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International Parasitic Plant Society

Welcome to the homepage of the International Parasitic Plant Society (IPPS). The IPPS is dedicated to advancing scientific research on parasitic plants. Our goals include increasing the understanding of these amazing plants, providing a platform for exchange among and beyond the scientific community as well as helping to decrease the crop damage inflicted by weedy parasitic plants.

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Most Recent 'Parasitic Plant' Publications

in Google Scholar

  1. Histopathological Profile of Therapeutic Doses of Mango Mistletoe Methanolic Extract (MMME) in Cardiac of Hypertensive Rats (DOCA-Salt) AA Hakimah, NAA Sjakoer… - JSMARTech: Journal of …, 2021 - jsmartech.ub.ac.id Friday 16 April 2021 This study determined the effect of Mango mistletoe Methanolic Extract (MMME) on the cardiac's histopathological profile of hypertensive rats (DOCA-Salt) treated. The MMME was treated on fifty rats for 14 days, divided into five treatments: negative control …
  2. Role of Mango Mistletoe on Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) in Hypertensive Rats Exposed to DOCA-Salt M Suroyya, NAA Sjakoer… - JSMARTech: Journal of …, 2021 - jsmartech.ub.ac.id Friday 16 April 2021 Hypertension is a condition where there is an abnormal rise in blood pressure that may be the primary cause of cardiovascular disease. Hypertension induces the production of free radicals known as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress …
  3. Effects of Mango Mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra L. Miq) Extracts on Brain in Hypertensive Rats Treated with Deoxycorticosterone Acetate (DOCA)-Salt SDHR Saputri, NAA Sjakoer… - JSMARTech: Journal of …, 2021 - jsmartech.ub.ac.id Friday 16 April 2021 Mango mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra) is a plant that has the potential as a medicinal plant. Mango mistletoe is reported to contain the flavonoids quercetin, mesoinositol, rutin, and tannins. Hypertension as a non-communicable disease is a very …
  4. SeedQuant: A deep learning-based tool for assessing stimulant and inhibitor activity on root parasitic seeds J Braguy, M Ramazanova, S Giancola, M Jamil… - Plant …, 2021 - academic.oup.com Thursday 15 April 2021  … We show the broad applicability of our algorithm in assessing the germination rate of different parasitic plant seeds. Finally, we provide a platform … used on seeds of other root parasitic plants … seeds, which are very similar to that of Striga (Fig. S2). We exposed them to …
  5. Pea Breeding Lines Adapted to Autumn Sowings in Broomrape Prone Mediterranean Environments D Rubiales, S Osuna-Caballero, MJ González-Bernal… - Agronomy, 2021 - mdpi.com Thursday 15 April 2021  … temperatures. The root parasitic weed broomrape (Orobanche crenata) appears as a major limiting factor under these conditions. To address such specific growing conditions and associated constraints, targeted breeding is needed …
  6. Major Parasitic Weeds–An Overview PK Vikram - Biotica Research Today, 2021 - bioticainternational.com Wednesday 14 April 2021  … P. Karthick Vikram Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agriculture University, Madurai, Tamil Nadu (625 104), India. Keywords: Cuscutta, Loranthus, Orobanche, Striga. Abstract. Parasitic plants rely on neighbouring host plants to complete their …
  7. Effect of gamma irradiation on cytotoxicity, phenolics content and acute toxicity of Cuscuta chinensis L. extract F Alijaniha, F Emadi, M Naseri, M Kamalinejad… - Radiation Physics and …, 2021 - Elsevier Wednesday 14 April 2021 Gamma irradiation is used as an efficient method for decontamination of some foodstuffs and herbal medicines. Several studies have shown that low to moderate doses of gamma irradiation do not alter the chemical composition and biological activities of herbal …
  8. [PDF][PDF] Mistletoe Contains Higher Secondary Metabolites Than the Host Plant at the Host-Parasite Interface: Insights From Tapinanthus Globiferus Collected In Enugu … G Ajuziogu, GC Agbo, R Njokuocha, A Nweze, EO Ojua… - 2021 - researchsquare.com Wednesday 14 April 2021 Background: This study aims at evaluating the phytochemicals composition at the host-parasite interfaces of parasitic plant Tapinanthus globiferus (mistletoe) and four host plants. Wood tissues of the hosts and the parasite at the host-parasite interface were …
  9. Marker assisted introgression of striga resistant and drought tolerant quantitative trait loci into popular Ethiopian sorghum cultivars T Abebe Teferi - 2021 - 197.156.72.153 Tuesday 13 April 2021 Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is the fifth important dryland cereal crop worldwide, and a dietary staple food for more than half a billion poor and food-insecure people dwelling in the semi-arid tropics of Africa and Asia. Sorghum is one of the strategic …
  10. Effects of Benzoquinones on Radicles of Orobanche and Phelipanche Species M Fernández-Aparicio, M Masi, A Cimmino, A Evidente - Plants, 2021 - mdpi.com Sunday 11 April 2021 The holoparasitic broomrape weeds (Orobanche and Phelipanche species) cause severe yield losses throughout North Africa, the Middle East, and Southern and Eastern Europe. These parasitic weeds form an haustorium at the tip of their radicles to …
  11. [PDF][PDF] The enemy within: the effects of mistletoe parasitism on infected and uninfected host branches MCSAF Guimaraes, GS Teodoro - researchgate.net Sunday 11 April 2021 To comprehend how mistletoes affect their host functioning is a key matter in plant ecology. As yet, it is not clear whether the impact of mistletoes is confined to infected branches or the entire host is compromised as well. Here, we compared leaf functional traits …
  12. Safe Way To Lose Weight [Best Sellers] Subways Calories Menu Centro De Capacitación MVS T Doron - centromvs.com Wednesday 07 April 2021  … She, That s not the case Cooper trot down the stairs, Tracy feels that Goya s exhibition hall is safe way to lose weight more guarded than other exhibition halls, Sex and flavor return to classics, Xingan, flat, Enter the liver and kidney channels, ingredient, Cuscuta seeds …
  13. [DOC][DOC] De novo transcriptome analysis of finger millet and identification of genes involved in Striga infestation M Erick, W Mark, S Francesca, O Richard, M Mercy… - mel.cgiar.org Tuesday 06 April 2021 Background: Finger millet is a highly nutritious annual cereal grass mainly cultivated in the semi-arid tropics of the world. Despite its high yielding potential, finger millet production is mainly affected by Striga hermonthica in Sub-Saharan Africa. The survival of …
  14. Strigolactones: Phytohormones with Promising Biomedical Applications C Prandi, Y Kapulnik, H Koltai - European Journal of Organic … - Wiley Online Library Saturday 10 April 2021  … Abstract. Strigolactones are a class of carotenoid derived plant hormones which impact many functions of plant metabolism in response to environmental stress. They also act as exogenous signals perceived by both mycorrhizal fungi and parasitic plants …
  15. [HTML][HTML] Anti-proliferative phytoconstituents from Striga angustifolia (D. Don) CJ Saldanha–An in vitro and in silico approach R Kannan, S Subramaniam, R Rajan… - Phytomedicine Plus, 2021 - Elsevier Wednesday 07 April 2021 Abstract Background: Striga angustifolia (D. Don) CJ Saldanha, belonging to the Orabanchaceae, is indicated to have notable beneficial properties in the traditional medicinal system of Africa. It is said that it aids in the cure of several diseases. Therefore, we …

Most Recent 'Parasitic Plant' publications

in Scopus

  1. To study the mechanism of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. And Lycium barbarum L. in the treatment of asthenospermia based on network pharmacology Jisheng Wang, Binghao Bao, Fanchao Meng, Sheng Deng, Hengheng Dai, Junlong Feng, Haisong Li, Bin Wang Journal of Ethnopharmacology, volume 270 Sunday 18 April 2021 Ethnopharmacological relevance: Cuscuta chinensis Lam. and Lycium barbarum L. (SC-FL) is a commonly used kidney tonic Chinese medicine combination that is widely used in the clinical treatment of oligoasthenospermia.However, its specific mechanism remains unclear and requires in-depth study. Aim of the study: To explore the potential targets of SC-... Ethnopharmacological relevance: Cuscuta chinensis Lam. and Lycium barbarum L. (SC-FL) is a commonly used kidney tonic Chinese medicine combination that is widely used in the clinical treatment of oligoasthenospermia.However, its specific mechanism remains unclear and requires in-depth study. Aim of the study: To explore the potential targets of SC-FL in the treatment of oligoasthenospermia using network pharmacology, and to verify the results with in vivo and in vitro experiments. Materials and methods: A herb-compound-target-disease network and PPI network were constructed with Cytoscape software. The targets of SC-FL for the treatment of male sterility were introduced into a bioinformatics annotation database, and the GO and KEGG databases were used for pathway enrichment analysis. Subsequently, Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. (GTW) polyglycoside was used to induce a spermatogenic dysfunction model in GC-1 spg cells and SD male rats in in vitro and in vivo experiments, respectively. The SC-FL and PI3K pathway inhibitor LY294002 was used to intervene in the spermatogenic dysfunction model to detect the expression of proteins and mRNA related to the PI3K pathway and to detect the indicators related to proliferation and apoptosis. Results: In in vitro experiments, the percentage of spermatogenic cells and the proportion of GC-1 spg cells at G0/G1 and G2/M stages in the model group (GTW group) and the inhibitor group (LY group) were significantly decreased (P < 0.01) compared with the blank control group (NC group). The apoptosis rate of the GTW group was significantly increased (P < 0.01). The ultrastructures of GC-1 spg cells in the GTW group and LY group were obviously destroyed. Compared with the GTW group, the SC-FL group had a significantly reduced apoptosis rate of GC-1 spg cells, reduced percentage of cells in S phase, and a significantly improved mitochondrial membrane potential. SC-FL can repair the ultrastructure of GC-1 spg cells damaged by GTW. The above effects of SC-FL are closely related to up-regulation of GFRa1, RET, PI3K, p-AKT, and Bcl-2 and down-regulation of BAD and BAX proteins and mRNA expression. In vivo, compared with the GTW group, the body mass, testicular mass, and epididymal weight of the GTW + SC-FL group were significantly increased (P < 0.01). Sperm concentrations and the PR + NP of GTW + SC-FL were significantly higher than in the GTW group (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). FSH, LH, and T levels in the GTW + SC-FL and LY + SC-FL groups were significantly higher than those in the GTW and LY group (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). HE staining results showed that the morphology of testicular tissue in the GTW + SC-FL and LY + SC-FL groups was superior to that in the GTW and LY group. The above effects of SC-FL are closely related to the up-regulation of proteins and mRNA expression of PI3K, p-AKT, and Bcl-2. Conclusion: Through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, SC-FL up-regulates GFRa1, RET, PI3K, p-AKT, and Bcl-2, and down-regulates the expression of BAD and BAX proteins and mRNA, thus reducing the percentage of GC-1 spg cells in S-phase, significantly increasing the mitochondrial membrane potential, significantly reducing cell apoptosis, and improving sperm counts and viability.
  2. The effects of dietary supplementation of mistletoe (Viscum album) extract on the growth performance, antioxidant, and innate, immune responses of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Morteza Yousefi, Mehdi Naderi Farsani, Hamed Ghafarifarsani, Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar, Hien Van Doan Aquaculture, volume 536 Saturday 17 April 2021 In the present study, rainbow trout fingerlings, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were fed diets supplemented with 0% (C), 0.5 (T1), 1.5 (T2), 2.5 (T3), and 4% (T4) mistletoe extract (ME), Viscum album over eight weeks. At the end of feeding trial, growth performance, serum antioxidant and innate immune responses, and serum bactericidal activity against Aeromo... In the present study, rainbow trout fingerlings, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were fed diets supplemented with 0% (C), 0.5 (T1), 1.5 (T2), 2.5 (T3), and 4% (T4) mistletoe extract (ME), Viscum album over eight weeks. At the end of feeding trial, growth performance, serum antioxidant and innate immune responses, and serum bactericidal activity against Aeromonas hydrophila were evaluated. According to results, the highest final wight and wight gain (%), and the lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) were observed in T2 and T3 treatments. Regression analysis showed that fish growth parameters were polynomially-related to dietary ME levels. The optimum dietary ME level, based upon the varied growth parameters, was 1.78 to 1.94%. The highest moisture content was observed in the control group followed by the T1 treatment, whereas the highest protein contents were observed in the T2 and T3 treatments. The lipid and ash contents were not affected by ME supplementation. Serum lysozyme, ACH50, total Ig, SOD, and bactericidal activity significantly increased in the ME-fed fish, with the highest values observed within the T3 treatment. The highest CAT and GPx values were recorded in the T2 and T3 treatments. ME treatment significantly decreased serum MDA levels, which was lowest in the T3 treatment. Serum ALT activities were similar in the T2, T3, and T4 treatments, and were significantly lower than those of T1 and control (C) treatments. Serum AST and ALP activities exhibited declines along with an increase in dietary ME levels; in which the lowest activities were occurred in the T4 treatment. In conclusion, dietary ME supplementation proved beneficial to rainbow trout, as it stimulated its growth performance, innate immune and antioxidant systems, and promoted bactericidal activity. Moreover, serum hepatic health indicators suggest that dietary ME may improve the fishes' hepatic health.
  3. Water and nutrient relations of mistletoes at the drought limit of their hosting evergreen oaks in the semiarid upper Yangtze region, SW China Xiao Fang He, Song Wei Wang, Christian Körner, Yang Yang Trees - Structure and Function, volume 35, pages 387-394 Friday 16 April 2021 Does mistletoe infestation influence the position of the dry range limit of oaks? We explored this question and our results contrast most earlier findings on host-mistletoe interaction. The study was located in the SE Himalayas in an environment with 200–360 mm annual precipitation falling mainly during the short monsoon season (hardly any rain ... Does mistletoe infestation influence the position of the dry range limit of oaks? We explored this question and our results contrast most earlier findings on host-mistletoe interaction. The study was located in the SE Himalayas in an environment with 200–360 mm annual precipitation falling mainly during the short monsoon season (hardly any rain during 9–10 month). The hemi-parasite species (HPs) Loranthus delavayi and Taxillus thibetensis are growing on Quercus pannosa s.l. at its drought-driven range limit. HPs mostly exhibited lower shoot water potentials than their hosts during both, the dry and the wet season. During the dry season, leaf conductance (g ) of the HPs was very low (100–200 mmol m  s ) and mostly lower than in their host. During the wet season, both HPs and oaks reached high g (up to c. 500 mmol m  s ) with higher in HP or no clear differentiation. Leaf δ C in HPs was lower than in the host, suggesting a small limitation of CO uptake by g . Both HPs had higher foliage potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) and similar nitrogen (N) content than the host. Thus, counter to abundant literature, HPs consumed extra water (and dissolved nutrients) mainly during the wet season, not adding extra stress to their host trees under extreme drought. Both host trees and mistletoes track the monsoon regime, with peak activity confined to the brief moist period. Under these semi-arid conditions, mistletoes thus, do not seem to affect the drought-driven range limit of these oaks. l l 2 l −2 −1 −2 −1 13
  4. Involvement of opioidergic and GABAergic systems in the anti-nociceptive activity of the methanolic extract of Cuscuta Epithymum Murr. in mice Behrooz Khakpour Taleghani, Behnaz Ghaderi, Mohammad Rostampour, Edris Mahdavi Fekjur, Farkhonde Hasannejad, Malek Moien Ansar Journal of Ethnopharmacology, volume 273 Thursday 15 April 2021 Ethnopharmacological relevance: Cuscuta epithymum Murr. (CE) is a parasitic plant used as a traditional medicine to treat various diseases such as muscle and joint pains and headache different parts of the world, Europe in the north, Asia in the east. Aim of the study: In this study, we aimed to investigate the anti-nociceptive effect of the methan... Ethnopharmacological relevance: Cuscuta epithymum Murr. (CE) is a parasitic plant used as a traditional medicine to treat various diseases such as muscle and joint pains and headache different parts of the world, Europe in the north, Asia in the east. Aim of the study: In this study, we aimed to investigate the anti-nociceptive effect of the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of CE and its probable mechanism(s) in mice. Materials and methods: The anti-nociceptive activity of different doses of CE methanolic extract (2.5, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) was assessed using tail flick, formalin and writhing tests. Morphine (5 mg/kg, s.c.) was used as positive control drug. The possible mechanisms were evaluated by using naloxone (4 mg/kg, i.p.), ondansetron (4 mg/kg, i.p.), picrotoxin (0.6 mg/kg, i.p.) and MK-801 (0.03 mg/kg, i.p.). Results: GC-MS analysis indicated that one of the main components of CE extract was terpenoid compounds. The CE extract (25–100 mg/kg), like morphine, reduced tail flick latency and nociceptive response in both phases of the formalin test. We also observed that the extract significantly decreased the number of abdominal contractions dose-dependently from 5 to 100 mg/kg. The results of tail flick and the first phase of formalin test proved that unlike ondansetron and MK-801, naloxone and picotroxin were able to reverse the anti-nociceptive effect of CE extract. Conclusion: Our observations showed the anti-nociceptive potential of the CE extract, which may be mediated by opioidergic and GABAergic systems.
  5. Population dynamics of mistletoes species on cassia fistula in purwodadi botanic garden, indonesia Solikin Biodiversitas, volume 22, pages 1612-1620 Wednesday 14 April 2021 Solikin. 2021. Population dynamics of mistletoes species on Cassia fistula L. in Purwodadi Botanic Garden, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 22: 1612-1620. Several species of mistletoe are parasitizing and infesting cultivated plants in Purwodadi Botanic Garden, Pasuruan, East Java i.e. Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq., Macrosolen tetragonus (Blume) Miq., S... Solikin. 2021. Population dynamics of mistletoes species on Cassia fistula L. in Purwodadi Botanic Garden, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 22: 1612-1620. Several species of mistletoe are parasitizing and infesting cultivated plants in Purwodadi Botanic Garden, Pasuruan, East Java i.e. Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq., Macrosolen tetragonus (Blume) Miq., Scurrula atropurpurea (Blume) Danser, Viscum articulatum Burm.f., and Viscum ovalifolium Wall. ex DC. The population of the mistletoes is dynamics affected by genetic and environment. The study aimed to investigate the population dynamics of mistletoe species on Cassia fistula L. in Purwodadi Botanic Garden, Indonesia. Data collection was conducted by direct observation in the garden on the mistletoe species, parasite density, and host prevalence in four block locations and 28 trees of C. fistula. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and tested by Least Significantly Difference (LSD) if there was a significant difference in blocks and year. The results showed two species of mistletoe found on C. fistula, i.e. D. pentandra and V. articulatum. Parasitic density was significant different and infested host prevalence also different in blocks and years. The highest parasite density per host plant was reached in block III.D in 2015,i.e. 7.00±2.95 and 2.28±0.85 individuals per plant for D. pentandra and V. articulatum, respectively. The highest infested host prevalence of 100.00 was reached in block III.D in 2015 and XVI.A since 2012.
  6. Host sunflower-induced silencing of parasitism-related genes confers resistance to invading Orobanche cumana Zhengqiang Jiang, Qiqi Zhao, Runyao Bai, Ruonan Yu, Pengfei Diao, Ting Yan, Huimin Duan, Xuesong Ma, Zikai Zhou, Yanyan Fan, Hada Wuriyanghan Plant physiology, volume 185, pages 424-440 Tuesday 13 April 2021 Orobanche cumana is a holoparasitic plant that attaches to host-plant roots and seriously reduces the yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Effective control methods are lacking with only a few known sources of genetic resistance. In this study, a seed-soak agroinoculation (SSA) method was established, and recombinant tobacco rattle virus vect... Orobanche cumana is a holoparasitic plant that attaches to host-plant roots and seriously reduces the yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Effective control methods are lacking with only a few known sources of genetic resistance. In this study, a seed-soak agroinoculation (SSA) method was established, and recombinant tobacco rattle virus vectors were constructed to express RNA interference (RNAi) inducers to cause virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in sunflower. A host target gene HaTubulin was systemically silenced in both leaf and root tissues by the SSA-VIGS approach. Trans-species silencing of O. cumana genes were confirmed for 10 out of 11 target genes with silencing efficiency of 23.43%-92.67%. Knockdown of target OcQR1, OcCKX5, and OcWRI1 genes reduced the haustoria number, and silencing of OcEXPA6 caused further phenotypic abnormalities such as shorter tubercles and necrosis. Overexpression of OcEXPA6 caused retarded root growth in alfalfa (Medicago sativa). The results demonstrate that these genes play an important role in the processes of O. cumana parasitism. High-throughput small RNA (sRNA) sequencing and bioinformatics analyses unveiled the distinct features of target gene-derived siRNAs in O. cumana such as siRNA transitivity, strand polarity, hotspot region, and 21/22-nt siRNA predominance, the latter of which was confirmed by Northern blot experiments. The possible RNAi mechanism is also discussed by analyzing RNAi machinery genes in O. cumana. Taken together, we established an efficient host-induced gene silencing technology for both functional genetics studies and potential control of O. cumana. The ease and effectiveness of this strategy could potentially be useful for other species provided they are amenable to SSA.
  7. A two-step approach for detecting Striga in a complex agroecological system using Sentinel-2 data Bester Tawona Mudereri, Elfatih Mohamed Abdel-Rahman, Timothy Dube, Saliou Niassy, Zeyaur Khan, Henri E.Z. Tonnang, Tobias Landmann Science of the Total Environment, volume 762 Monday 12 April 2021 Information on weed occurrence within croplands is vital but is often unavailable to support weeding practices and improve cropland productivity assessments. To date, few studies have been conducted to estimate and map weed abundances within agroecological systems from spaceborne images over wide-area landscapes, particularly for the genus Striga. ... Information on weed occurrence within croplands is vital but is often unavailable to support weeding practices and improve cropland productivity assessments. To date, few studies have been conducted to estimate and map weed abundances within agroecological systems from spaceborne images over wide-area landscapes, particularly for the genus Striga. Therefore, this study attempts to increase the detection capacity of Striga at subpixel size using spaceborne high-resolution imagery. In this study, a two-step classification approach was used to detect Striga (Striga hermonthica) weed occurrence within croplands in Rongo, Kenya. Firstly, multidate and multiyear Sentinel-2 (S2) data (2017 to 2018) were utilized to map cropland and non-cropland areas using the random forest algorithm within the Google Earth Engine. The non-cropland class was thereafter masked out from a single date S2 image of the 13 of December 2017. The remaining cropland area was then used in a subpixel multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA) to detect Striga occurrence and infestation using endmembers (EMs) obtained from the in-situ hyperspectral data. The gathered in-situ hyperspectral data were resampled to the spectral waveband configurations of S2 and three representative EMs were inferred, namely: (1) Striga, (2) crop and other weeds, and (3) soil. Overall classification accuracies of 88% and 78% for the pixel-based cropland mapping and subpixel Striga detection were achieved, respectively. Furthermore, an F-score (0.84) and a root mean square error (0.0075) showed that the MESMA subpixel algorithm provides plausible results for predicting the relative abundance of Striga within each S2 pixel at a landscape scale. The capability of MESMA together with a cropland classification hierarchical approach was thus proven to be suited for Striga detection in a heterogenous agroecological system. These results can be used to guide in the adaptation, mitigation, and remediation of already infested areas, thereby avoiding further Striga infestation of new croplands. th
  8. Mistletoes and their eucalypt hosts differ in the response of leaf functional traits to climatic moisture supply Jeannine H. Richards, Jonathan J. Henn, Quinn M. Sorenson, Mark A. Adams, Duncan D. Smith, Katherine A. McCulloh, Thomas J. Givnish Oecologia, volume 195, pages 759-771 Sunday 11 April 2021 Trade-offs between photosynthesis and the costs of resource capture inform economic strategies of plants across environmental gradients and result in predictable variation in leaf traits. However, understudied functional groups like hemiparasites that involve dramatically different strategies for resource capture may have traits that deviate from e... Trade-offs between photosynthesis and the costs of resource capture inform economic strategies of plants across environmental gradients and result in predictable variation in leaf traits. However, understudied functional groups like hemiparasites that involve dramatically different strategies for resource capture may have traits that deviate from expectations. We measured leaf traits related to gas exchange in mistletoes and their eucalypt hosts along a climatic gradient in relative moisture supply, measured as the ratio of precipitation to pan evaporation (P/E ), in Victoria, Australia. We compared traits for mistletoes vs. hosts as functions of relative moisture supply and examined trait–trait correlations in both groups. Eucalypt leaf traits responded strongly to decreasing P/E , consistent with economic theory. Leaf area and specific leaf area (SLA) decreased along the P/E gradient, while C:N ratio, leaf thickness, N per area, and δ C all increased. Mistletoes responded overall less strongly to P/E based on multivariate analyses; individual traits sometimes shifted in parallel with those of hosts, but SLA, leaf thickness, and N per area showed no significant change across the gradient. For mistletoes, leaf thickness was inversely related to leaf dry matter content (LDMC), with no relationship between SLA and mass-based N. In mistletoes, reduced costs of transpiration (reflecting their lack of roots) and abundant succulent leaf tissue help account for observed differences from their eucalypt hosts. Trait-based analysis of atypical functional types such as mistletoes help refine hypotheses based on plant economics and specialized adaptations to resource limitation. p p p p 13
  9. Detection of Different Hosts From a Distance Alters the Behaviour and Bioelectrical Activity of Cuscuta racemosa André Geremia Parise, Gabriela Niemeyer Reissig, Luis Felipe Basso, Luiz Gustavo Schultz Senko, Thiago Francisco de Carvalho Oliveira, Gabriel Ricardo Aguilera de Toledo, Arlan Silva Ferreira, Gustavo Maia Souza Frontiers in Plant Science, volume 12 Saturday 10 April 2021 In our study, we investigated some physiological and ecological aspects of the life of Cuscuta racemosa Mart. (Convolvulaceae) plants with the hypothesis that they recognise different hosts at a distance from them, and they change their survival strategy depending on what they detect. We also hypothesised that, as an attempt of prolonging their sur... In our study, we investigated some physiological and ecological aspects of the life of Cuscuta racemosa Mart. (Convolvulaceae) plants with the hypothesis that they recognise different hosts at a distance from them, and they change their survival strategy depending on what they detect. We also hypothesised that, as an attempt of prolonging their survival through photosynthesis, the synthesis of chlorophylls (a phenomenon not completely explained in these parasitic plants) would be increased if the plants don’t detect a host. We quantified the pigments related to photosynthesis in different treatments and employed techniques such as electrophysiological time series recording, analyses of the complexity of the obtained signals, and machine learning classification to test our hypotheses. The results demonstrate that the absence of a host increases the amounts of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and β-carotene in these plants, and the content varied depending on the host presented. Besides, the electrical signalling of dodders changes according to the species of host perceived in patterns detectable by machine learning techniques, suggesting that they recognise from a distance different host species. Our results indicate that electrical signalling might underpin important processes such as foraging in plants. Finally, we found evidence for a likely process of attention in the dodders toward the host plants. This is probably to be the first empirical evidence for attention in plants and has important implications on plant cognition studies.
  10. Salinity effect on germination and further development of parasitic cuscuta spp. And related non-parasitic vines Lyuben Zagorchev, Alexandra Atanasova, Kalina Pachedjieva, Anita Tosheva, Junmin Li, Denitsa Teofanova Plants, volume 10, pages 1-13 Friday 02 April 2021 Plants are continuously subjected to the unfavorable impact of abiotic stress factors, of which soil salinity is among the most adverse. Although away from direct soil contact throughout most of their lifecycle, stem parasitic plants of the genus Cuscuta, family Convolvulaceae are also affected by salinity. The present study aimed to assess salt st... Plants are continuously subjected to the unfavorable impact of abiotic stress factors, of which soil salinity is among the most adverse. Although away from direct soil contact throughout most of their lifecycle, stem parasitic plants of the genus Cuscuta, family Convolvulaceae are also affected by salinity. The present study aimed to assess salt stress impact on germination and early establishment of three Cuscuta species, in comparison to related nonparasitic vines of the same family. It was found, that Cuscuta spp. are highly sensitive to NaCl concentration within the range of 200 mM. Germination was delayed in time and reduced by nearly 70%, accompanied by decrease in further seedling growth, ability to infect host plants and growth rate of established parasites. The nonparasitic vines showed similar sensitivity to salinity at germination level, but appeared to adapt better after the stress factor was removed. However, the negative effect of salinity did not fully prevent some of the Cuscuta species from infecting hosts, probably a beneficial characteristic at a species level, allowing the parasite to successfully thrive under the scarce host availability under saline conditions.
  11. How to resist parasitic plants: pre- and post-attachment strategies Maxwell R. Fishman, Ken Shirasu Current Opinion in Plant Biology, volume 62 Thursday 01 April 2021 The lifecycle of parasitic plants can be divided into pre-attachment and post-attachment phases that equate to free living and parasitic stages. Similarly, plant resistance to parasitic plants can be defined as pre-attachment and post-attachment resistance. Parasitic plants rely on host cues for successful host invasion. During pre-attachment resis... The lifecycle of parasitic plants can be divided into pre-attachment and post-attachment phases that equate to free living and parasitic stages. Similarly, plant resistance to parasitic plants can be defined as pre-attachment and post-attachment resistance. Parasitic plants rely on host cues for successful host invasion. During pre-attachment resistance, changes in the composition of host signals can disrupt parasitic plant development and ultimately host invasion. Recent studies have only now begun to elucidate the genetic elements in the host that promote pre-attachment resistance. In comparison, new research points to post-attachment resistance using the common molecular mechanisms utilized by the plant immune system during plant-pathogen interactions. In kind, parasitic plants secrete proteinaceous and RNA-based effectors post-attachment to subvert the host immune system.
  12. Investigating the acute and sub-acute toxicity of medicinal Cuscuta chinensis Lam plant Aikebaier Maimaiti, Li Jing-Jing, Linsen Shi Journal of Ethnopharmacology, volume 273 Thursday 01 April 2021 Ethnopharmacology relevance: Cuscuta chinensis Lam. (Convolvulaceae) had received growing attention as a traditional medicinal herb widely used for treating female impotence, abortion, male reproductive system disease and cardiovascular diseases, respectively. Aim of the study: The present study investigated the acute and sub-acute toxicities of C.... Ethnopharmacology relevance: Cuscuta chinensis Lam. (Convolvulaceae) had received growing attention as a traditional medicinal herb widely used for treating female impotence, abortion, male reproductive system disease and cardiovascular diseases, respectively. Aim of the study: The present study investigated the acute and sub-acute toxicities of C. chinensis water extract (CLW) in the ICR mice model. Materials and methods: Various doses of CLW (1250, 2500, and 5000 mg/kg) were administered consecutively for 14 days to evaluate the acute toxicity level with examine mortality, general behavior, body weight, food and water intake of the mice. At the end of treatmet, macroscopic observation of the skin and major internal organs in the abdominal part and organ coefficients were taken. The same doses were administered daily for 28 days to determine the sub-acute toxicity level with examine mortality, general behavior, body weight, food and water intake of the mice. At the end of treatmet, macroscopical examination of organs, tissues, cavities, organ coefficients, pathology, hematological and biochemical parameters were carried out. Results: The acute toxicity test results revealed an LD of over 5000 mg/kg for CLW. Similarly, no CLW-related mortality and severe toxicities were experienced in the sub-acute study. However, the treatment of CLW had a reducing effect on body weight of both male and female mice, and feed intake in female mice at the all tested doses (1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg). Moreover, significant effects in organ coefficients of brain, liver, lung, testis and thymus became apparent due to CLW mainly at the 2500 and 5000 mg/kg. The hematological analysis result showed a significant decrease in platelets, lymphocytes, and hematocrit. In contrast, a significant increase in the neutrophils was observed in the CLW treated groups (2500 and 5000 mg/kg). Biochemical test results showed a significant increase in aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase levels while decreasing albumin, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels after treatment of CLW mostly at the doses of 2500 and 5000 mg/kg. Mild liver toxicity in both sexes treated with 5000 mg/kg of CLW was recorded in the histopathological analysis. Conclusions: Overall, our results suggested that CLW is safe at its dose lower than 1250 mg/kg, although liver toxicity from daily use may be a matter of concern. 50
  13. Prohexadione calcium is herbicidal to the sunflower root parasite Orobanche cumana Franziska Lerner, Matthias Pfenning, Laurent Picard, Jens Lerchl, Eva Hollenbach Pest Management Science, volume 77, pages 1893-1902 Thursday 01 April 2021 BACKGROUND: The obligatory sunflower root parasite Orobanche cumana Wallr. deprives its host of essential nutrients, resulting in a dramatic reduction in yield and biomass. A post-emergence application with an imidazolinone herbicide on an imidazolinone-tolerant sunflower is highly effective against O. cumana. The herbicide inhibits the enzyme acet... BACKGROUND: The obligatory sunflower root parasite Orobanche cumana Wallr. deprives its host of essential nutrients, resulting in a dramatic reduction in yield and biomass. A post-emergence application with an imidazolinone herbicide on an imidazolinone-tolerant sunflower is highly effective against O. cumana. The herbicide inhibits the enzyme acetohydroxy acid synthase and consequently, growth of the parasite is inhibited, although the sunflower survives the treatment through mutations in the target enzyme. Interestingly, field studies have shown that a combined application of an imidazolinone herbicide with prohexadione resulted in reduced emergence of O. cumana compared with the sole application of the herbicide. The aim of this study was to investigate whether prohexadione is herbicidal to O. cumana. RESULTS: Prohexadione was rapidly distributed within the sunflower, reaching the roots, the site of O. cumana attack, as early as 6 h after application (HAA) on sunflower leaves. A direct impact of prohexadione on O. cumana germination was investigated and a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC ) of 84 μm prohexadione was found. In addition, the inhibition of germination by prohexadione was terminal, meaning that O. cumana seeds died after prohexadione contact as soon as they were primed for germination. Additionally, excretion studies showed that a small proportion of the applied prohexadione was excreted by sunflower roots. CONCLUSION: We show that prohexadione is an inhibitor of O. cumana germination and that the growth regulator is found in sunflower roots shortly after application. We hypothesize that prohexadione is excreted in sufficient amounts from the sunflower roots, therefore having a direct impact on O. cumana germination. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry. 50
  14. CRISPR/Cas9 mediated mutagenesis of MORE AXILLARY GROWTH 1 in tomato confers resistance to root parasitic weed Phelipanche aegyptiaca Vinay Kumar Bari, Jackline Abu Nassar, Radi Aly Scientific Reports, volume 11 Wednesday 31 March 2021 Root parasitic weeds infect numerous economically important crops, affecting total yield quantity and quality. A lack of an efficient control method limits our ability to manage newly developing and more virulent races of root parasitic weeds. To control the parasite induced damage in most host crops, an innovative biotechnological approach is urge... Root parasitic weeds infect numerous economically important crops, affecting total yield quantity and quality. A lack of an efficient control method limits our ability to manage newly developing and more virulent races of root parasitic weeds. To control the parasite induced damage in most host crops, an innovative biotechnological approach is urgently required. Strigolactones (SLs) are plant hormones derived from carotenoids via a pathway involving the Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase (CCD) 7, CCD8 and More Axillary Growth 1 (MAX1) genes. SLs act as branching inhibitory hormones and strictly required for the germination of root parasitic weeds. Here, we demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targted editing of SL biosynthetic gene MAX1, in tomato confers resistance against root parasitic weed Phelipanche aegyptiaca. We designed sgRNA to target the third exon of MAX1 in tomato plants using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. The T plants were edited very efficiently at the MAX1 target site without any non-specific off-target effects. Genotype analysis of T plants revealed that the introduced mutations were stably passed on to the next generation. Notably, MAX1-Cas9 heterozygous and homozygous T plants had similar morphological changes that include excessive growth of axillary bud, reduced plant height and adventitious root formation relative to wild type. Our results demonstrated that, MAX1-Cas9 mutant lines exhibit resistance against root parasitic weed P. aegyptiaca due to reduced SL (orobanchol) level. Moreover, the expression of carotenoid biosynthetic pathway gene PDS1 and total carotenoid level was altered, as compared to wild type plants. Taking into consideration, the impact of root parasitic weeds on the agricultural economy and the obstacle to prevent and eradicate them, the current study provides new aspects into the development of an efficient control method that could be used to avoid germination of root parasitic weeds. 0 1 1
  15. Allelopathic effect of quercetin, a flavonoid from fagopyrum esculentum roots in the radicle growth of phelipanche ramosa: Quercetin natural and semisynthetic analogues were used for a structure-activity relationship investigation Mónica Fernández-Aparicio, Marco Masi, Alessio Cimmino, Susana Vilariño, Antonio Evidente Plants, volume 10, pages 1-15 Wednesday 31 March 2021 Allelopathic potential of buckwheat roots on the radicle growth of the broomrape weed species Orobanche cumana and Phelipanche ramosa was studied. Buckwheat root exudates induced a significant growth inhibition in P. ramosa radicles but radicles of O. cumana were not affected. Among the metabolites present in the root organic extract we identified ... Allelopathic potential of buckwheat roots on the radicle growth of the broomrape weed species Orobanche cumana and Phelipanche ramosa was studied. Buckwheat root exudates induced a significant growth inhibition in P. ramosa radicles but radicles of O. cumana were not affected. Among the metabolites present in the root organic extract we identified the flavonol quercetin and the stilbene p-coumaric acid methyl ester with only quercetin showing inhibitory effect on P. ramosa. The activity of quercetin was compared with other two similar flavanoids, the flavone apigenin and the dihydroflavanol 3-O-acetylpadmatin extracted respectively from Lavandula stoechas and Dittrichia viscosa plants. In this comparative assay only 3-O-acetylpadmatin besides quercetin, showed inhibition activity of radicle growth while apigenin was inactive. These results indicated that the presence of two ortho-free hydroxy groups of C ring, like catechol, could be an important feature to impart activity while the carbon skeleton of B ring and substituents of both A and B rings are not essential. Besides reduction of radicle growth, haustorium induction was observed at the tip of P. ramosa radicles treated with quercetin which swelled and a layer of papillae was formed. Activity of quercetin on haustorium induction in P. ramosa was assayed in comparison with the known haustorium-inducing factor 2,6-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone (DMBQ) and a three partial methyl ether derivatives semisynthetized from quercetin. Results indicated that P. ramosa haustorium was induced by DMBQ at concentrations of 1–0.5 mM and quercetin and its derivatives at concentration range 0.1–0.05 mM.

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