiticplants.com

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Most Recent ‘Parasitic Plant’ publications

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  1. An evaluation of the genus Cyne (Loranthaceae) including a new species and rediscovery and neotypification of the rare C. quadriangula DL NICKRENT, MGQ RULE - Phytotaxa, 2022 - biotaxa.org Thursday 11 August 2022 … Major ecological disturbances such as logging and mining pose particularly severe threats to mistletoe populations because they have no seed bank and they require …
  2. Reduce the Adverse Effects of Dodder on Sweet Basil by Seed Priming with Salicylic Acid (SA) and Sown in Residues of Syrian Bean-Caper E Abbasvand, S Hassannejad - Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 2022 - Springer Tuesday 09 August 2022 Seed priming can improve plant capacity in response to different stresses. This study investigated the effectiveness of seed priming with salicylic acid (SA) and Syrian bean…
  3. Plant lectin: A promising future anti-tumor drug EHE Konozy, MEM Osman - Biochimie, 2022 - Elsevier Tuesday 09 August 2022 … Mistletoe lectin, an agglutinin purified from the European Viscum album is the first plant lectin employed in the treatment of cancer to enter into the clinical trial phases. The …
  4. Colleters in Cephalanthus (Rubiaceae) and reevaluation of occurrence of corolline colleters in Angiosperms MF ROMERO, R SALAS… - Anais da Academia …, 2022 - SciELO Brasil Monday 08 August 2022 Colleters are glandular structures related to young shoots protection. In several Angiosperm families, as in Rubiaceae colleters are taxonomically important. This study …
  5. Root hemiparasitic plants are associated with more even communities across North America J Hodžić, I Pearse, EM Beaury, JD Corbin, JD Bakker - Ecology - Wiley Online Library Monday 08 August 2022 Root hemiparasitic plants both compete with and extract resources from host plants. By reducing the abundance of dominant plants and releasing subordinates from …
  6. [HTML][HTML] Integrated metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses of the parasitic plant Cuscuta japonica Choisy on host and non-host plants C Guo, L Qin, Y Ma, J Qin - BMC Plant Biology, 2022 - bmcplantbiol.biomedcentral.com Monday 08 August 2022 … of parasitic plants [47], and the presence of abundant RNA near haustoria also promotes RNA transfer between parasitic plants … transfer between parasitic plants and hosts …
  7. Chemical Composition, Physical Properties, and Aroma Profile of Ethanol Macerates of Mistletoe (Viscum album) K Hanousek Čiča, P Lukin, D Derewiaka, J Mrvčić… - Beverages, 2022 - mdpi.com Sunday 07 August 2022 … Maceration parameters such as alcohol and mistletoe … 20, 40, and 80 g/L mistletoe was macerated and pH, total … –water solution and mistletoe content affects the values of …
  8. Phytochemical screening and effect of Viscum album L. on monoamine oxidase A and B activity and serotonin, dopamine and serotonin receptor 5-HTR1A levels in … A Szurpnicka, AK Wrońska, K Bus, A Kozińska… - Journal of …, 2022 - Elsevier Sunday 07 August 2022 … Screening found that aqueous and hydroethanolic mistletoe extracts inhibited the enzymatic activity of either MAO-A or MAO-B or both. Additionally, mistletoe extract …
  9. [PDF][PDF] Amongst the Convolvulaceae collected by Zimmerman in 1954 in Nepal MLB JI, S DAs - scholar.archive.org Saturday 30 July 2022 … which included a conspicuous Cuscuta with reddish stem … of the known species of Cuscuta. For identification of the … study has been made of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb., both of …
  10. Emerging technologies for the chemical control of root parasitic weeds K Kawada, T Koyama, I Takahashi… - Journal of Pesticide …, 2022 - jstage.jst.go.jp Thursday 04 August 2022 … Parasitic plants in the Orobanchaceae family include devastating weed species, such as Striga, Orobanche, and Phelipanche, which parasitize major crops, drastically …
  11. [PDF][PDF] con particolare attenzione allé specie awentizie. N Schoenenberger, P Druart, PG Franscini - researchgate.net Wednesday 03 August 2022 Sono presentate le scgnalazioni Horistiche ottenute nel corso dei rilevamenti eseguiti nel 2001 su diversi se-dimi ferrovian de! Caiitonc Ticino (Svizzera). In totale sono …
  12. Transcriptomic Analysis of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Roots Resistance to Orobanche cumana at the Seedling Stage Q Huang, Z Lei, L Xiang, W Zhang, L Zhang, Y Gao - Horticulturae, 2022 - mdpi.com Wednesday 03 August 2022 Orobanche cumana is a root alloparasitic plant that drastically reduces sunflower (Helianthus annuus) production. In this study, transcriptomic changes of O. cumana-…
  13. [CITATION][C] (2907) Proposal to reject the name Cuscuta aggregata (Convolvulaceae) IM Turner, MA García - TAXON, 2022 - Wiley Online Library Wednesday 03 August 2022 … Cuscuta aggregata Roxb. was first validated four years before C. epilinum Weihe ex … Cuscuta, we propose outright rejection of C. aggregata Roxb. This name has not been …
  14. [PDF][PDF] Pharmacognostical, Hepatoprotective and Anthelmintic Evaluation of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. and Gymnema sylvestre (RETZ.) Rz BR. EX. SM. B Biswal, SK Panda - impactfactor.org Thursday 21 July 2022 The present studywas designed toevaluate the pharmacognostic, hepatoprotective and anthelmintic study of methanolic extracts of aerial parts of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.(…
  15. [HTML][HTML] Investigation of allopathic effect of some medicinal plants on germination and growth of dodder (Cuscutsa campestris Yuncker) S Alizadeh-salteh… - JOURNAL OF …, 2022 - sustainagriculture.tabrizu.ac.ir Sunday 31 July 2022 Background and Objective: The present study was performed to investigate the allelopathic properties of some medicinal plants on the growth, propagation and …

Most Recent 'Parasitic Plant' publications

in Scopus

  1. Herbicidal secondary metabolites from Bacillus velezensis JTB8-2 against Orobanche aegyptiaca Wei He, Yan Li, Wenfang Luo, Junhui Zhou, Sifeng Zhao, Jianjun Xu AMB Express, volume 12 Tuesday 16 August 2022 Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca) is a parasitic plants that cause significant losses to important crops. The effective methods for controlling this weed are rare. Biological control could be one of the possible strategies to tackle these weeds efficiently. In this work, a bacteria strain Bacillus velezensis JTB8–2 was proven to possesse ... Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca) is a parasitic plants that cause significant losses to important crops. The effective methods for controlling this weed are rare. Biological control could be one of the possible strategies to tackle these weeds efficiently. In this work, a bacteria strain Bacillus velezensis JTB8–2 was proven to possesse biological control functions against broomrapes in both pot and field experiments. Four secondary metabolites (1–4) were isolated from the B. velezensis JTB8–2 crude extracts, and all of them could inhibit the germination of O. aegyptiaca seeds at concentrations from 0.5 mM to 4 mM. Their structures were further elucidated by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Mass Spectrometry (MS) analysis. Among the isolated compounds, 1 and 2 exhibited the strongest herbicidal activity with 100% inhibition rate against the germination of O. aegyptiaca seeds at 4 mM, and thus had great potential in the development of new herbicidal products to control O. aegyptiaca in the future.
  2. Investigation of the mechanisms and experimental verification of Cuscuta-Salvia in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) via network pharmacology Ying ying Zhang, Jian xiong Ma, Yu tian Zhu, Yi xuan Wang, Wang qiang Chen, Xin Sun, Wei Zhang, Chen ye Wang, Cai fei Ding Journal of Ovarian Research, volume 15 Monday 15 August 2022 Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disease associated with reproduction. The Cuscuta-Salvia formula has been widely used to treat for PCOS in clinic. However, its chemical and pharmacological properties remain unclear. We identified the active components and related targets of Cuscuta-Salvia using UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS and TCMSP database... Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disease associated with reproduction. The Cuscuta-Salvia formula has been widely used to treat for PCOS in clinic. However, its chemical and pharmacological properties remain unclear. We identified the active components and related targets of Cuscuta-Salvia using UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS and TCMSP database. Disease targets were obtained from the DisGeNET and GeneCards databases. Subsequently, common targets between Cuscuta-Salvia and PCOS were identified using a Venn diagram. PPI network was established. Core genes were selected using a Cytoscape software plugin. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses were performed for common targets using the “pathview” package in R. Several core targets were verified using molecular and Immunological methods. By combining UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS with a network pharmacology study, 14 active components and a total of 80 common targets were obtained. Ten core genes were regulated by Cuscuta-Salvia in PCOS, including IL6, AKT1, VEGFA, TP53, TNF, MAPK1, JUN, EGF, CASP3, and EGFR. GO results showed that cellular response to drugs, response to oxygen levels, response lipopolysaccharides, and response to molecule of bacterial origin in BP category; membrane, transcription regulator complex, nuclear chromatin, postsynaptic membrane, and vesicle lumen in CC category; DNA-binding transcription factor binding, RNA polymerase II-specific DNA-binding transcription factor binding, DNA-binding transcription activator activity, RNA polymerase II-specific, DNA-binding transcription activator activity, and cytokine receptor binding in MF terms. The KEGG enrichment pathway was mainly involved in the PI3K − Akt, MAPK, TNF, IL-17 signalling pathways, and in cellular senescence. Furthermore, the results of the experimental study showed that Cuscuta-Salvia ameliorated the pathological changes in the ovaries, liver and adipose tissue. And it improved the expressions of the genes or proteins. Our results demonstrate that Cuscuta-Salvia may provide a novel pharmacological basis in an experimental model of PCOS by regulating gene expression. This study provides a basis for future research and clinical applications.
  3. Striga hermonthica: A highly destructive pathogen in maize production Oluchi Glory David, Ayansina Segun Ayangbenro, Jude J.O. Odhiambo, Olubukola Oluranti Babalola Environmental Challenges, volume 8 Monday 15 August 2022 Maize is a major cereal crop in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Subsistence farmers mostly plant it in areas where the parasite Striga hermonthica's action often reduces the harvest. This parasite is an obligate root hemiparasite of grasses commonly known as witchweed and is the most challenging weed in SSA that causes significant constraints and devasta... Maize is a major cereal crop in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Subsistence farmers mostly plant it in areas where the parasite Striga hermonthica's action often reduces the harvest. This parasite is an obligate root hemiparasite of grasses commonly known as witchweed and is the most challenging weed in SSA that causes significant constraints and devastating losses to food production annually. Several Striga control strategies have been examined over the past decades, such as cultural practices, biological control by parasitic fungi and bacteria, and the use of chemicals to manage Striga in cereal. In addition, the integration of two or more methods in controlling Striga weed has proven to be more effective than using a single control method. Due to the residual effect of chemicals on soils, there has been a rising need to develop a more environmentally friendly approach to combat this parasitic weed. Using bioinoculants in the control of this root parasitic weed is economically safe, socially acceptable, and environmentally friendly compared to chemical methods. We discussed the constraint in maize production, the deleterious effect of S. hermonthica on crops, and the methods used in combating this parasitic weed and its prospects in this study.
  4. Optimizing use of U.S. Ex-PVP inbred lines for enhancing agronomic performance of tropical Striga resistant maize inbred lines Abdoul Raouf Sayadi Maazou, Melaku Gedil, Victor O. Adetimirin, Wende Mengesha, Silvestro Meseka, Oluyinka Ilesanmi, Paterne A. Agre, Abebe Menkir BMC Plant Biology, volume 22 Sunday 14 August 2022 Background: Temperate maize inbred lines with expired Plant Variety Protection Act certificates (Ex-PVP) are potential sources of desirable alleles for tropical germplasm improvement. Up to now, the usefulness of the Ex-PVP inbred lines as a potential source of novel beneficial alleles for Striga hermonthica resistance breeding to enhance genetic g... Background: Temperate maize inbred lines with expired Plant Variety Protection Act certificates (Ex-PVP) are potential sources of desirable alleles for tropical germplasm improvement. Up to now, the usefulness of the Ex-PVP inbred lines as a potential source of novel beneficial alleles for Striga hermonthica resistance breeding to enhance genetic gain in tropical maize has not been reported. Results: This study was thus conducted to characterize the combining ability of 24 Ex-PVP inbred lines in crosses with two tropical Striga resistant inbred testers under Striga-infested and non-infested conditions and across three locations for 2 years. Many testcrosses between Ex-PVP inbred lines and the first tester (T1) produced competitive or significantly higher grain yields compared to the hybrid between the two resistant testers under Striga infested and non-infested conditions and across multiple test locations. Also, most of the testcrosses with positive heterosis for grain yield and negative heterosis for Striga damage and emerged Striga count involved T1 as a tester. Our study identified six Ex-PVP inbred lines with positive GCA effects for grain yield under Striga infested and non-infested conditions and across multiple test locations. Amongst these, inbred lines HB8229-1 and WIL900-1 also displayed negative GCA effects for emerged Striga count and Striga damage rating. The inbred line HB8229-1 showed positive SCA effects for grain yield with T2, whereas WIL900-1 had positive SCA effects for grain yield with T1. Over 70% of the Ex-PVP inbred lines were consistently assigned to specific heterotic groups using yield-based classifying methods (mean grain yield and SCA effects). Conclusions: These results could facilitate systematic introgression of the Ex-PVP inbred lines into the existing Striga resistant heterotic groups in IITA. The Ex-PVP inbred lines with positive GCA effects and producing high grain yields in hybrid combinations could be useful parents for enhancing Striga resistance and agronomic performance of tropical maize hybrids.
  5. Integrated metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses of the parasitic plant Cuscuta japonica Choisy on host and non-host plants Chenglin Guo, Liuyan Qin, Yongling Ma, Jianlin Qin BMC plant biology, volume 22, pages 393 Sunday 14 August 2022 BACKGROUND: Cuscuta japonica Choisy (Japanese dodder) is a parasitic weed that damages many plants and affects agricultural production. The haustorium of C. japonica plays a key role during parasitism in host plants; in contrast, some non-host plants effectively inhibit its formation. However, the metabolic differences between normal dodder in host... BACKGROUND: Cuscuta japonica Choisy (Japanese dodder) is a parasitic weed that damages many plants and affects agricultural production. The haustorium of C. japonica plays a key role during parasitism in host plants; in contrast, some non-host plants effectively inhibit its formation. However, the metabolic differences between normal dodder in host plants and dodder inhibition in non-host plants are largely unknown. Here, we utilized an integrative analysis of transcriptomes and metabolomes to compare the differential regulatory mechanisms between C. japonica interacting with the host plant Ficus microcarpa and the non-host plant Mangifera indica. RESULTS: After parasitization for 24 h and 72 h, the differentially abundant metabolites between these two treatments were enriched in pathways associated with α-linolenic acid metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and pyrimidine metabolism. At the transcriptome level, the flavor biosynthesis pathway was significantly enriched at 24 h, whereas the plant-pathogen interaction, arginine and proline metabolism, and MARK signaling-plant pathways were significantly enriched at 72 h, based on the differentially expressed genes between these two treatments. Subsequent temporal analyses identified multiple genes and metabolites that showed different trends in dodder interactions between the host and non-host plants. In particular, the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway showed significant differential regulation between C. japonica in host and non-host plants. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide insights into the metabolic mechanisms of dodder-host interactions, which will facilitate future plant protection from C. japonica parasitism.
  6. A PLETHORA/PIN-FORMED/auxin network mediates prehaustorium formation in the parasitic plant Striga hermonthica Ting Ting Xiao, Gwendolyn K. Kirschner, Boubacar A. Kountche, Muhammad Jamil, Maria Savina, Vinicius Lube, Victoria Mironova, Salim Al Babili, Ikram Blilou Plant Physiology, volume 189, pages 2281-2297 Saturday 13 August 2022 The parasitic plant Striga (Striga hermonthica) invades the host root through the formation of a haustorium and has detrimental impacts on cereal crops. The haustorium results from the prehaustorium, which is derived directly from the differentiation of the Striga radicle. The molecular mechanisms leading to radicle differentiation shortly after ge... The parasitic plant Striga (Striga hermonthica) invades the host root through the formation of a haustorium and has detrimental impacts on cereal crops. The haustorium results from the prehaustorium, which is derived directly from the differentiation of the Striga radicle. The molecular mechanisms leading to radicle differentiation shortly after germination remain unclear. In this study, we determined the developmental programs that regulate terminal prehaustorium formation in S. hermonthica at cellular resolution. We showed that shortly after germination, cells in the root meristem undergo multiplanar divisions. During growth, the meristematic activity declines and associates with reduced expression of the stem cell regulator PLETHORA1 and the cell cycle genes CYCLINB1 and HISTONE H4. We also observed a basal localization of the PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins and a decrease in auxin levels in the meristem. Using the structural layout of the root meristem and the polarity of outer-membrane PIN proteins, we constructed a mathematical model of auxin transport that explains the auxin distribution patterns observed during S. hermonthica root growth. Our results reveal a fundamental molecular and cellular framework governing the switch of S. hermonthica roots to form the invasive prehaustoria
  7. Biology and resource acquisition of mistletoes, and the defense responses of host plants Meseret Muche, A. Muthama Muasya, Berhanu Abraha Tsegay Ecological Processes, volume 11 Thursday 11 August 2022 Background: Mistletoes are the most successful group of obligatory hemi-parasitic flowering plants that attach to the host via haustorium for obtaining water and minerals. This review aims to assess the current knowledge on mistletoes host plant recognition, haustorium formation, water/minerals acquisition, and host plants’ defense signaling and ... Background: Mistletoes are the most successful group of obligatory hemi-parasitic flowering plants that attach to the host via haustorium for obtaining water and minerals. This review aims to assess the current knowledge on mistletoes host plant recognition, haustorium formation, water/minerals acquisition, and host plants’ defense signaling and responses against mistletoe attack. Results: Some mistletoes are host-specific while others are generalists occurring on a wide range of vascular plants. The host nitrogen (N) content, parasite–host chemical interactions, compatibility, and dispersal agents are the main determinant factors for host specificity. Mistletoes take up substantial amounts of water and minerals passively via apoplastic routes, and most are xylem feeders, but could shift to phloem-feeding during the physiological stress of the host plants. Current evidence highlighted that cell wall loosening and modification are critical during the development of the haustorium in the host tissue. This is made possible by the application of physical pressures by the developing haustorium and cell wall degradation using enzymes (xyloglucan endotransglycosylases, glucanase, expansins, etc.) produced by the mistletoe. Host plants defend against mistletoe infection mechanically by producing spines, lignin, suberin, etc., which discourages dispersers, and chemically defend by killing the infector or inhibiting the establishment of the haustorium using their secondary metabolites such as terpenes, phenolics, and N-containing compounds. Although the host plants' response to mistletoe attack resembles the response to other biotic stresses, unlike short-term stressors, the effect of mistletoe attack is long-term and depends on the parasite load. Infection by mistletoe leads to water and nutrient stress of the host plant and deteriorates its healthy establishment and survival. Conclusion: Mistletoes are heterogeneous group in the order Santalales which have versatile mechanisms for pollination, seed dispersal and nutrient acquisition from host plants. Infection by mistletoes triggers host plant responses, varying from mechanical to chemical mechanisms which are analogous to herbivory defences, and negatively impacts host plant growth and reproduction.
  8. Mistletoes could moderate drought impacts on birds, but are themselves susceptible to drought-induced dieback Ross Crates, David M. Watson, Gregory F. Albery, Timothée Bonnet, Liam Murphy, Laura Rayner, Dejan Stojanovic, Chris Timewell, Beau Meney, Mick Roderick, Dean Ingwersen, Robert Heinsohn Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, volume 289 Wednesday 10 August 2022 Mistletoes are hemiparasitic plants and keystone species in many ecosystems globally. Given predicted increases in drought frequency and intensity, mistletoes may be crucial for moderating drought impacts on community structure. Dependent on host vascular flows, mistletoes can succumb to stress when water availability falls, making them susceptible... Mistletoes are hemiparasitic plants and keystone species in many ecosystems globally. Given predicted increases in drought frequency and intensity, mistletoes may be crucial for moderating drought impacts on community structure. Dependent on host vascular flows, mistletoes can succumb to stress when water availability falls, making them susceptible to mortality during drought. We counted mistletoe across greater than 350 000 km 2 of southeastern Australia and conducted standardized bird surveys between 2016 and 2021, spanning a major drought event in 2018-2019. We aimed to identify predictors of mistletoe abundance and mortality and determine whether mistletoes might moderate drought impacts on woodland birds. Live mistletoe abundance varied with tree species composition, land use and presence of mistletoebirds. Mistletoe mortality was widespread, consistent with high 2018/2019 summer temperatures, low 2019/2020 summer rainfall and the interaction between summer temperatures and rainfall in 2019/2020. The positive association between surviving mistletoes and woodland birds was greatest in the peak drought breeding seasons of 2018/2019 and 2019/2020, particularly for small residents and insectivores. Paradoxically, mistletoes could moderate drought impacts on birds, but are themselves vulnerable to drought-induced mortality. An improved understanding of the drivers and dynamics of mistletoe mortality is needed to address potential cascading trophic impacts associated with mistletoe die-off.
  9. What do we know about parasitic plants and the leaf economic spectrum? Audrey F. Haynes Journal of Plant Ecology, volume 15, pages 691-699 Tuesday 09 August 2022 The leaf economic spectrum (LES) quantifies correlations between key leaf traits across vascular plants and distills much of the variation in these traits to a single axis. The LES, remarkable in its near universality, has been extensively researched across a variety of contexts. However, parasitic plants relationship to the LES framework remains r... The leaf economic spectrum (LES) quantifies correlations between key leaf traits across vascular plants and distills much of the variation in these traits to a single axis. The LES, remarkable in its near universality, has been extensively researched across a variety of contexts. However, parasitic plants relationship to the LES framework remains relatively unexplored. Because the LES is, in part, driven by physiological tradeoffs in the acquisition of carbon (C), in theory heterotrophy in parasitic plants, which supplants some of the essential functions of leaves, could lead to departures from the LES. Using global leaf trait data from the TRY database, this work assessed the overall representation of parasitic plants in the TRY database, then compared the LES suite of leaf traits in parasitic plants to their non-parasitic counterparts. Despite their unique physiology, parasitic plants did not deviate dramatically from the LES, although there were examples of differences in position on the LES and relationships among traits. Perhaps more importantly, parasitic plants are not well represented in the TRY database, making any conclusions here premature.
  10. Diacetoxyscirpenol, a Fusarium exometabolite, prevents efficiently the incidence of the parasitic weed Striga hermonthica Williams Oyifioda Anteyi, Iris Klaiber, Frank Rasche BMC Plant Biology, volume 22 Monday 08 August 2022 Background: Certain Fusarium exometabolites have been reported to inhibit seed germination of the cereal-parasitizing witchweed, Striga hermonthica, in vitro. However, it is unknown if these exometabolites will consistently prevent S. hermonthica incidence in planta. The study screened a selection of known, highly phytotoxic Fusarium exometabolites... Background: Certain Fusarium exometabolites have been reported to inhibit seed germination of the cereal-parasitizing witchweed, Striga hermonthica, in vitro. However, it is unknown if these exometabolites will consistently prevent S. hermonthica incidence in planta. The study screened a selection of known, highly phytotoxic Fusarium exometabolites, in identifying the most potent/efficient candidate (i.e., having the greatest effect at minimal concentration) to completely hinder S. hermonthica seed germination in vitro and incidence in planta, without affecting the host crop development and yield. Results: In vitro germination assays of the tested Fusarium exometabolites (i.e., 1,4-naphthoquinone, equisetin, fusaric acid, hymeglusin, neosolaniol (Neo), T-2 toxin (T-2) and diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS)) as pre-Striga seed conditioning treatments at 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 µM, revealed that only DAS, out of all tested exometabolites, completely inhibited S. hermonthica seed germination at each concentration. It was followed by T-2 and Neo, as from 10 to 20 µM respectively. The remaining exometabolites reduced S. hermonthica seed germination as from 20 µM (P < 0. 0001). In planta assessment (in a S. hermonthica-sorghum parasitic system) of the exometabolites at 20 µM showed that, although, none of the tested exometabolites affected sorghum aboveground dry biomass (P > 0.05), only DAS completely prevented S. hermonthica incidence. Following a 14-d incubation of DAS in the planting soil substrate, bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and fungal 18S rRNA gene copy numbers of the soil microbial community were enhanced; which coincided with complete degradation of DAS in the substrate. Metabolic footprinting revealed that the S. hermonthica mycoherbicidal agent, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. strigae (isolates Foxy-2, FK3), did not produce DAS; a discovery that corresponded with underexpression of key genes (Tri5, Tri4) necessary for Fusarium trichothecene biosynthesis (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Among the tested Fusarium exometabolites, DAS exhibited the most promising herbicidal potential against S. hermonthica. Thus, it could serve as a new biocontrol agent for efficient S. hermonthica management. Further examination of DAS specific mode of action against the target weed S. hermonthica at low concentrations (≤ 20 µM), as opposed to non-target soil organisms, is required.
  11. (2907) Proposal to reject the name Cuscuta aggregata (Convolvulaceae) I. M. Turner, Miguel A. García Taxon, volume 71, pages 909-910 Monday 08 August 2022 dc:description
  12. Nitrogen represses haustoria formation through abscisic acid in the parasitic plant Phtheirospermum japonicum Anna Kokla, Martina Leso, Xiang Zhang, Jan Simura, Phanu T. Serivichyaswat, Songkui Cui, Karin Ljung, Satoko Yoshida, Charles W. Melnyk Nature Communications, volume 13 Sunday 07 August 2022 Parasitic plants are globally prevalent pathogens that withdraw nutrients from their host plants using an organ known as the haustorium. The external environment including nutrient availability affects the extent of parasitism and to understand this phenomenon, we investigated the role of nutrients and found that nitrogen is sufficient to repress h... Parasitic plants are globally prevalent pathogens that withdraw nutrients from their host plants using an organ known as the haustorium. The external environment including nutrient availability affects the extent of parasitism and to understand this phenomenon, we investigated the role of nutrients and found that nitrogen is sufficient to repress haustoria formation in the root parasite Phtheirospermum japonicum. Nitrogen increases levels of abscisic acid (ABA) in P. japonicum and prevents the activation of hundreds of genes including cell cycle and xylem development genes. Blocking ABA signaling overcomes nitrogen’s inhibitory effects indicating that nitrogen represses haustoria formation by increasing ABA. The effect of nitrogen appears more widespread since nitrogen also inhibits haustoria in the obligate root parasite Striga hermonthica. Together, our data show that nitrogen acts as a haustoria repressing factor and suggests a mechanism whereby parasitic plants use nitrogen availability in the external environment to regulate the extent of parasitism.
  13. Unprecedented organelle genomic variations in morning glories reveal independent evolutionary scenarios of parasitic plants and the diversification of plant mitochondrial complexes Yanxiang Lin, Pan Li, Yuchan Zhang, Delara Akhter, Ronghui Pan, Zhixi Fu, Mingqing Huang, Xiaobo Li, Yanlei Feng BMC Biology, volume 20 Sunday 07 August 2022 Background: The morning glories (Convolvulaceae) are distributed worldwide and produce economically important crops, medicinal herbs, and ornamentals. Members of this family are diverse in morphological characteristics and trophic modes, including the leafless parasitic Cuscuta (dodders). Organelle genomes were generally used for studying plant phy... Background: The morning glories (Convolvulaceae) are distributed worldwide and produce economically important crops, medicinal herbs, and ornamentals. Members of this family are diverse in morphological characteristics and trophic modes, including the leafless parasitic Cuscuta (dodders). Organelle genomes were generally used for studying plant phylogeny and genomic variations. Notably, plastomes in parasitic plants always show non-canonical features, such as reduced size and accelerated rates. However, few organelle genomes of this group have been sequenced, hindering our understanding of their evolution, and dodder mitogenome in particular. Results: We assembled 22 new mitogenomes and 12 new plastomes in Convolvulaceae. Alongside previously known ones, we totally analyzed organelle genomes of 23 species in the family. Our sampling includes 16 leafy autotrophic species and 7 leafless parasitic dodders, covering 8 of the 12 tribes. Both the plastid and mitochondrial genomes of these plants have encountered variations that were rarely observed in other angiosperms. All of the plastomes possessed atypical IR boundaries. Besides the gene and IR losses in dodders, some leafy species also showed gene and intron losses, duplications, structural variations, and insertions of foreign DNAs. The phylogeny reconstructed by plastid protein coding sequences confirmed the previous relationship of the tribes. However, the monophyly of ‘Merremieae’ and the sister group of Cuscuta remained uncertain. The mitogenome was significantly inflated in Cuscuta japonica, which has exceeded over 800 kb and integrated massive DNAs from other species. In other dodders, mitogenomes were maintained in small size, revealing divergent evolutionary strategies. Mutations unique to plants were detected in the mitochondrial gene ccmFc, which has broken into three fragments through gene fission and splicing shift. The unusual changes likely initially happened to the common ancestor of the family and were caused by a foreign insertion from rosids followed by double-strand breaks and imprecise DNA repairs. The coding regions of ccmFc expanded at both sides after the fission, which may have altered the protein structure. Conclusions: Our family-scale analyses uncovered unusual scenarios for both organelle genomes in Convolvulaceae, especially in parasitic plants. The data provided valuable genetic resources for studying the evolution of Convolvulaceae and plant parasitism.
  14. A pilot study of the mistletoe and breast cancer (MAB) trial: a protocol for a randomised double-blind controlled trial Susan Bryant, Lorna Duncan, Gene Feder, Alyson L. Huntley Pilot and Feasibility Studies, volume 8 Saturday 06 August 2022 Background: A Cochrane review of mistletoe therapy concludes that there is some evidence that mistletoe extracts may offer benefits on measures of quality of life during chemotherapy for breast cancer, but these results need replication. Our aim is to add to this evidence base by initially testing the feasibility of a UK pilot placebo-controlled,... Background: A Cochrane review of mistletoe therapy concludes that there is some evidence that mistletoe extracts may offer benefits on measures of quality of life during chemotherapy for breast cancer, but these results need replication. Our aim is to add to this evidence base by initially testing the feasibility of a UK pilot placebo-controlled, double-blind randomised controlled trial of mistletoe therapy in patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy. Methods/design: A mixed phase pilot placebo-controlled, double-blind randomised controlled trial of mistletoe therapy in patients with breast cancer (EudraCT number: 2018-000279-34). There will be three arms (groups) in the trial: Iscador M, Iscador P, with physiological saline as the placebo. The aim is to recruit 45 adult patients with a new diagnosis of early or locally advanced breast cancer, up to 12 weeks following definitive breast surgery whose standard treatment plan includes chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy. They will be taught to administer the mistletoe and breast cancer (MAB) therapies subcutaneously. MAB therapy will continue throughout their standard chemotherapy and radiotherapy and 1 month beyond. The main outcome of the MAB study is the feasibility of conducting such a trial within the NHS in order to inform a future fully powered investigative trial. Feasibility will be measured through recruitment, retention and patient experience using clinical research forms, patient diaries, cancer-related questionnaires and qualitative interviews conducted with both patients and oncology staff. Discussion: This trial is the first of its kind in the UK. Currently, mistletoe therapy is mostly available through private practice in the UK. Completion of this feasibility study will support applications for further funding for a fully powered randomised controlled trial which will measure effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this herbal therapy.
  15. Glyphosate-resistant Brassica juncea (oilseed mustard) transgenics for possible control of root parasite Orobanche aegyptiaca and conservation agriculture Parul Agarwal, Arundhati Mukhopadhyay, Vibha Gupta, Akshay Kumar Pradhan, Deepak Pental Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology, volume 31, pages 648-656 Saturday 06 August 2022 Brassica juncea (mustard) is a major oilseed crop of India grown in around five to six million hectares of land under low moisture availability. In around two million hectares of rain-fed area under mustard cultivation in the states of Rajasthan, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh, the crop is severely affected by the root parasite Orobanch... Brassica juncea (mustard) is a major oilseed crop of India grown in around five to six million hectares of land under low moisture availability. In around two million hectares of rain-fed area under mustard cultivation in the states of Rajasthan, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh, the crop is severely affected by the root parasite Orobanche aegyptiaca. Glyphosate, a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide has been reported to control O. aegyptiaca besides the general weed flora. We report glyphosate-resistant transgenic lines in B. juncea variety Varuna using three different genes—cp4 epsps, gox, and gat. The cp4 epsps gene encodes a protein that is insensitive to glyphosate; the gox and gat genes encode proteins that detoxify the herbicide. Transgenes were expressed either under a CaMV 35S promoter or a predominantly meristem-specific promoter; two 5′ UTRs—SYN J and PHOTO were used to enhance the transgene expression. Nine different constructs were made and used to develop 327 transgenic lines. Single copy transgenic lines were identified and tested for resistance to glyphosate by germinating seeds on different concentrations of the herbicide. Glyphosate at 50 mg/L was lethal for the seedlings of untransformed Varuna; seedlings of many transgenic lines grew normally at the highest tested concentration of 500 mg/L. Transgenic lines containing the cp4 epsps gene along with a double mutant als gene could provide long-term control of O. aegyptiaca in the highly affected areas.

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